Plastics - Environmental Aspects - Vocabulary

This document specifies terms and definitions in the field of plastics related to any environmental aspects and provides a common vocabulary basis for:
-   biodegradability;
-   bio-based plastics;
-   carbon and environmental footprint;
-   plastics in natural environments;
-   recycling, e.g. mechanical and chemical recycling ;
-   design ;
-   waste management;
-   circular economy.
This document aims to provide a comprehensive glossary which uses the applicable definitions providing when appropriate additional notes to make these definitions understandable without reference to other documents. Definitions are as far as possible adopted from existing standards but when the intention or definition is unclear additional context or definitions are updated or added.
This standard aims to provide a comprehensive glossary which uses the applicable definitions providing when appropriate additional notes to make these definitions understandable without reference to other documents.
As far as possible definitions are adapted from existing standards. But when the intention or definition is
unclear additional context or definitions are updated or added
Terms which are also applicable to rubber will be indicated.

Kunststoffe - Umweltaspekte - Vokabular

Dieses Dokument legt Begriffe im Bereich der Kunststoffe unter Umweltgesichtspunkten fest und stellt ein gemeinsames Vokabular zur Verfügung für:
-   biologische Abbaubarkeit;
-   biobasierter Kunststoffe;
-   CO2- und Umweltbilanz;
-   Kunststoffe in natürlichen Umgebungen;
-   Recycling, z. B. mechanisches und chemisches Recycling;
-   Gestaltung;
-   Abfallmanagement;
-   Kreislaufwirtschaft.
Dieses Dokument soll ein umfassendes Glossar bereitstellen, das die anwendbaren Definitionen verwendet und gegebenenfalls zusätzliche Anmerkungen enthält, um diese Definitionen ohne Bezugnahme auf andere Dokumente verständlich zu machen. Die Definitionen werden so weit wie möglich von bestehenden Normen übernommen, wenn jedoch die Absicht oder die Definition unklar ist, werden zusätzliche Zusammenhänge oder Definitionen hinzugefügt bzw. aktualisiert.

Plastiques - Aspects environnementaux - Vocabulaire

Le présent document spécifie les termes et définitions dans le domaine des plastiques en relation avec les aspects environnementaux et fournit une base commune de vocabulaire sur :
-   la biodégradabilité ;
-   les plastiques biosourcés ;
-   l’empreinte carbone et environnementale ;
-   les plastiques dans les environnements naturels ;
-   le recyclage, par exemple recyclage mécanique et chimique ;
-   la conception ;
-   la gestion des déchets ;
-   l’économie circulaire.
Le présent document vise à fournir un glossaire complet utilisant les définitions applicables, en y ajoutant des notes supplémentaires lorsque cela est approprié, afin de rendre ces définitions compréhensibles sans se référer à d’autres documents. Les définitions proviennent, dans la mesure du possible, de normes existantes, mais lorsque l’intention ou la définition n’est pas claire, un contexte ou des définitions supplémentaires ont été mis à jour ou ajoutés.

Polimerni materiali - Okoljski vidiki - Slovar

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Polimerni materiali - Okoljski vidiki - Slovar
Plastics - Environmental Aspects - Vocabulary
Kunststoffe - Umweltaspekte - Vokabular
Plastiques - Aspects environnementaux - Vocabulaire
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 17615
01.040.83 Gumarska industrija in Rubber and plastics
industrija polimernih industries (Vocabularies)
materialov (Slovarji)
13.020.01 Okolje in varstvo okolja na Environment and
splošno environmental protection in
83.080.01 Polimerni materiali na Plastics in general
oSIST prEN 17615:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN 17615:2021
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oSIST prEN 17615:2021
prEN 17615
November 2020
ICS 01.040.13; 01.040.83; 13.020.01; 83.080.01
English Version
Plastics - Environmental Aspects - Vocabulary

Plastiques - Aspects environnementaux - Vocabulaire Kunststoffe - Umweltaspekte - Vokabular

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 249.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations

which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 17615:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ...................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

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European foreword

This document (prEN 17615:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 249 “Plastics”,

the secretariat of which is held by NBN.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.
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The need for harmonized terms and definitions in the field of plastics relating to environmental aspects

is growing. This document intends to give a common set of terms and definitions and thus strives to

facilitate the communication and development of standards in this area.
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1 Scope

This document specifies terms and definitions in the field of plastics related to any environmental

aspects and provides a common vocabulary basis for:
— biodegradability;
— bio-based plastics;
— carbon and environmental footprint;
— plastics in natural environments;
— recycling, e.g. mechanical and chemical recycling ;
— design ;
— waste management;
— circular economy.

This document aims to provide a comprehensive glossary which uses the applicable definitions

providing when appropriate additional notes to make these definitions understandable without

reference to other documents. Definitions are as far as possible adopted from existing standards but

when the intention or definition is unclear additional context or definitions are updated or added.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at

The term “bioplastic” is not defined in this text, since EN 17228 states the following:

The terms “biopolymers” and “bioplastics” are commonly used to identify polymers and plastics that

are either bio-based, biodegradable, or feature both properties. While these definitions are quite

widespread and used by industry, it is recognized that they are susceptible to misunderstanding and

thus inappropriate for standardization purposes.
accelerated-ageing test

short-term test designed to reach more rapidly the natural ageing state for a material, following an

identical mechanism of the physico-chemical processes that occur during longer-term service

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activated sludge

biomass produced in the aerobic treatment of waste water by the growth of bacteria and other

microorganisms in the presence of dissolved oxygen
Note 1 to entry: It is used in the composting of plastics waste.
[SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, 2.1712]
aerobic biodegradation
biodegradation under aerobic conditions
[SOURCE: CEN/TR 15351:2006, c) 2]
substances which are used to process or to modify end use properties of plastics
Note 1 to entry: Mentioned substances are normally included in carrier matrix.

Note 2 to entry: Mentioned final use properties are e.g. rigidity, flexibility, colour etc.


irreversible chemical and physical processes in a plastic material under the influence of one or more

environmental factors leading to undesirable change in properties

Note 1 to entry: Examples of physical processes include extraction and evaporation.


larger particles formed by joining or binding together of smaller particles whose original identity can

still be visible in the final form

Note 1 to entry: Agglomerates can be supplied for further processing in the form of free-flowing material.

amorphous polymers

polymers that do not exhibit any crystalline structures in X-ray or electron scattering experiments

Note 1 to entry: Amorphous polymers can produce transparent clear products while crystalline polymers do not.

anaerobic biodegradation
biodegradation under anaerobic conditions
[SOURCE: CEN/TR 15351:2006, c) 3]
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anaerobic digestion

process of controlled decomposition of biodegradable materials under managed conditions where free

oxygen is absent, at temperatures suitable for naturally occurring mesophilic or thermophilic anaerobic

and facultative bacteria species, that convert the inputs to a methane rich biogas and digestate

Note 1 to entry: In a second phase, the digestate is typically stabilized by means of a composting (aerobic) process.

[SOURCE: ISO 18606:2013, 3.10]

substance that inhibits or delays the oxidation of polymers mainly by scavenging the peroxy radical

intermediates in the oxidation process

Note 1 to entry: mainly by scavenging the peroxy radical intermediates in the oxidation process.


fabricating operations involved in joining parts together by mechanical means, adhesives, heat sealing,

welding or other means
[SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, 2.63]
unit or structure composed of a combination of materials or products, or both
[SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, 1272]

uptake of nutrient molecules from the environment by (micro)organisms and incorporation in the

Note 1 to entry: Assimilation is a key process in biodegradation.
average molar mass
average relative molecular mass
average of the molar mass or relative molecular mass of a polydisperse polymer

Note 1 to entry: The unit gram per mole is recommended in polymer science for molar mass since then the

numerical values of the molar mass and the relative molar mass of a substance are equal.

Note 2 to entry: Three types of average commonly used are number-average, mass-average and viscosity-average.

[SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, 2.598]
compacted plastics waste to facilitate handling, storage and transportation
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process in which plastics waste is compacted and secured as a bundle to facilitate handling, storage and

[SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, 2.1678]
quantity of material regarded as a single unit, and having a unique reference
Note 1 to entry: "Batch" is primarily a processing term.
[SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, 2.1679]
beach plastic litter
plastic litter found on beaches

Note 1 to entry: This is a subcategory of marine plastic litter, as beach plastic litter is not identical with marine

plastic litter. Beach studies are not necessarily representative of marine plastic litter.

status of a plastic item that can be processed by biodegrading cells
[SOURCE: CEN/TR 15351:2006, d) 8]
derived from biomass

Note 1 to entry: Biomass can have undergone physical, chemical or biological treatment(s).

Note 2 to entry: The correct spelling of "bio-based" is with a hyphen (-). It is however in common usage sometimes

spelt without a hyphen.
[SOURCE: EN 17228:2019, 3.1]
bio-based carbon
biogenic carbon
carbon derived from biomass
[SOURCE: EN 16575:2014, 2.2 - modified: Note 1 to entry deleted.]
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bio-based carbon content
fraction of carbon derived from biomass in a product

Note 1 to entry: There are several approaches to express the bio-based carbon content. These include as a

percentage of: the mass; the total carbon content, or the total organic carbon content of the sample. These are

detailed in the relevant standards of CEN/TC 411.
[SOURCE: EN 16575:2014, 2.3]
bio-based composite
composite material wholly or partly derived from biomass
[SOURCE: EN 17228:2019, 3.3 - modified, alternative term “biocomposite” added]
biobased mass content

total amount of bio-based synthetic polymer, natural polymer, and bio-based additives in a product

Note 1 to entry: The total bio-based mass content in a product is expressed as a fraction or percentage of the sum

of the bio-based synthetic polymer, natural polymer, and bio-based additives to the total mass of the product.

[SOURCE: ISO 16620-1:2015, 3.1.11]
bio-based plastic
plastic wholly or partly derived from biomass
[SOURCE: EN 17228:2019, 3.4]
bio-based polymer
polymer wholly or partly derived from biomass
[SOURCE: EN 17228:2019, 3.2]
biochemical oxygen demand

mass concentration of the dissolved oxygen consumed under specified conditions by the aerobic

biological oxidation of a chemical compound or organic matter in water
[SOURCE: ISO 14851:2019, 3.4 – modified: Note 1 to entry removed.]
compatible with human or animal tissues and suitable for medical therapy
[SOURCE: EN 17228:2019, 3.5]
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potential for biodegradation of a polymeric material that is converted to carbon dioxide (aerobic

conditions) or biogas (anaerobic conditions), biomass and water by microorganisms during a fixed

period in a given environment

capable of undergoing biological aerobic or anaerobic degradation during a fixed period leading to a

release of carbon dioxide and/or biogas and biomass, depending on the environmental conditions of the


breakdown of an organic chemical compound by microorganisms in the presence of oxygen to carbon

dioxide, water and new biomass (mineralization), or in the absence of oxygen to carbon dioxide,

methane, mineral salts and new biomass
biodegradation phase

time, measured in days, from the end of the lag phase of a test until about 90 % of the maximum level of

biodegradation has been reached
[SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, 2.1726]

physical breakdown of a material into very small fragments resulting from the action of


Note 1 to entry: The early phase of bio-disintegration is usually called “fragmentation”.

faster degradation at the surface than inside resulting from biodegradation
[SOURCE: CEN/TR 15351:2006, e) 3]
biological treatability
potential of a material to be aerobically composted or anaerobically biogasified
[SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, 2.1727]
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material of biological origin excluding material embedded in geological formations or transformed to

fossilized material and excluding peat

Note 1 to entry: Biomass includes organic material (both living and dead) from above and below ground, e.g. trees,

crops, grasses, tree litter, algae, animals and waste of biological origin, e.g. manure.

[SOURCE: EN ISO 14021:2016, 3.1.1]
biomass content
mass fraction of a product that is derived from biomass

Note 1 to entry: Normally expressed as a percentage of the total mass of the product.

Note 2 to entry: For the methodology to determine the bio-based content, see FprCEN/TR 16721

[SOURCE: EN 16575:2014, 2.8]
biomass origin
geographic origin(s) of the biomass used for the production a bio-based plastic
Note 1 to entry: For example, country, territory or water body.
[SOURCE: EN 16848:2017, 3.1 - modified: “product” was exchanged by “plastic”]
biomass type

type of biomass used to produce a bio-based product (e.g. plants, trees, algae, animals)

Note 1 to entry: Definition based on EN 16848:2017, 4.2.4.
mineralization caused by cell-mediated phenomena
[SOURCE: CEN/TR 15351:2006, d) 3]
blowing agent

substance used to cause expansion in the manufacture of hollow or cellular articles

Note 1 to entry: Blowing agents can be compressed gases, volatile liquids or chemicals that decompose or react to

form a gas.
[SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, 2.82]
blow moulding

manufacturing process of forming a molten tube (parison or preform) of thermoplastic material and

placing it within a mould cavity and inflating the tube with compressed air, to take the shape of the

cavity and cool the part before removing from the mould
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blown film extrusion

manufacturing process that involves extruding a tube of molten polymer through a die and inflating it to

several times its initial diameter to form a thin film bubble which is then collapsed and used as a lay-flat

bulk biodegradation
faster degradation inside than at the surface resulting from biodegradation
[SOURCE: CEN/TR 15351:2006, e) 6]

co-product from a process that is incidental or not intentionally produced and which cannot be avoided

Note 1 to entry: Waste is not a by-product.
[SOURCE: ISO 21930:2017, 3.4.7]

machine that has a series of heated rolls, arranged in pairs, the rolls in each pair turning in opposite


Note 1 to entry: A calender is used to produce film, sheeting, coated substrates or laminates, the thickness being

determined by adjustment of the gap between the last pair of rolls.
[SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, 2.112]
carbon content

amount of carbon in the constituent, material or product as a percent of the weight (mass)

[SOURCE: ISO 16620-1:2015, 3.1.6]
carbon footprint of a product

sum of greenhouse gas emissions and greenhouse gas removals in a product system, expressed as CO

equivalents and based on a life cycle assessment using the single impact category of climate change

Note 1 to entry: A CFP can be disaggregated into a set of figures identifying specific GHG emissions and removals.

A CFP can also be disaggregated into the stages of the life cycle.

Note 2 to entry: The results of the quantification of the CFP are documented in the CFP study report expressed in

mass of CO2e per functional unit.
[SOURCE: ISO 14067:2018,, modified: references to other terms deleted.]

process in which a liquid or viscous material is poured or otherwise introduced into a mould or on to a

prepared surface to solidify without the use of external pressure
[SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, 2.120]
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substance, used in small proportions, that augments the rate of a chemical reaction and remains

unchanged chemically at the end of the reaction
[SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, 2.122]
cellular plastic
foamed plastic

plastic containing intended cavities (cells) (closed, open or both) dispersed throughout the mass

Note 1 to entry: Any polymer, thermoplastic or thermoset, can be made into a cellular form.

challenge test

test of a recycling process in which purposely specified contaminants or damaged materials are

introduced in prescribed quantities to judge the ability of the recycling process to produce material

with certain specified properties
[SOURCE: EN 15343:2007-12, 3.2]
chemically assisted degradation

polymer degradation that involves changes of the polymer structure and/or molecular weight due to a

chemical reaction caused by a specific chemical substance

Note 1 to entry: There are many different types of possible chemical reactions causing degradation such as

oxidation, photolysis, hydrolysis, ozonolysis, etc.
chemical recycling
feedstock recycling

conversion of polymers to monomers or production of new raw materials by changing the chemical

structure of plastics waste through cracking, gasification or depolymerization excluding energy

recovery and incineration

[SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, 2.1690 – modified: alternative term “chemical recycling” added, application

area removed: “”, NOTE removed.]
circular economy

a circular economy aims to maintain the value of products, materials and resources for as long as

possible by returning them into the product cycle at the end of their use, while minimising the

generation of waste
closed loop recycling

process in which post-consumer or industrial waste is collected and recycled preserving the value of

the material so it can be used again to make the same product category it came from with minimal loss

of quality or function[NEW]
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gathering of waste, including the preliminary sorting and preliminary storage of waste for the purposes

of transport to a waste treatment facility

[SOURCE: Directive 2008/98/EC, article 3 (10) modified: Changed to fit style rules]


exothermic reaction of a substance with an oxidizer, generally accompanied by flames and/or visible

light and the emission of effluent
Note 1 to entry: Combustion is not the same as incineration.
[SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, 2.176 – modified: Note 1 to entry added.]
combustible material
material that can be ignited and supports combustion
commingled plastics
mixed plastics
mixture of materials or products consisting of different types of plastic
[SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, 2.1683 – modified: NOTE removed.]
commodity plastics
volume plastics

plastics that are used in high volume usually known for their low costs making them popular in

especially mass productions

substance used in polymer blends to enhance the blend properties while increasing adhesion between

the phases, reducing the interfacial tension and stabilizing morphology

Note 1 to entry: It can be reactive and link with polymers or nonreactive and only miscible with polymers.


solid product consisting of two or more distinct phases, including a binding material (matrix) and a

particulate or fibrous material

EXAMPLE Moulding material containing reinforcing fibres, particulate fillers or hollow spheres.

[SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, 2.182.1 – modified: Area of application removed: “”.]


organic soil conditioner obtained by biodegradation of a mixture principally consisting of various

vegetable residues, occasionally with other organic material and having a limited mineral content

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[SOURCE: ISO 14855-2:2018, 3.1]

ability of a material to be biodegraded in a defined and controlled composting process within a set time

Note 1 to entry: Must be demonstrated in accordance with a suitable standard.
compostable plastic
, water,

plastic that undergoes degradation by biological processes during composting to yield CO2

inorganic compounds and biomass at a rate consistent with other known compostable materials and

leave no visible, distinguishable or toxic residue
[SOURCE: ISO 17088:2012, 3.4]
aerobic process designed to produce compost
[SOURCE: ISO 20200:2015, 3.3]

process of melt blending or mixing of polymers and additives essentially with a goal to achieve a

homogeneous blend
compression moulding

method of moulding thermosetting or thermoplastic resins in which the material, generally preheated,

is first placed in an open, heated mould cavity which is then closed with a top force or plug member and

exposed to pressure to force the material into contact with all mould areas, while heat and pressure are

maintained until the moulding material has solidified
substance or material which was unintentionally added

Note 1 to entry: The term “impurity” is a deprecated synonym of contaminant and should not be used.


specialized operator capable of shaping plastics raw material to make a usable semi-finished or finished


[SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, 2.1685 – modified: area of application removed: “ waste>”.]
polymer derived from more than one species of monomer
[SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, 2.212]
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any of two or more products coming from the same unit process or product system
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.10]

process by which complex organic molecules are broken down into simpler molecules such as light


Note 1 to entry: The end products are strongly dependent on the temperature and presence of catalysts.

formation of chemical bonds resulting in a three-dimensional molecular network
[SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, 2.234]

removal of contained or dissolved gases, vapours, water or monomer residues in the processing of a

plastic material to avoid voids or other imperfections in the final product

ability to degrade within a fixed period of time and under the influence of specified environments


irreversible process leading to a change of critical property (e.g. mechanical strength, thermal

insulation, colour etc.) typically characterized by changes in the structure of a material, composition

and/or molecular mass, affected by environmental conditions, proceeding over a period of time and

comprising one or more steps
Note 1 to entry: Definition is based on definition EN ISO 472:2013, 2.262.
degree of bioassimilation
fraction of an original polymeric item that is bioassimilated
[SOURCE: CEN/TR 15351:2006, d) 7]
degree of biodegradation

mass fraction of an original polymeric item that is biodegraded under specified conditions as measured

through specified techniques
[SOURCE: CEN/TR 15351:2006, c) 6]
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degree of bio-disintegration
mass fraction of a bio-disintegrated polymeric item
[SOURCE: CEN/TR 15351:2006, c) 12]
degree of biomineralization
mass fraction of the initial polymeric item that is biomineralized
[SOURCE: CEN/TR 15351:2006, d) 4]
degree of degradation

extent of deterioration of properties associated with molecular size and chemical structure

degree of disintegration

mass fraction of the particles of defined size issued from a fragmented polymeric item

[SOURCE: CEN/TR 15351:2006, b) 4]
degree of fragmentation
mass fraction of the original material that is fragmented
[SOURCE: CEN/TR 15351:2006, b) 2]
degree of mineralization
fraction of the initial polymeric item that is mineralized
[SOURCE: CEN/TR 15351:2006, d) 2]

reversion of a polymer to its monomer(s) or to a polymer of lower relative molecular mass

[SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, 2.268]

creative activity that, based on expressed or implied needs, existing means and technological

possibilities, results in the definition of technical solutions for a product that can be commercially

manufactured or fabricated into prototypes
[SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, 2.1754]

irreversible change in the physical properties of a plastic, evidenced by significant impairment of these

[SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, 2.271]
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differential scanning calorimetry

technique in which the difference between the heat flow rate into a test specimen and that into a

reference specimen is measured as a function of temperature and/or time while the test specimen and

the reference specimen are being subjected to the same controlled temperature programme under a

specified atmosphere

Note 1 to entry: A distinction is made between two modes, power-compensation differential scanning calorimetry

(power-compensation DSC) and heat-flux differential scanning calorimetry (heat-flux DSC), depending on the

principle of measurement used.
[SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, 2.278]
digested sludge

mixture of the settled sewage and activated sludge which has been incubated in an anaerobic digester at

about 35 °C to reduce the biomass and odour and to improve the dewaterability of the sludge

Note 1 to entry: Digested sludge contains an association of anaerobic fermentative and methanogenic bacteria

producing carbon dioxide and methane.
[SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, 2.1755]

thermo-analytical method for measuring the shrinkage or expansion of materials over a controlled

temperature regime

process whereby a product is taken apart in such a way that it could subsequently be assembled and

made operational
[SOURCE: EN 45553:2020, 3.1.2]
physical breakdown of a material into very small fragments
[SOURCE: EN ISO 472:2013, 2.1757]
process of taking a product apart into its different component parts

Note 1 to entry: ‘Part’ means any element of a product, as defined by that product’s type design (see Article 3 in

Basic Regulation).

breakdown of more complex substances by living organisms into simpler ones together with release of

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dispersion of macromolecules constituting a polymeric item in a liquid medium
Note 1 to entry: The process does not include degradation.
[SOURCE: CEN/TR 15351:2006, e) 1]
any controlled operation, that is not recovery

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