Space engineering - Multipaction, design and test

This standard defines the requirements and recommendations for the design and test of RF components and equipment to achieve acceptable performance with respect to multipaction-free operation in service in space. The standard includes:
•   verification planning requirements,
•   definition of a route to conform to the requirements,
•   design and test margin requirements,
•   design and test requirements, and
•   informative annexes that provide guidelines on the design and test processes.
This standard is intended to result in the effective design and verification of the multipaction performance of the equipment and consequently in a high confidence in achieving successful product operation.
This standard covers multipaction events occurring in all classes of RF satellite components and equipment at all frequency bands of interest. Operation in single carrier CW and pulse modulated mode are included, as well as multi-carrier operations. This standard does not include breakdown processes caused by collisional processes, such as plasma formation.
This standard is applicable to all space missions.
NOTE    Multipactor in multi-carrier operation is currently being investigated. Hence, please be aware that this document provides only recommendations to multi-carrier operation. These recommendations are provisional and will be reviewed in future versions.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

Raumfahrttechnik - Multipaction-Konzeption und -Test

Systèmes sol et opérations - Conception et test prenant en compte l'effet Multipactor

La présente norme définit les exigences et recommandations applicables à la conception et aux essais des composants et équipements RF dans le but d’obtenir des performances acceptables pour un fonctionnement en service sans décharge auto-entretenue dans un environnement spatial. La présente norme couvre les aspects suivants :
- exigences relatives à la planification des activités de vérification ;
- définition d’un mode de mise en conformité aux exigences ;
- exigences relatives à la marge de conception et d'essai ;
- exigences de conception et d’essai ;
- annexes informatives contenant des recommandations sur les processus de conception et d’essai.
La présente norme vise à garantir une conception et une vérification efficaces des performances de décharge auto-entretenue des équipements et, par conséquent, à produire un haut degré de confiance quant au bon fonctionnement du produit.
La présente norme aborde les événements de décharge auto-entretenue survenant dans toutes les classes de composants et d’équipements RF à toutes les bandes de fréquences visées dans des conditions de vide poussé (pression inférieure à 10-5 hPa). Elle couvre également les opérations en mode onde entretenue à une seule porteuse et en mode modulation d’impulsions, ainsi que les opérations non modulées à plusieurs porteuses. Un paragraphe détaillé a également été ajouté sur le rendement d’émission secondaire.
La présente norme ne couvre pas les processus de claquage dus aux collisions, comme la plasmification.
La présente norme s’applique à toutes les missions spatiales.
La présente norme peut être adaptée aux caractéristiques et contraintes spécifiques d’un projet spatial, conformément à l’ECSS-S-ST-00.

Vesoljska tehnika - Multipaction, zasnova in preskušanje

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
27-Nov-2019
Publication Date
04-Oct-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Oct-2020
Due Date
06-Dec-2020
Completion Date
05-Oct-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16603-20-01:2020
01-december-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 14777:2005
Vesoljska tehnika - Multipaction, zasnova in preskušanje
Space engineering - Multipaction, design and test
Raumfahrttechnik - Multipaction-Konzeption und -Test

Systèmes sol et opérations - Conception et test prenant en compte l'effet Multipactor

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16603-20-01:2020
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST EN 16603-20-01:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 16603-20-01:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 16603-20-01:2020
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 16603-20-01
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
September 2020
ICS 49.140
Supersedes EN 14777:2004
English version
Space engineering - Multipactor, design and test

Ingénierie spatiale - Multipactor, conception et tests Raumfahrttechnik - Multipaction, Konzeption und Test

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 17 May 2020.

CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for

giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical

references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to

any CEN and CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. EN 16603-20-01:2020 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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SIST EN 16603-20-01:2020
EN 16603-20-01:2020 (E)
Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................... 6

Introduction ................................................................................................................ 7

1 Scope ....................................................................................................................... 8

2 Normative references ............................................................................................. 9

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .......................................................... 10

3.1 Terms and definitions from other standards ............................................................ 10

3.2 Terms and definitions specific to the present standard ........................................... 11

3.3 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................... 13

3.4 Nomenclature ......................................................................................................... 15

4 Verification ............................................................................................................ 16

4.1 Verification process ................................................................................................ 16

4.2 Multipactor verification plan .................................................................................... 18

4.2.1 Generation and updating ........................................................................... 18

4.2.2 Description ................................................................................................ 18

4.3 Power requirements ................................................................................................ 19

4.3.1 General power requirements ..................................................................... 19

4.4 Classification of equipment or component type ....................................................... 20

4.4.1 General classification of equipment or component type ............................ 20

4.5 Verification routes ................................................................................................... 22

4.6 Single carrier .......................................................................................................... 23

4.6.1 General ..................................................................................................... 23

4.6.2 Verification by analysis .............................................................................. 23

4.6.3 Verification by test ..................................................................................... 26

4.7 Multicarrier .............................................................................................................. 27

4.7.1 General ..................................................................................................... 27

4.7.2 Verification by analysis .............................................................................. 27

4.7.3 Verification by test ..................................................................................... 30

5 Design analysis .................................................................................................... 31

5.1 Overview ................................................................................................................ 31

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SIST EN 16603-20-01:2020
EN 16603-20-01:2020 (E)

5.2 Field analysis .......................................................................................................... 31

5.3 Multipactor design analysis ..................................................................................... 32

5.3.1 Frequency selection .................................................................................. 32

5.3.2 Design analysis levels ............................................................................... 32

5.3.3 Available data for Multipactor analysis ...................................................... 37

6 Multipactor - Test conditions ............................................................................... 45

6.1 Cleanliness ............................................................................................................. 45

6.2 Pressure ................................................................................................................. 45

6.3 Temperature ........................................................................................................... 46

6.4 Signal characteristics .............................................................................................. 47

6.4.1 Applicable bandwidth ................................................................................ 47

6.4.2 Single-frequency test case ........................................................................ 47

6.4.3 Multi-frequency test case .......................................................................... 47

6.4.4 Pulsed testing ........................................................................................... 49

6.5 Electron seeding ..................................................................................................... 50

6.5.1 General ..................................................................................................... 50

6.5.2 Multipactor test in CW operation ............................................................... 50

6.5.3 Multipactor test in pulsed operation ........................................................... 50

6.5.4 Multipactor test in multi-carrier operation ..................................................... 50

6.5.5 Seeding sources ....................................................................................... 50

6.5.6 Seeding verification ................................................................................... 51

7 Multipactor - Methods of detection ..................................................................... 52

7.1 General ................................................................................................................... 52

7.2 Detection methods .................................................................................................. 52

7.3 Detection method parameters ................................................................................. 53

7.3.1 Verification ................................................................................................ 53

7.3.2 Sensitivity .................................................................................................. 53

7.3.3 Rise time ................................................................................................... 54

8 Multipactor - Test procedure ............................................................................... 55

8.1 General ................................................................................................................... 55

8.2 Test bed configuration ............................................................................................ 55

8.3 Test bed validation.................................................................................................. 56

8.4 Test sequence ........................................................................................................ 57

8.5 Acceptance criteria ................................................................................................. 61

8.5.1 Definitions ................................................................................................. 61

8.5.2 Multipactor Free Equipment or component ................................................ 61

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SIST EN 16603-20-01:2020
EN 16603-20-01:2020 (E)

8.5.3 Steps in case of Discharges or Events during test..................................... 61

8.5.4 Investigation of Test Anomalies................................................................. 66

8.6 Test procedure ....................................................................................................... 66

8.7 Test reporting ......................................................................................................... 67

9 Secondary electron emission yield requirements ............................................. 68

9.1 General ................................................................................................................... 68

9.2 SEY measurements justification ............................................................................. 68

9.3 Worst case SEY measurement ............................................................................... 68

9.4 SEY measurements conditions ............................................................................... 69

9.4.1 Environmental conditions .......................................................................... 69

9.4.2 SEY test bed conditions ............................................................................ 69

9.4.3 SEY sample characteristics ....................................................................... 70

9.5 SEY measurements procedure ............................................................................... 70

9.5.1 SEY Measurements procedure documents ............................................... 70

9.5.2 SEY measurement calibration ................................................................... 71

9.6 ECSS SEY data selection ....................................................................................... 71

Annex A (informative) Multipactor document delivery per review ...................... 72

Bibliography ............................................................................................................. 74

Figures

Figure 3-1: Minimum inflexion point for Silver multipactor chart. ........................................... 12

Figure 4-1: Verification routes per component/equipment type and qualification status

for multipactor conformance ............................................................................... 22

Figure 5-1: Multipactor chart for standard Aluminium obtained with parameters from

Table 9-1 ............................................................................................................ 42

Figure 5-2: Multipactor chart for standard Copper obtained with parameters from Table

9-1 ...................................................................................................................... 42

Figure 5-3: Multipactor chart for standard Silver obtained with parameters from Table

9-1 ...................................................................................................................... 43

Figure 5-4: Multipactor chart for standard Gold obtained with parameters from Table

9-1 ...................................................................................................................... 43

Figure 5-5: Comparison of Multipactor charts for all standard materials obtained with

parameters from Table 9-1 ................................................................................. 44

Figure 8-1: Illustration of test sequence ................................................................................ 60

Figure 8-2: Illustration of test sequence following first Event ................................................ 63

Figure 8-3: Illustration of test sequence following first potential discharge ............................ 65

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SIST EN 16603-20-01:2020
EN 16603-20-01:2020 (E)
Tables

Table 4-1: Classification of equipment or component type according to the qualification

status and heritage from a multipactor point of view (adapted from Table 5-

1 of ECSS-E-ST-10-02) ...................................................................................... 17

Table 4-2: Classification of equipment or component type according to the material and

the geometry ...................................................................................................... 21

Table 4-3: Analysis margins w.r.t. nominal power applicable to P1 and P2 equipment or

components with Bm or Cm category verified by analysis .................................. 24

Table 4-4: Analysis margins w.r.t. nominal power applicable to P1 and P2 equipment or

components with Dm category verified by analysis ............................................ 25

Table 4-5: Test margins w.r.t. nominal power applicable to P1, P2 and P3 equipment or

components verified by test ................................................................................ 26

Table 4-6: Analysis margins applicable to P1 and P2 equipment or components with

Bm or Cm category verified by analysis ............................................................. 28

Table 4-7: Analysis margins applicable to P1 and P2 equipment or components with

Dm category verified by analysis ........................................................................ 29

Table 4-8: Test margins w.r.t. nominal power applicable to P1, P2 and P3 equipment or

components verified by test ................................................................................ 30

Table 5-1: Tabulated values of the lowest breakdown voltage threshold boundary of the

multipactor charts, computed with the SEY data of Table 9-1 ............................. 38

Table 9-1: SEY parameters for Al, Cu, Au and Ag materials ................................................. 71

Table A-1 : Multipactor deliverable document per review ...................................................... 73

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SIST EN 16603-20-01:2020
EN 16603-20-01:2020 (E)
European Foreword
This document (EN 16603-20-01:2020) has been prepared by Technical
Committee CEN-CENELEC/TC 5 “Space”, the secretariat of which is held by
DIN.
This standard (EN 16603-20-01:2020) originates from ECSS-E-ST-20-01C.
This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either
by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March
2021, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by
March 2021.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document
may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held
responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
This document supersedes EN 14777:2004.
This document has been prepared under a standardization request given to
CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association.
This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and has
therefore precedence over any EN covering the same scope but with a wider
domain of applicability (e.g. : aerospace).
According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards
organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European
Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United
Kingdom.
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SIST EN 16603-20-01:2020
EN 16603-20-01:2020 (E)
Introduction
In the context of increased RF power and equipment or component
miniaturization, more and more attention shall be paid to multipactor which is
critical for space missions based on satellite telecommunication or navigation
payloads, or active microwave instruments for Earth Observation or Science.
The multipactor phenomenon is an electron avalanche discharge occurring in
high vacuum initiated by primary electrons inside a RF component in presence
of a high local RF voltage or electric field.
In order to verify by analysis that a RF equipment or component is multipactor
free, accurate EM modelling tools are required. These tools need more and
more computation resources to cope with RF equipment or components with
complex geometries, advanced manufacturing techniques, new materials and
processes, and complex RF signals. The verification by test also requires some
up-to-date test facilities, that provide high power amplification, electron
seeding techniques, multiple and accurate detection methods, ability to
generate complex signals, and the ability to reproduce the space representative
environment conditions.
This standard is an update of previous version of ECSS-E-20-01A Rev.1, that
includes the state-of-art of new verification approaches, and associated
margins.
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SIST EN 16603-20-01:2020
EN 16603-20-01:2020 (E)
Scope
This standard defines the requirements and recommendations for the design
and test of RF components and equipment to achieve acceptable performance
with respect to multipactor-free operation in service in space. The standard
includes:
 verification planning requirements,
 definition of a route to conform to the requirements,
 design and test margin requirements,
 design and test requirements, and
 informative annexes that provide guidelines on the design and test
processes.

This standard is intended to result in the effective design and verification of the

multipactor performance of the equipment and consequently in a high
confidence in achieving successful product operation.
This standard covers multipactor events occurring in all classes of RF satellite
components and equipment at all frequency bands of interest in high vacuum
conditions (pressure lower than 10 hPa). Operation in single carrier CW and
pulse modulated mode are included, as well as unmodulated multi-carrier
operations. A detailed clause on secondary emission yield is also included.
This standard does not include breakdown processes caused by collisional
processes, such as plasma formation.
This standard is applicable to all space missions.

This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a

space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.
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SIST EN 16603-20-01:2020
EN 16603-20-01:2020 (E)
Normative references
The following normative documents contain provisions which, through
reference in this text, constitute provisions of this ECSS Standard. For dated
references, subsequent amendments to, or revision of any of these publications
do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this ECSS Standard are

encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the more recent editions of

the normative documents indicated below. For undated references, the latest
edition of the publication referred to applies.
EN reference Reference in text Title
EN 16601-00 ECSS-S-ST-00-01 ECSS – Glossary of terms
EN 16603-10-02 ECSS-E-ST-10-02 Space engineering –Verification
EN 16603-10-03 ECSS-E-ST-10-03 Space engineering - Testing
EN 16602-20 ECSS-Q-ST-20 Space product assurance – Quality assurance
EN 16602-20-08 ECSS-Q-ST-20-08 Space product assurance – Storage, handling and
transportation of spacecraft hardware
EN 16602-70-01 ECSS-Q-ST-70-01 Space product assurance – Cleanliness and
contamination control
EN 16602-70-02 ECSS-Q-ST-70-02 Space product assurance – Thermal vacuum
outgassing test for the screening of space materials
ESCC-20600 Preservation, packaging and despatch of ESCC
component
ISO 14644–1:2015 Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments
– Part 1: Classification of air cleanliness by particle
concentration
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SIST EN 16603-20-01:2020
EN 16603-20-01:2020 (E)
Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions from other standards
a. For the purpose of this standard, the terms and definitions from ECSS-S-
ST-00-01 apply, in particular the following terms:
1. acceptance
2. assembly
3. bakeout
4. batch
5. component
6. development
7. equipment
8. integration
9. uncertainty
10. validation
11. verification
b. For the purpose of this standard, the terms and definitions from ECSS-E-
ST-10-02 apply, in particular the following terms:
1. acceptance stage
2. analysis
3. inspection
4. model philosophy
5. qualification stage
6. review of design
7. test
8. verification level
c. For the purpose of this standard, the terms and definitions from ECSS-E-
ST-10-03 apply, in particular the following terms:
1. acceptance margin
2. qualification margin
d. For the purpose of this standard, the terms and definitions from ECSS-Q-
ST-70-02 apply, in particular the following terms:
1. outgassing
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SIST EN 16603-20-01:2020
EN 16603-20-01:2020 (E)
3.2 Terms and definitions specific to the present
standard
3.2.1 analysis margin
required margin of the nominal power with respect to the theoretical threshold
power resulting from a Multipactor analysis
3.2.2 assembly
process of mechanical mating of hardware after the manufacturing process
3.2.3 backscattered electron
incident electron that was re-emitted from the material surface with or without
energy loss.
3.2.4 batch
group of equipment or component produced in a limited amount of time with
the same manufacturing tools, that originates from the same manufacturing lot,
and followed the same manufacturing processes
NOTE This definition is more specific than the one
from the ECSS Glossary ECSS-S-ST-00-01.
3.2.5 batch acceptance margin
allowance of the power level above the nominal power over the specified
equipment or component lifetime, excluding testing, to be applied to equipment
or component of the same batch
3.2.6 critical gap
Vacuum region within a component or equipment, surrounded by surfaces of
any material at which the discharge occurs at the lowest input power for a
given frequency within the operating frequency band.
NOTE Critical gap does not correspond necessarily to
the smallest gap.
3.2.7 discharge
simultaneous response on two or more
independent detection methods
NOTE The term "multipactor discharge" is
synonymous.
3.2.8 event
short time response on one detection method
3.2.9 ferromagnetic material
substances which have a large, positive susceptibility to an external magnetic

field, exhibit a strong attraction to magnetic fields and are able to retain their

magnetic properties after the external magnetic field has been removed.
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SIST EN 16603-20-01:2020
EN 16603-20-01:2020 (E)
3.2.10 gap voltage
voltage over the critical gap
3.2.11 heritage
status of verification based on previously verified reference component or
equipment including all relevant parameters
NOTE The relevant parameters are listed in Table 4-1.
3.2.12 multicarrier average power
sum of the average power of each carrier
𝑃 =∑𝑃
𝑎𝑣𝑔 𝑖
𝑖=1
where:
Pi is the average power of each individual carrier
N is the number of carriers
3.2.13 minimum inflexion point
frequency times gap distance product, corresponding to multipactor order one,
at which there is a change in the slope of the breakdown voltage curve and the
breakdown voltage is minimized
NOTE Figure 3-1 is given as example. See for more
information the Multipactor handbook ECSS-E-
HB-20-01.
Figure 3-1: Minimum inflexion point for Silver multipactor chart.
3.2.14 multipactor discharge
see "discharge"
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SIST EN 16603-20-01:2020
EN 16603-20-01:2020 (E)
3.2.15 multipactor threshold
lowest power level for which a multipactor
discharge has occurred
3.2.16 multicarrier signal
signal composed of a number of independent
CW signals at different frequencies
3.2.17 qualification test

test performed on a single unit for establishing that a suitable margin exists in

the design and built standard
NOTE Such suitable margin is the qualification
margin.
3.2.18 RF boundary conditions
impedance matching conditions at all RF ports of the equipment or component
3.2.19 secondary electron emission yield (SEY)
see "total secondary electron emission coefficient"
3.2.20 total secondary electron emission coefficient
ratio of the number of all emitted electrons to the number of incident electrons
of defined incident kinetic energy and angle, specific of a material surface
under electron irradiation under high vacuum conditions
NOTE 1 The total secondary electron coefficient is the
sum of the true secondary electron coefficient
and the backscattered electron coefficient.
NOTE 2 The term "secondary electron emission yield"
is synonymous.
3.3 Abbreviated terms
For the purpose of this Standard, the abbreviated terms from ECSS-S-ST-00-01
and the following apply:
Abbreviation Meaning
alternating current/direct current
AC/DC
batch acceptance test
BAT
back-scattered electron emission
BSE
Critical Design Review
CDR
carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic
CFRP
continuous wave
direct current
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SIST EN 16603-20-01:2020
EN 16603-20-01:2020 (E)
Abbreviation Meaning
declared materials list
DML
declared processes list
DPL
documents requirements definition
DRD
device under test
DUT
equipment qualification status review
EQSR
European Cooperation for Space Standardization
ECSS
electromagnetic
electromagnetic compatibility
EMC
European remote sensing satellite
ERS
European Space Components Coordination
ESCC
flight model
high power amplifier
HPA
intermediate frequency
low noise amplifier
LNA
output multiplexer
OMUX
preliminary design review
PDR
particle in cell
PIC
process identification document
PID
passive intermodulation product
PIMP
radio frequency
secondary electron emission
SEE
system requirements review
SRR
regulated electron gun
REG
radioactive source
secondary emission yield
SEY
TEM transverse electromagnetic mode
test review board
TRB
temperature reference point
TRP
test readiness review
TRR
thermal vacuum chamber
TVAC
travelling wave tube amplifier
TWTA
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SIST EN 16603-20-01:2020
EN 16603-20-01:2020 (E)
Abbreviation Meaning
unit acceptance test
UAT
ultraviolet
voltage standing wave ratio
VSWR
wave guide
worst case analysis
WOCA
3.4 Nomenclature
The following nomenclature applies throughout this document:
a. The word “shall” is used in this Standard to express requirements. All
the requirements are expressed with the word “shall”.
b. The word “should
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST FprEN 16603-20-01:2014
01-oktober-2014
Vesoljska tehnika - Multipaction - Zasnova in preskušanje
Space engineering - Multipaction, design and test
Raumfahrttechnik - Multipaction-Konzeption und -Test

Systèmes sol et opérations - Conception et test prenant en compte l'effet Multipactor

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprEN 16603-20-01
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
kSIST FprEN 16603-20-01:2014 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
kSIST FprEN 16603-20-01:2014
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
kSIST FprEN 16603-20-01:2014
EUROPEAN STANDARD
FINAL DRAFT
FprEN 16603-20-01
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
May 2014
ICS 49.140 Will supersede EN 14777:2004
English version
Space engineering - Multipaction, design and test

Systèmes sol et opérations - Conception et test prenant en Raumfahrttechnik - Multipaction-Konzeption und -Test

compte l'effet Multipactor

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for unique acceptance procedure. It has been drawn up by the Technical

Committee CEN/CLC/TC 5.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal

Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN and CENELEC in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any

other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece,

Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to

provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without notice and

shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2014 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. FprEN 16603-20-01:2014 E

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Table of contents

Foreword .................................................................................................................... 7

Introduction ................................................................................................................ 8

1 Scope ....................................................................................................................... 9

2 Normative references ........................................................................................... 10

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .......................................................... 11

3.1 Terms and definitions from other standards ............................................................ 11

3.2 Terms and definitions specific to the present standard ............................................... 11

3.3 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................... 14

4 Verification ............................................................................................................ 15

4.1 Verification process ................................................................................................ 15

4.2 Verification levels .................................................................................................... 15

4.3 Verification plan ...................................................................................................... 15

4.3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 15

4.3.2 Generation and updating ........................................................................... 16

4.3.3 Description ................................................................................................ 16

4.4 Verification routes ................................................................................................... 17

4.5 Classification of component type ............................................................................ 17

4.6 Single carrier .......................................................................................................... 18

4.6.1 General ..................................................................................................... 18

4.6.2 Margins ..................................................................................................... 18

4.6.3 Route to demonstrate compliance ............................................................. 18

4.7 Multi-carrier............................................................................................................. 21

4.7.1 General ..................................................................................................... 21

4.7.2 Threshold above peak envelope power ..................................................... 21

4.7.3 Threshold below peak envelope power ..................................................... 22

4.7.4 Route to demonstrate conformance .......................................................... 22

5 Design analysis .................................................................................................... 25

5.1 Overview ................................................................................................................ 25

5.2 General requirements ............................................................................................. 25

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5.2.1 Field analysis ............................................................................................ 25

5.2.2 Secondary emission yield data .................................................................. 25

5.3 Critical region identification ..................................................................................... 26

5.4 Multipaction sensitivity analysis .............................................................................. 27

5.5 Venting ................................................................................................................... 27

6 Test conditions ..................................................................................................... 28

6.1 Cleanliness ............................................................................................................. 28

6.2 Pressure ................................................................................................................. 28

6.3 Temperature ........................................................................................................... 29

6.4 Frequencies ............................................................................................................ 29

6.5 Pulse duration ......................................................................................................... 29

6.5.1 General ..................................................................................................... 29

6.5.2 CW units ................................................................................................... 30

6.5.3 Pulse duration ........................................................................................... 30

6.6 Electron seeding ..................................................................................................... 30

6.6.1 Multipactor test in CW operation ............................................................... 30

6.6.2 Multipactor test in pulsed operation ........................................................... 30

6.6.3 Multipactor test in multi-carrier operation ..................................................... 31

6.6.4 Seeding sources ....................................................................................... 31

7 Methods of detection............................................................................................ 33

7.1 General ................................................................................................................... 33

7.2 Detection methods .................................................................................................. 33

7.3 Detection method parameters ................................................................................. 33

7.3.1 Sensitivity .................................................................................................. 33

7.3.2 Rise time ................................................................................................... 34

8 Test procedures .................................................................................................... 35

8.1 Test configuration ................................................................................................... 35

8.2 Test facility validation .............................................................................................. 35

8.3 Test execution ........................................................................................................ 36

8.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 36

8.3.2 Test procedure .......................................................................................... 36

8.4 Acceptance criteria ................................................................................................. 37

8.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 37

8.4.2 Multi-carrier test ........................................................................................ 38

Annex A (informative) Multipaction background .................................................... 39

A.1 Physics of multipaction ........................................................................................... 39

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A.2 Other physical processes ........................................................................................ 40

A.3 RF operating environment ...................................................................................... 40

A.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 40

A.3.2 CW approach ............................................................................................ 41

A.3.3 Pulsed approach ....................................................................................... 41

A.3.4 Multi-carrier approach ............................................................................... 41

A.3.5 Multi-carrier multipaction thresholds .......................................................... 42

A.4 Parallel plate multipaction ....................................................................................... 48

A.4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 48

A.4.2 Woode and Petit results ............................................................................ 50

A.5 Coaxial line multipaction ......................................................................................... 52

A.5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 52

A.5.2 Problem definition ..................................................................................... 53

A.5.3 Simulations ............................................................................................... 53

A.5.4 Results ...................................................................................................... 53

Annex B (normative) Cleaning, handling, storage and contamination ................ 56

B.1 Generic process ..................................................................................................... 56

B.1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 56

B.1.2 Cleaning and handling of critical components ........................................... 56

B.2 Cleaning, handling and storage .............................................................................. 56

B.2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 56

B.2.2 Cleaning and handling of critical components ........................................... 57

B.2.3 Storage of components ............................................................................. 58

B.3 Contaminants ......................................................................................................... 59

B.3.1 The effect of contaminants on the multipaction threshold .......................... 59

B.3.2 Contamination measurement (wipe test) ................................................... 59

B.3.3 Summary of test made and the results ...................................................... 59

B.3.4 Summary conclusions to the test ............................................................... 61

B.3.5 Surface verification.................................................................................... 61

Annex C (informative) Electron seeding ................................................................. 62

C.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 62

C.2 CW test ................................................................................................................... 62

C.3 Pulsed test .............................................................................................................. 62

C.4 Multi-carrier test ...................................................................................................... 62

C.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 62

C.4.2 Generic multi-carrier test ........................................................................... 62

C.4.3 Multi-carrier test with transient detection ................................................... 63

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C.5 Types of seeding sources ....................................................................................... 64

C.5.1 Overview ................................................................................................... 64

C.5.2 Radioactive source.................................................................................... 64

C.5.3 UV lamp .................................................................................................... 66

C.5.4 Regulated electron gun ............................................................................. 67

C.6 Guidelines for the use of seeding sources .............................................................. 68

Annex D (informative) Test methods ....................................................................... 70

D.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 70

D.2 General test methods ............................................................................................. 70

D.2.1 Close to carrier noise ................................................................................ 70

D.2.2 Return loss ................................................................................................ 72

D.2.3 Harmonic noise ......................................................................................... 75

D.3 Transient tests methods.......................................................................................... 75

D.3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 75

D.3.2 Signal generation ...................................................................................... 77

D.4 Test facility validation .............................................................................................. 82

Annex E (informative) Secondary electron emission ............................................. 83

E.1 SEY Definition and properties ................................................................................. 83

E.2 SEY and multipactor ............................................................................................... 84

E.3 Factors affecting SEY ............................................................................................. 86

E.4 SEY testing ............................................................................................................. 87

Bibliography ............................................................................................................. 91

Figures

Figure 4-1: Routes to conformance for single carrier ............................................................ 20

Figure 4-2: Routes to conformance for multi-carrier test ....................................................... 24

Figure 5-1: The susceptibility zone boundaries for examples of aluminium, copper,

silver, gold and alodine 1200 used in Annex A ................................................... 26

Figure A-1 : Total secondary electron emission as a function of the incident electron .......... 48

Figure A-2 : Multipaction susceptibility zones for parallel plates of an example of

aluminium ........................................................................................................... 49

Figure A-3 : Multipaction threshold for all materials studied, plotted in a single graph as

labelled .............................................................................................................. 54

Figure D-1 : Generic close to carrier noise multipaction test site .......................................... 71

Figure D-2 : Principal multipaction test set-up for nulling detection method .......................... 73

Figure D-3 : Test configuration (mode 1) .............................................................................. 76

Figure D-4 : Test configuration (mode 2) .............................................................................. 76

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Figure D-5 : Detected envelope of a five carrier waveform ................................................... 79

Figure D-6 : Charge probe .................................................................................................... 81

Figure E-1 : Typical dependence of SEY coefficients on primary electron energy. ............... 84

Figure E-2 : Energy distribution of emitted electron from Au target surface submitted to

112 eV electron irradiation [23]. .......................................................................... 84

Figure E-3 : Experimental arrangement for SEY test with emission collector ........................ 88

Figure E-4 : SEY experimental setup (without collector around the sample) ......................... 89

Tables

Table 4-1: Classification of component type ......................................................................... 18

Table 4-2: Margins applicable to Type 1, 2 and 3 components ............................................. 18

Table 4-3: Multi-carrier margins applicable to Type 1 components when the single

carrier multipaction threshold is above the peak envelope power ....................... 22

Table 4-4: Multi-carrier margins applicable to Type 1 components when the single

carrier multipaction threshold is below the peak envelope power ....................... 22

Table A-1 : Worst case mode order for susceptible gaps for an example of gold .................. 43

Table A-2 : Worst case mode order for susceptible gaps for an example of silver ................ 44

Table A-3 : Worst case mode order for susceptible gaps for an example of aluminium ........ 45

Table A-4 : Worst case mode order for susceptible gaps for an example of alodine ............. 46

Table A-5 : Worst case mode order for susceptible gaps for an example of copper .............. 47

Table A-6 : Constants for the tested materials ...................................................................... 52

Table A-7 : Critical voltages for multipaction in 50 Ohms coaxial lines using an example

of materials ........................................................................................................ 54

Table C-1 : Rate and energy of injected electrons going through a particular aluminium

wall ..................................................................................................................... 65

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Foreword
This document (FprEN 16603-20-01:2014) has been prepared by Technical
Committee CEN/CLC/TC 5 “Space”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN
(Germany).
This document (FprEN 16603-20-01:2014) originates from ECSS-E-20-01A Rev.1.
This document is currently submitted to the Unique Acceptance Procedure.
This document will supersede EN 14777:2004.
This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and will
the-refore have precedence over any EN covering the same scope but with a
wider do-main of applicability (e.g. : aerospace).
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Introduction
Single carrier multipaction has well-established theoretical and testing
procedures, and the heritage from proven components enables to define testing
margin values as requirements for European space missions. Applying the
single carrier margin to peak in-phase multi-carrier signals is recognized as
excessively onerous in many cases, but the present understanding of
multipaction for multicarrier signals is not well enough established for a

reduced limit to be specified. For this reason, the margins for the multi-carrier

case are stated as recommendations, with a view to their evolving to
requirements in the longer term.
For the purpose of this document, the terms multipaction and multipactor are
equivalent.
This document does not include major changes with respect to “issue A”. For

full traceability with “issue A”, it has not been revisited for full compliance with

the ECSS drafting rules for ECSS Standards. It is the ECSS policy that a
document published as “Issue C” is in full compliance with these drafting rules.
Therefore the ECSS Technical Authority decided to publish this update as
“ECSS-E-20-01A Rev.1”.
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Scope
This standard defines the requirements and recommendations for the design
and test of RF components and equipment to achieve acceptable performance
with respect to multipaction-free operation in service in space. The standard
includes:
• verification planning requirements,
• definition of a route to conform to the requirements,
• design and test margin requirements,
• design and test requirements, and
• informative annexes that provide guidelines on the design and test
processes.

This standard is intended to result in the effective design and verification of the

multipaction performance of the equipment and consequently in a high
confidence in achieving successful product operation.

This standard covers multipaction events occurring in all classes of RF satellite

components and equipment at all frequency bands of interest. Operation in
single carrier CW and pulse modulated mode are included, as well as multi-
carrier operations. This standard does not include breakdown processes caused
by collisional processes, such as plasma formation.
This standard is applicable to all space missions.
NOTE Multipactor in multi-carrier operation is
currently being investigated. Hence, please be
aware that this document provides only
recommendations to multi-carrier operation.
These recommendations are provisional and
will be reviewed in future versions.

This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a

space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.
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Normative references
The following normative documents contain provisions which, through
reference in this text, constitute provisions of this ECSS Standard. For dated
references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of any of these publications
do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this ECSS Standard are

encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of

the normative documents indicated below. For undated references the latest
edition of the publication referred to applies.
EN reference Reference in text Title
EN 16601-00-01 ECSS-S-ST-00-01 ECSS - Glossary of terms
EN 16603-10-02 ECSS-E-ST-10-02 Space engineering - Verification
ISO 14644-1:1999 Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments.
Classification of air cleanliness
ESCC 20600 Issue 1, ESCC Basic Specification - Preservation, packaging
February 2003 and despatch of ESCC electronic components
ESCC 24900 Issue 1, ESCC Basic Specification - Minimum requirements
October 2002 for controlling environmental contamination of
components
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Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions from other standards
For the purpose of this standard, the terms and definitions from ECSS-S-ST-00-01
apply, in particular the following terms:
bake-out
inspection
3.2 Terms and definitions specific to the present standard
3.2.1 acceptance margin
margin to use for acceptance testing
3.2.2 acceptance stage

verification stage with the objective of demonstrating that the product is free of

workmanship defects and integration errors and ready for its intended use
3.2.3 analysis uncertainty
numerical value of the uncertainty associated with an analysis
NOTE In performing analysis, a conservative
approach based on pessimistic assumptions is
used when assessing threshold powers for the
onset of multipaction.
3.2.4 assembly (process)
process of mechanical mating of hardware to obtain a low level configuration
after the manufacturing process
NOTE This definition differs from the definition of
“assembly ” in ECSS-S-ST-00-01.
3.2.5 batch acceptance test
test performed on a sample from each batch of flight units to verify that the
units conform to the acceptance requirements
NOTE For requirements on the sample size, see 8.3.1a.
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3.2.6 design margin
theoretically computed margin between the specified power handling of the
component and the result of an analysis after the analysis uncertainty has been
subtracted
NOTE As for the analysis uncertainty, the worst case is
used.
3.2.7 development test
testing performed during the design and development phase which can
supplement the theoretical design activities
3.2.8 gap voltage
voltage in the critical gap
NOTE The critical gap corresponds to the most critical
location in the space RF component where the
multipaction can occur.
3.2.9 in-process test
testing performed during the manufacture of flight standard equipment
NOTE It is carried out with the equipment in an
unfinished state or as part or sub assembly that
cannot be fully tested when later integrated into
the equipment. The tests form part of
verification.
3.2.10 integration
process of physically and functionally combining lower level products to obtain
a particular functional configuration
NOTE The term product can include hardware,
software or both.
3.2.11 measurement uncertainty
uncertainty with which the specified power level is applied to the test item
3.2.12 model philosophy
definition of the optimum number and characteristics of physical models to
achieve a high confidence in the product verification with the shortest planning
and a suitable weighing of costs and risks
3.2.13 mean power
in case of multi-carrier operation with n carriers, the mean power is the sum of
the power of each carrier (Pi) :
P = P
mean ∑ i
i=1
mean power is also call
...

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