Power systems management and associated information exchange - Data and communications security - Part 9: Cyber security key management for power system equipment

This part of IEC 62351 specifies cryptographic key management, namely how to generate,
distribute, revoke, and handle public-key certificates and cryptographic keys to protect digital
data and its communication. Included in the scope is the handling of asymmetric keys (e.g.
private keys and public-key certificates), as well as symmetric keys for groups (GDOI).
This part of IEC 62351 assumes that other standards have already chosen the type of keys
and cryptography that will be utilized, since the cryptography algorithms and key materials
chosen will be typically mandated by an organization’s own local security policies and by the
need to be compliant with other international standards. This document therefore specifies
only the management techniques for these selected key and cryptography infrastructures. The
objective is to define requirements and technologies to achieve interoperability of key
management.
The purpose of this part of IEC 62351 is to guarantee interoperability among different vendors
by specifying or limiting key management options to be used. This document assumes that
the reader understands cryptography and PKI principles.

Energiemanagementsysteme und zugehöriger Datenaustausch - IT-Sicherheit für Daten und Kommunikation - Teil 9: Cyber security Schlüssel-Management für Stromversorgungsanlagen

Gestion des systèmes de puissance et échanges d’informations associés - Sécurité des communications et des données - Partie 9: Gestion de clé de cybersécurité des équipements de système de puissance

IEC 62351-9:2017 porte sur la gestion de clé cryptographique, c'est-à-dire sur la manière de générer, distribuer, révoquer et manipuler les certificats de clé publique et les clés cryptographiques pour protéger les données numériques et leurs communications. La manipulation des clés asymétriques (les clés privées et les certificats de clé publique, par exemple) et les clés symétriques pour les groupes (GDOI) font également partie du domaine d'application de la présente norme. La présente partie de l'IEC 62351 part du principe que d'autres normes ont déjà choisi le type de clés et la cryptographie qui seront utilisés, dans la mesure où les algorithmes de cryptographie et les supports de clé choisis sont en principe liés aux politiques de sécurité locales propres à une organisation et à la nécessité de satisfaire aux autres normes internationales. Le présent document spécifie donc uniquement les techniques de gestion de ces infrastructures de clé et de cryptographie sélectionnées. Il s'agit de définir les exigences et les technologies permettant d'assurer l'interopérabilité de la gestion de clé. La présente partie de l'IEC 62351 a pour objet de garantir l'interopérabilité entre les différents fournisseurs en spécifiant ou limitant les options de gestion de clé à utiliser. Le présent document part du principe que le lecteur comprend les principes de cryptographie et d'infrastructure à clés publiques.

Upravljanje elektroenergetskega sistema in pripadajoča izmenjava informacij - Varnost podatkov in komunikacij - 9. del: Upravljanje računalniške varnosti opreme napajalnih sistemov

Ta del standarda IEC 62351 določa upravljanje kriptografskih ključev, tj. načine ustvarjanja, porazdelitve, preklica in upravljanja potrdil za javne ključe ter kriptografskih ključev za varstvo digitalnih podatkov in povezanih komunikacij. Področje uporabe zajema ravnanje z asimetričnimi ključi (npr. zasebnimi ključi ali potrdili za javne ključe) in s simetričnimi ključi za skupine (GDOI).
Ta del standarda IEC 62351 predvideva, da so bile vrste ključev in kriptografija, ki bodo uporabljeni, v okviru drugih standardov že izbrani, kajti ti izbrani kriptografski algoritmi in gradiva ključev so običajno določeni v lokalnih varnostnih pravilnikih organizacije in na podlagi zahtev za zagotavljanje skladnosti z drugimi mednarodnimi standardi. Ta dokument tako določa zgolj načine upravljanja za te izbrane infrastrukture ključev in kriptografije. Cilj je določitev zahtev in tehnologij za doseganje interoperabilnosti upravljanja ključev.
Namen tega dela standarda IEC 62351 je zagotavljanje interoperabilnosti med različnimi ponudniki z določitvijo ali omejitvijo možnosti upravljanja ključev, ki bodo uporabljene. Ta dokument predvideva, da je bralec razume načela kriptografije in postopke PKI.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Aug-2017
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
19-Jul-2017
Due Date
23-Sep-2017
Completion Date
18-Aug-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 62351-9:2017
01-september-2017
8SUDYOMDQMHHOHNWURHQHUJHWVNHJDVLVWHPDLQSULSDGDMRþDL]PHQMDYDLQIRUPDFLM
9DUQRVWSRGDWNRYLQNRPXQLNDFLMGHO8SUDYOMDQMHUDþXQDOQLãNHYDUQRVWL
RSUHPHQDSDMDOQLKVLVWHPRY
Power systems management and associated information exchange - Data and
communications security - Part 9: Cyber security key management for power system
equipment
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 62351-9:2017
ICS:
29.240.30 Krmilna oprema za Control equipment for electric
elektroenergetske sisteme power systems
35.030 Informacijska varnost IT Security
35.240.50 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in industry
industriji
SIST EN 62351-9:2017 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 62351-9:2017
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SIST EN 62351-9:2017
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 62351-9
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
July 2017
ICS 33.200
English Version
Power systems management and associated information
exchange - Data and communications security -
Part 9: Cyber security key management for power system
equipment
(IEC 62351-9 :2017)

Gestion des systèmes de puissance et échanges Energiemanagementsysteme und zugehöriger

d'informations associés - Sécurité des communications et Datenaustausch - IT-Sicherheit für Daten und

des données - Partie 9: Gestion de clé de cybersécurité des Kommunikation - Teil 9: Cyber security Schlüssel-

équipements de système de puissance Management für Stromversorgungsanlagen
(IEC 62351-9 :2017) (IEC 62351-9 :2017)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2017-06-22. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 62351-9:2017 E
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SIST EN 62351-9:2017
EN 62351-9:2017
European foreword

The text of document 57/1838/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 62351-9, prepared by IEC/TC 57 "Power

systems management and associated information exchange" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC

parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as EN 62351-9:2017.
The following dates are fixed:
(dop) 2018-03-22
• latest date by which the document has to be
implemented at national level by
publication of an identical national
standard or by endorsement
• latest date by which the national (dow) 2020-06-22
standards conflicting with the
document have to be withdrawn

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CENELEC by the European Commission

and the European Free Trade Association.
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 62351-9:2017 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 62351-3 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62351-3.
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SIST EN 62351-9:2017
EN 62351-9:2017
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE 1 When an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here:

www.cenelec.eu
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC/TS 62351-2 - Power systems management and - -
associated information exchange - Data
and communications security -
Part 2: Glossary of terms
ISO/IEC 9594-8/ 2017 Information technology - Open Systems - -
Interconnection - The Directory -
Rec. ITU-T X.509 2016
Part 8: Public-key and attribute certificate
frameworks
ISO/IEC 9834-1/ 2012 Information technology - Procedures for - -
the operation of object identifier registration
Rec. ITU-T X.660 2011
authorities: General procedures and top
arcs of the international object identifier
tree
RFC 5246 - The Transport Layer Security (TLS) - -
Protocol Version 1.2
RFC 5272 - Certificate Management over CMS (CMC) - -
RFC 5934 - Trust Anchor Management Protocol - -
(TAMP)
RFC 6407 - The Group Domain of Interpretation - -
IETF RFC 6960 - X.509 - Internet Public Key Infrastructure - -
Online Certificate Status Protocol - OCSP
RFC 7030 - Enrolment over Secure Transport - -

SCEP IETF Draft, Simple Certificate Enrolment Protocol, draft-gutmann-scep-04.txt

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SIST EN 62351-9:2017
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SIST EN 62351-9:2017
IEC 62351-9
Edition 1.0 2017-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Power systems management and associated information exchange – Data and
communications security –
Part 9: Cyber security key management for power system equipment
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.200 ISBN 978-2-8322-4220-9

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 62351-9:2017
– 2 – IEC 62351-9:2017 © IEC 2017
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 9

4 Abbreviations and acronyms .......................................................................................... 14

5 Cryptographic applications for power system implementations ....................................... 15

5.1 Cryptography, cryptographic keys, and security objectives .................................... 15

5.2 Types of cryptography .......................................................................................... 16

5.3 Uses of cryptography ............................................................................................ 16

5.3.1 Goals of cyber security .................................................................................. 16

5.3.2 Confidentiality ................................................................................................ 17

5.3.3 Data integrity ................................................................................................. 17

5.3.4 Authentication................................................................................................ 18

5.3.5 Non-repudiation ............................................................................................. 18

5.3.6 Trust .............................................................................................................. 18

6 Key management concepts and methods in power system operations ........................... 19

6.1 Key management system security policy ............................................................... 19

6.2 Key management design principles for power system operations .......................... 19

6.3 Use of Transport Layer Security (TLS) .................................................................. 19

6.4 Cryptographic key usages ..................................................................................... 19

6.5 Trust using a public-key infrastructure (PKI).......................................................... 20

6.5.1 Registration authorities (RA) .......................................................................... 20

6.5.2 Certification authority (CA) ............................................................................ 20

6.5.3 Public-key certificates .................................................................................... 20

6.5.4 Attribute certificates ....................................................................................... 21

6.5.5 Public-key certificate and attribute certificate extensions ............................... 21

6.6 Trust via non-PKI self-signed certificates .............................................................. 22

6.7 Authorization and validation lists ........................................................................... 22

6.7.1 General ......................................................................................................... 22

6.7.2 AVLs in non-constrained environments .......................................................... 23

6.7.3 AVLs in constrained environments ................................................................. 23

6.7.4 Use of self-signed public-key certificates in AVLs .......................................... 23

6.8 Trust via pre-shared keys...................................................................................... 23

6.9 Session keys ........................................................................................................ 24

6.10 Protocols used in trust establishment .................................................................... 24

6.10.1 Certification request ...................................................................................... 24

6.10.2 Trust Anchor Management Protocol (TAMP) .................................................. 24

6.10.3 Simple Certificate Enrolment Protocol (SCEP) ............................................... 24

6.10.4 Internet X.509 PKI Certificate Management Protocol (CMP) ........................... 24

6.10.5 Certificate Management over CMS (CMC) ..................................................... 25

6.10.6 Enrolment over Secure Transport (EST) ........................................................ 25

6.10.7 Summary view on the different protocols ....................................................... 25

6.11 Group keys ........................................................................................................... 26

6.11.1 Purpose of group keys ................................................................................... 26

6.11.2 Group Domain of Interpretation (GDOI) ......................................................... 26

6.12 Key management lifecycle .................................................................................... 31

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IEC 62351-9:2017 © IEC 2017 – 3 –

6.12.1 Key management in the life cycle of an entity ................................................ 31

6.12.2 Cryptographic key lifecycle ............................................................................ 32

6.13 Certificate management processes ....................................................................... 34

6.13.1 Certificate management process .................................................................... 34

6.13.2 Initial certificate creation ................................................................................ 34

6.13.3 Enrolment of an entity .................................................................................... 34

6.13.4 Certificate signing request (CSR) process ..................................................... 36

6.13.5 Certificate revocation lists (CRLs) .................................................................. 37

6.13.6 Online certificate status protocol (OCSP) ....................................................... 38

6.13.7 Server-based certificate validation protocol (SCVP) ....................................... 41

6.13.8 Short-lived certificates ................................................................................... 41

6.13.9 Certificate renewal ......................................................................................... 42

6.14 Alternative process for asymmetric keys generated outside the entity ................... 43

6.15 Key distribution for symmetric keys with different time frames ............................... 44

7 General key management requirements ......................................................................... 44

7.1 Asymmetric and symmetric key management requirements ................................... 44

7.2 Required cryptographic materials .......................................................................... 44

7.3 Public-Key certificates requirements ..................................................................... 45

7.4 Cryptographic key protection................................................................................. 45

7.5 Use of existing security key management infrastructure ........................................ 45

7.6 Use of object identifiers ........................................................................................ 45

8 Asymmetric key management ........................................................................................ 45

8.1 Certificate generation and installation ................................................................... 45

8.1.1 Private and public key generation and installation.......................................... 45

8.1.2 Private and public key renewal ...................................................................... 46

8.1.3 Random Number Generation ......................................................................... 46

8.1.4 Certificate policy ............................................................................................ 46

8.1.5 Entity registration for identity establishment ................................................... 46

8.1.6 Entity configuration ........................................................................................ 47

8.1.7 Entity enrolment ............................................................................................ 47

8.1.8 Trust anchor information update .................................................................... 48

8.2 Public-key certificate revocation ............................................................................ 49

8.3 Certificate validity ................................................................................................. 49

8.3.1 Validity of certificates .................................................................................... 49

8.3.2 Certificate revocation ..................................................................................... 50

8.3.3 Certificate revocation status checking ............................................................ 50

8.3.4 Handling of authorization and validation lists (AVLs) ...................................... 50

8.4 Certificate expiration and renewal ......................................................................... 55

8.5 Secured Time Synchronization .............................................................................. 55

9 Symmetric key management .......................................................................................... 56

9.1 Group based key management (GDOI) ................................................................. 56

9.1.1 GDOI requirements ........................................................................................ 56

9.1.2 Internet Key Exchange Version 1 (IKEv1) ...................................................... 56

9.1.3 Phase 1 IKEv1 main mode exchange type 2 .................................................. 57

9.1.4 Phase 1/2 ISAKMP informational exchange type 5 ......................................... 60

9.1.5 Phase 2 GDOI GROUPKEY-PULL exchange type 32 ..................................... 62

9.1.6 GROUPKEY-PULL group key download exchange ......................................... 70

10 Connections to the IEC 62351 parts and other IEC documents ...................................... 71

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SIST EN 62351-9:2017
– 4 – IEC 62351-9:2017 © IEC 2017

Annex A (normative) Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement (PICS) .................... 73

Annex B (informative) Random Number Generation (RNG) .................................................. 74

B.1 Random number generation types ......................................................................... 74

B.2 Deterministic random bit generators ...................................................................... 74

B.3 Non-deterministic random number generation ....................................................... 75

B.4 Entropy sources .................................................................................................... 75

Annex C (informative) Certificate enrolment and renewal flowcharts .................................... 76

C.1 Certificate enrolment ............................................................................................. 76

C.2 Certificate renewal ................................................................................................ 76

Annex D (informative) Examples of certificate profiles.......................................................... 78

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 82

Figure 1 – Relationship between public-key certificates and attribute certificates .................. 21

Figure 2 – Group key management distribution ..................................................................... 26

Figure 3 – GDOI IKE Phase 1 – Authentication and securing communication channel ........... 27

Figure 4 – GDOI Pull Phase 2 ............................................................................................... 28

Figure 5 – Key renewal triggered by the entities.................................................................... 30

Figure 6 – Key management in product life cycle .................................................................. 31

Figure 7 – Simplified certificate life cycle .............................................................................. 32

Figure 8 – Cryptographic key life cycle ................................................................................. 33

Figure 9 – Example of the SCEP entity enrolment and CSR process ..................................... 35

Figure 10 – Example of the EST entity enrolment and CSR process ..................................... 36

Figure 11 – CSR processing ................................................................................................. 37

Figure 12 – Certificate revocation list .................................................................................... 38

Figure 13 – Overview of the online certificate status protocol (OCSP) ................................... 39

Figure 14 – Diagram using a combination of CRL and OCSP processes ............................... 40

Figure 15 – Call Flows for the Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP).............................. 41

Figure 16 – Overview Server-Based Certificate Validation Protocol using OCSP

Backend ............................................................................................................................... 41

Figure 17 – SCEP certificate renewal .................................................................................... 42

Figure 18 – EST certificate renewal/rekeying ........................................................................ 43

Figure 19 – Central certificate generation ............................................................................. 44

Figure 20 – IKEv1 (RFC 2409) main mode exchange with RSA digital signatures ................. 57

Figure 21 – IKEv1 main mode exchange and security association messages ........................ 58

Figure 22 – IKEv1 main mode exchange: key exchange messages ....................................... 59

Figure 23 – IKEv1 Main Mode Exchange: ID authentication messages .................................. 59

Figure 24 – IKEv1 HASH_I calculation .................................................................................. 60

Figure 25 – Phase 1 Informational Exchange ........................................................................ 61

Figure 26 – GD004FI GROUPKEY-PULL as define in RFC 6407 ........................................... 62

Figure 27 – GROUPKEY-PULL hash computations ............................................................... 63

Figure 28 – GROUPKEY-PULL initial SA request exchange .................................................. 64

Figure 29 – RFC 6407 Identification Payload ........................................................................ 64

Figure 30 – ID_OID Identification Data .................................................................................. 65

Figure 31 – 61850_UDP_ADDR_GOOSE/SV ASN.1 BNF ..................................................... 66

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SIST EN 62351-9:2017
IEC 62351-9:2017 © IEC 2017 – 5 –

Figure 32 – IPADDRESS ASN.1 BNF .................................................................................... 66

Figure 33 – Example IecUdpAddrPayload ASN.1 Data with DER Encoding ........................... 67

Figure 34 – 61850_UDP_TUNNEL Payload ASN.1 BNF ........................................................ 67

Figure 35 – 61850_ETHERNET_GOOSE/SV Payload ASN.1 BNF ........................................ 67

Figure 36 – RFC 6407 SA TEK Payload ................................................................................ 68

Figure 37 – IEC-61850 SA TEK Payload ............................................................................... 69

Figure 38 – GROUPKEY-PULL Key Download Exchange ...................................................... 70

Figure 39 – IEC 62351 Part 9 relationship to other IEC 62351 parts ...................................... 71

Figure C.1 – Certificate enrolment ........................................................................................ 76

Figure C.2 – Certificate renewal state machine ..................................................................... 77

Table 1 – KDC IKEv1 Requirements ..................................................................................... 56

Table 2 – IEC 61850 Object IDs: Mandatory (m) and Optional (o) ......................................... 65

Table D.1 – Examples of operator public-key certificates ...................................................... 79

Table D.2 – Examples of OEM certificates ............................................................................ 80

Table D.3 – Example of OCSP certificate .............................................................................. 81

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SIST EN 62351-9:2017
– 6 – IEC 62351-9:2017 © IEC 2017
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
POWER SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AND
ASSOCIATED INFORMATION EXCHANGE –
DATA AND COMMUNICATIONS SECURITY –
Part 9: Cyber security key management for power system equipment
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

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agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

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4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62351-9 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 57: Power

systems management and associated information exchange.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
57/1838/FDIS 57/1853/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

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SIST EN 62351-9:2017
IEC 62351-9:2017 © IEC 2017 – 7 –

A list of all parts in the IEC 62351 series, published under the general title Power systems

management and associated information exchange – Data and communications security, can

be found on the IEC website.
In this standard, the following print types are used:
– ASN.1 notions is presented in bold Courier New typeface;

– when ASN.1 types and values are referenced in normal text, they are differentiated from

normal text by presenting them in bold Courier New typeface.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document.
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