Prevention of crime - Urban planning and building design - Part 7: Design and management of public transport facilities

This document sets out guidelines to the methods of assessing the exogenous and endogenous risks of crime and/or perceived insecurity and proposes measures designed to preclude or reduce these risks. The objective is to strengthen the overall security of land-based public transport, such as : bus stop, bus station, train station, train stops/halts, modal interchanges, open access underground and tramway systems, controlled access underground and tramway systems, taxi ranks, station car parks, river bus terminals, bicycle parking facilities.
This document does not cover terrorism or the revenue vehicles themselves. It covers the areas that are dedicated to mass transit and open to the public.
The core document focus is on the security of passenger spaces, in respect also of security aspects.
The document applies to existing public transport facilities as well as new public transport facilities.

Vorbeugende Kriminalitätsbekämpfung - Stadt und Gebäudeplanung - Teil 7: Planung und Management von Anlagen und Einrichtungen des öffentlichen Personennahverkehrs

Prévention de la malveillance - Urbanisme et conception des bâtiments - Partie 7: Conception et gestion des espaces dédiés au transport public

Le présent document donne des lignes directrices sur les méthodes d'évaluation des risques endogènes et exogènes de malveillance et/ou de sentiment d'insécurité et propose des mesures visant à les prévenir ou à les réduire. L'objectif est de renforcer la sûreté globale du transport terrestre collectif incluant arrêts et stations de bus, gares ferroviaires, arrêts/haltes de trains, points d’interconnexion, systèmes de métro et de tramway d'accès libre, systèmes de métro et de tramway d'accès contrôlé, stations de taxis, parkings attenant à la gare, terminaux de bateaux-bus et parking pour bicyclettes.
Ce document ne traite ni du terrorisme ni du matériel roulant. Il couvre les espaces dédiés aux transports et ouverts au public.
Il s'attachera plus particulièrement à la sûreté des lieux accueillant du public, en rapport également avec les aspects de la sécurité.
Le document s'applique aux espaces existants et nouveaux dédiés aux transports publics.

Preprečevanje kriminala - Urbanistično planiranje in projektiranje - 7. del: Načrtovanje in upravljanje javnih prevoznih sredstev

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Oct-2009
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
16-Jul-2009
Due Date
20-Sep-2009
Completion Date
12-Oct-2009

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 14383-7:2009
01-november-2009
3UHSUHþHYDQMHNULPLQDOD8UEDQLVWLþQRSODQLUDQMHLQSURMHNWLUDQMHGHO
1DþUWRYDQMHLQXSUDYOMDQMHMDYQLKSUHYR]QLKVUHGVWHY
Prevention of crime - Urban planning and building design - Part 7: Design and
management of public transport facilities
Vorbeugende Kriminalitätsbekämpfung - Stadt und Gebäudeplanung - Teil 7: Planung

und Management von Anlagen und Einrichtungen des öffentlichen Personennahverkehrs

Prévention de la malveillance - Urbanisme et conception des bâtiments - Partie 7:

Conception et gestion des espaces dédiés au transport public
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 14383-7:2009
ICS:
03.220.01 Transport na splošno Transport in general
13.310 Varstvo pred kriminalom Protection against crime
91.020 Prostorsko planiranje. Physical planning. Town
Urbanizem planning
SIST-TP CEN/TR 14383-7:2009 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 14383-7:2009
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 14383-7:2009
TECHNICAL REPORT
CEN/TR 14383-7
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
July 2009
ICS 03.220.01; 13.310; 91.040.20
English Version
Prevention of crime - Urban planning and building design - Part
7: Design and management of public transport facilities

Prévention de la malveillance - Urbanisme et conception Vorbeugende Kriminalitätsbekämpfung - Stadt- und

des bâtiments - Partie 7: Conception et gestion des Gebäudeplanung - Teil 7: Planung und Management von

espaces dédiés au transport public Anlagen und Einrichtungen des öffentlichen
Personennahverkehrs

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 21 March 2009. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 325.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2009 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 14383-7:2009: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................4

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................7

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................7

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................7

4 Design and management processes for transport-dedicated areas ................................................7

4.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................7

4.2 Organization of the contracting authority and the stakeholders ......................................................8

4.2.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................8

4.2.2 Contracting authorities .........................................................................................................................8

4.2.3 Contract partners ...................................................................................................................................8

4.2.4 Specialists who bring their expertise to the project ..........................................................................8

4.2.5 Customers, commercial partners and staff ........................................................................................9

4.2.6 The project managers ...........................................................................................................................9

4.3 The core stages of a project .................................................................................................................9

4.4 Creating a new location ..................................................................................................................... 10

4.5 Location management ........................................................................................................................ 10

5 Analysis, actions and assessment: question-asking methods ..................................................... 10

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 10

5.2 Crime, antisocial behaviour and fear of crime ................................................................................. 11

5.3 General principles on security-related questioning ........................................................................ 11

5.4 Design strategies ................................................................................................................................ 12

5.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 12

5.4.2 Anticipation on location management.............................................................................................. 12

5.4.3 Space usage ........................................................................................................................................ 12

5.4.4 Legibility .............................................................................................................................................. 14

5.4.5 Location compatibility with security measures ............................................................................... 15

5.5 Management strategies ...................................................................................................................... 15

5.5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 15

5.5.2 Responsive location management policy ........................................................................................ 15

5.5.3 Regulating space usage ..................................................................................................................... 16

5.5.4 Legibility and orientation ................................................................................................................... 17

5.5.5 Location compatibility with security measures ............................................................................... 17

Annex A (informative) Types of crime against people (including staff) and buildings .............................. 19

A.1 Offence against person ...................................................................................................................... 19

A.1.1 Assault with physical violence (without theft) ................................................................................. 19

A.1.2 Assault without physical violence (without theft) ........................................................................... 19

A.1.3 Sexual assault ..................................................................................................................................... 19

A.1.4 Theft against person .......................................................................................................................... 19

A.2 Assault against companies, properties and plants ......................................................................... 19

A.2.1 Assault against properties and plants by damage and /or destruction ........................................ 19

A.2.2 Theft against companies .................................................................................................................... 19

A.2.3 Threat ................................................................................................................................................... 20

A.2.4 Trespass .............................................................................................................................................. 20

A.3 Other offence relative to public transport rules and antisocial behaviour ................................... 20

A.3.1 Behavioural offence ........................................................................................................................... 20

A.3.2 Traffic offence ..................................................................................................................................... 20

Annex B (informative) Summary of the process ............................................................................................ 21

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Foreword

This document (CEN/TR 14383-7:2009) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 325 “Prevention

of crime by urban planning and building design”, the secretariat of which is held by SNV.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

The status of Technical Report (CEN/TR) was proposed to give all countries the opportunity to compare

experiences and to harmonise procedures.

This Technical Report is one of a series for the “Prevention of crime by urban planning and building design”,

that consists of the following Parts:
 Part 1: Definition of specific terms
 Part 2: Urban planning
 Part 3: Dwellings
 Part 4: Shops and offices
 Part 5: Petrol stations

 Part 8: Protection of buildings and sites against criminal attacks with vehicles

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Introduction

The public transport system has to meet the citizen’s mobility needs under the most advantageous economic,

social and environmental conditions for the community. It is an instrumental factor in national unity and

solidarity, national defence, economic and social development, in balanced strategic land use planning and

sustainable development, and in driving international exchanges, particularly towards European partners.

In meeting these needs, it is equally important to comply with objectives on minimising or reducing risks,

accidents, nuisance (particularly sound pollution), pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions by implementing

measures designed to reinforce the application of the legal right of all public transport users, including

disabled or handicapped people, to move freely and to choose the means they wish to use, and to exercise

their legal entitlement to transport their property themselves or to commission the services of a company or

institution of their choice to do so.
The success if this kind of service hinges on:

− the strength of social ties in public transport areas, which are in fact a community resource (respect for

others, for community values, voluntary sharing of community resources, respect for rule of law, etc.);

− the efficiency of the production facilities (integrity of the technical and financial assets, the physical

protection provided by the transport, a regular and reliable quality service, etc.), which are by definition a

source of regular contact with the population and are thus embedded in the urban fabric.

Any unruly, aggressive or assaultive behaviour will by its very nature have a negative knock-on effect on

public trust in the service. More generally, public trust can be eroded by an environment left to degrade (dirt,

poor lighting, graffiti, etc.) and by repeated unruliness. The erosion of public trust can foster avoidance

behaviour from customers (drop in traffic) and staff (strikes, skipping ticket checks, etc.) alike. Crime often

also targets the production facilities (equipment, buildings, infrastructure, information systems, etc.), thus

causing financial losses, equipment breakdowns, service delays, malfunctioning customer service devices, or

even generating traffic safety risks (accidents, derailments, etc.).

Hence, crime, whether carried out or perceived, threatens the fundamental policy issues of any public

transport system, i.e. public trust and efficient production facilities, with significant economic and social

consequences.

Crime problems require action, on the individuals involved, on the organizations and structures that manage

community activity, and on the locations housing the activity.

Pre-planning for, or “designing-out”, crime and disorder often adds little or no additional cost to the project, but

can save large amounts of money in the long run. Returning to a location to “retro-fit” crime prevention

measures is always more expensive than designing the location properly in the first place.

All public transport systems in industrialized countries face these same issues. There are numerous examples

of where public transport companies have undertaken crime prevention actions, many of which have entailed

heavy funding. We can now draw upon a significant pool of experience and best practices. Indeed, public

transport facilities are fast developing towards intermodal services and expanding out to European scale. This

has prompted the need to draft a set of risk analysis procedures complete with guidelines.

Developments in problem orientation

Recent trends in mass transport project characteristic have to be taken in account, before identifying

appropriate recommendations for the design, the management and the planning process.

Below, four trends in mass transport project characteristic are discerned.
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Trend 1: More and more huge and multifunctional mass public transport projects

Railway stations in big cities and at airports, in order to fulfil their desired function as “multiservice areas” often

become “mega structures” where all kind of functions are integrated: transport, shopping and leisure. The

transport function is just one of the other present functions of the whole structure.

In order to emphasize its huge size and importance, architects of these mega structures often propose

impressive, challenging forms and constructions. These structures become regional or even national icons.

However, to structures of this kind, special points of attention apply for security design and management.

These points are:

− their huge size make people feel get lost soon if the concept of the structure is complex, the orientation

on passenger routes towards the goal is limited, and the signage is incomplete;

− different functions in the same structure mean different proprietors and different managers; if the

demarcation of the areas (what belongs to whom) is not clearly defined, if managers use different rules for the

public, different security systems (every function its own surveillants and CCTV system) the management of

the total structure will not as effective as it could be and should be;

− big structures are more different to connect to their environment properly; there is a greater danger that

they become and remain isolated, internally oriented blocks, which often make an unfriendly impression to

their direct environment. From the outside, you mainly see blind walls and huge car parks;

− different functions mean different opening times when it is not possible to close off the not-in-service parts

(for example the shopping mall in the late evening) and offer alternative routes to transport passengers, the

latter will have to walk long routes through scary, unsurveilled corridors

− different functions have different peak hours; but if more functions have a peak at the same time of the

day and all corridors have to be designed on this maximum flow of visitors, these corridors will be far too big

for the silent hours and the visitors will feel lost there.

This document give recommendations for not only regular and simple transport facilities, but also

recommendations that take into account the specific design and management attention points as mentioned

for the complex multifunctional mega structures.
Trend 2 : More and more underground structures

In former times, underground structures formed a minority and existed only in huge metropoles. Nowadays,

underground projects become more and more common.

In existing urban areas, only very little space is available for expansion of buildings and railway facilities. The

space required is only available under the surface. Engineers and architects have to look more and more to

underground solutions. Underground structures, however, are critical to safety. This applies to fire safety

(escape routes are longer and carry on more in the vertical dimension) but also to security. Especially the

perception of security is at stake: “the deeper, the more sensitive” one could say. To reach the same level of

security perception in underground structures, designers have to perform twice as well as in normal buildings.

Trend 3 : More and more stations and transfer points in the outskirts of town

With the expansion of the public transportation networks in urban areas (train, metro, tramway, buses) more

and more stations, not only simple metro stations but also important regional transfer points, are being located

in the outskirts of town.

These are often unpleasant areas: in the middle of an industrial zone and/or near a noisy highway.

Designers have to look to special solutions to make people feel comfortable in these kind of places, when

walking to and from the station/bus station, or when waiting for the connecting train/bus.

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Trend 4 : More and more separation between public and private space

Historically, the spaces devoted to transport facilities have been open spaces: train and bus stations, regular

lines for road, maritime stations, etc. In practice, all those facilities that did not have the role of international

border were of an open and public character. Today, some of these spaces still belong to the field of the

public space, but the standard becomes more and more to establish two distinguished spaces: the public area

and the private area. The public area serves as an area of access for the control (public space) and the

private area serves as ‘safe area’. From a point of view of formal surveillance and effective support in

emergency cases, this separation may be a favourable condition. The separation between public and private

areas has, however, also negative consequences.

The most important consequence is the limitation of the individual rights of the users. Only allowed persons (in

the possession of the travel ticket) have right to the restricted safe areas. Thus, these private spaces are not

contributing any more to ‘urban integration’ (= all spaces for all functions for all people). From this former

consequence, another consequence, very relevant for the crime prevention subject, follows: persons without

allowance to enter the private zones, all have to be concentrated in the (little) space remaining public. In

addition, a third consequence, related to the former: not all functions, like restaurants and shops, are suitable

for both types of space (the private or the public). That means: separation of functions has to be made. This

separation may lead to a lower degree of ‘urban integration’.

The fact that spaces become more and more separated, influences the design of safe transport facilities

related to the prevention of conventional criminality:
− It supposes the restriction of use of the restricted private space
− It means the transport facilities spaces are seen as spaces of risk
− It adds technical and technological problems in the design

− It introduces new security questions and new challenges for the pursuit of the same degree of ‘urban

integration’ as before the separation.

Trend 5 : More and more concerns for poorly staffed or unstaffed stations in the countryside

In the period the European train systems were built (1850-1900), trains were the only available long distance

travelling facility. Every small village along the line was connected and got its own staffed station.

For several reasons the transport authorities have reduced or totally taken away the staff. The buildings are

relatively expensive to maintain and may also be neglected by the transport authorities who are inclined to

concentrate on maintenance and problem solving in bigger stations.

Result is often an increase in feeling of insecurity of the passengers (still) using these small stations.

Worst-case scenario is the total closing down of the station due to further reduction of the passenger amount

and/or increasing maintenance cost.

This document deals with measures to be taken in order to guarantee the long-term maintenance and security

of small countryside stations. This is especially important in respect of the revival of the regional train systems,

which can be seen already in some of the European countries.

The growing concerns push the European countries to different solutions depending on the political context:

restaffing, CCTV, alarm system, etc.
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1 Scope

This document sets out guidelines to the methods of assessing the exogenous and endogenous risks of crime

and/or perceived insecurity and proposes measures designed to preclude or reduce these risks. The objective

is to strengthen the overall security of land-based public transport, such as : bus stop, bus station, train

station, train stops/halts, modal interchanges, open access underground and tramway systems, controlled

access underground and tramway systems, taxi ranks, station car parks, river bus terminals, bicycle parking

facilities.

This document does not cover terrorism or the revenue vehicles themselves. It covers the areas that are

dedicated to mass transit and open to the public.

The core document focus is on the security of passenger spaces, in respect also of security aspects.

The document applies to existing public transport facilities as well as new public transport facilities.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 14383-1:2006 — Prevention of crime — Urban planning and building design — Part 1: Definition of

specific terms.
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 14383-1:2006 apply.

4 Design and management processes for transport-dedicated areas
4.1 General
This section proposes that:

− the crime prevention input in transport related projects should follow a conventional “project management”

approach, with a system of stages in which all effective stakeholders are identified and engaged;

− creating or refitting a transport location, and day-to-day transport facility management are considered as

two separate projects, where the former leads on to the latter. However, it is essential that wherever possible

details of the proposed usage and operational methods to be adopted at the location are made available

during the planning stage. In this way, advice from crime prevention specialists is likely to be more effective

when the transport location becomes operational.

Safety planning and safety assurance for a transport-dedicated area can be run through in conventional

project management stages. However, the stakeholders involved, the questions posed and the available

policy resources will be different according to whether the project is location design or location management.

This is why the document goes on to cover the safety assurance process separately for these two project

formats.

The present section details the stakeholders (4.2) and stages (4.3 and 4.4) of the respective processes, while

the following sections focus on the content of these processes, i.e. diagnostic methods and guidelines in

terms of an action plan.
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The term design is understood to cover intelligence work, projecting ahead and producing the structures,

functions and use patterns of the location to be created or, in the case of an existing location, revised. The

design of transport-dedicated spaces has as much overlap with 'refurbishment' or re-engineering (location

features, definition or redefinition of location uses, etc.) as with 'new' projects or projects that need to be

created (meeting new expectations, advance planning for other uses, etc.).

The term location management is understood to cover location operation, maintenance and leverage and

generally all the functions concerning the life and use of the location.

These two mutually complementary approaches together form a project sequence. Sustainable location

design is centered on understanding how the location will evolve over time in order to ensure simple, efficient

location management. In turn, location management provides the feedback necessary to fuel ideas for the

developments that will need to be planned.
4.2 Organization of the contracting authority and the stakeholders
4.2.1 General

Transport-dedicated locations are complex environments, which means that project sponsorship and the

stakeholders need to be defined from the outset.

Generally speaking, the contracting authority expresses functional needs (or surveys their customers on the

subject), releases resources, defines the project and selects project managers. The contracting authority also

monitors that there is consistency and continuity in the choices and decisions made. The contracting authority

shall be set up and organised so that it can fulfil these responsibilities, and shall be clearly identified by all

partners in the operation. It may be led to evolve to fit project needs and (or) if the stakeholders so required,

at some stage between the early project drafting phases (preliminary study, business analysis) and the initial

project definition.

The topic dealt with here, namely the security of public transport facilities, is a multidimensional issue that

raises a number of complex problems. It therefore ties in multidisciplinary cross-sector approaches, and with

this kind of project that requires end-to-end partnership-based work efforts, one of the conditions for success

is system consistency throughout. Indeed, these approaches enrol a large number of parties. The families of

stakeholders are listed below.
4.2.2 Contracting authorities

The redesign of a transport location will inevitably involve a range of participants. This will include (but not be

limited to) the principal contracting authority (national, regional or local government or transport authority),

along with private or public sector contributors (including commercial partners and operators).

4.2.3 Contract partners
The main partners involved in the decision process are:
− the decision-maker, who is the contract partners;

− national, regional or local government authorities, private or public sector business, including commercial

partners and private or public transport operators.

These partners shall meet as a project group, where each partner has a specific role.

4.2.4 Specialists who bring their expertise to the project

One of the keys to the success of the project relies on the confrontation of several approaches and

professional expertise. It is therefore important to build around the project a multi-disciplinary team of

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specialists able to address the both the legal, technical, economic, architectural issues and the political,

psycho-sociological and social issues.

On the other hand, it may be difficult to manage a large team of experts over the planning of a project of

moderate size and complexity.

The project leader should thus analyze beforehand the specific implications and stakes of the project in order

to build the team of experts around a minimal core group including at least the responsible body, the

customers, the designers and the security specialists, intervention forces (e.g. firefighters, medical emergency

services, etc.)
For large projects or complex locations (e.g. difficult soc
...

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