Earth-moving machinery - Functional safety - Part 4: Design and evaluation of software and data transmission for safety-related parts of the control system (ISO 19014-4:2020)

This part of EN ISO 19014 specifies general principles for software design, test and signal transmission requirements of safety‐related parts of machine‐control systems (MCS) in earth‐moving machinery and its equipment, as defined in EN ISO 6165.

Erdbaumaschinen - Sicherheit - Teil 4: Gestaltung und Beurteilung von Software und Datenübertragung für sicherheitsrelevante Steuerungssysteme (ISO 19014-4:2020)

Dieses Dokument legt allgemeine Grundsätze für Anforderungen an Software-Entwicklung und Signalübertragung von sicherheitsbezogenen Teilen von Maschinensteuerungssystemen (MCS, en: machine-control systems) in Erdbaumaschinen (EMM, en: earth-moving machinery) und deren Ausrüstung, wie in ISO 6165 definiert, fest. Zudem behandelt dieses Dokument die in ISO 12100 festgelegten signifikanten Gefährdungen in Bezug auf die im Maschinensteuerungssystem eingebettete Software. Bei den behandelten signifikanten Gefährdungen handelt es sich um das falsche Ansprechen der Ausgabe von Maschinensteuerungssystemen auf Eingaben in Maschinensteuerungssystemen.
Cybersicherheit liegt außerhalb des Anwendungsbereichs dieses Dokuments.
ANMERKUNG Hinweise zur Cybersicherheit sind in einer geeigneten Sicherheitsnorm zu finden.
Dieses Dokument gilt nicht für EMM, die vor dem Veröffentlichungsdatum dieses Dokuments hergestellt wurden.

Engins de terrassement - Sécurité - Partie 4: Conception et évaluation du logiciel et de la transmission des données pour les parties relatives à la sécurité du système de commande (ISO 19014-4:2020)

Le présent document spécifie les principes généraux applicables aux exigences en matière de développement de logiciel et de transmission des signaux des parties relatives à la sécurité des systèmes de commande de la machine (MCS) dans les engins de terrassement et leur équipement tels que définis dans l'ISO 6165. De plus, le présent document traite des phénomènes dangereux significatifs tels que définis dans l'ISO 12100 en rapport avec les logiciels intégrés dans le système de commande de la machine. Les phénomènes dangereux significatifs traités sont les réponses incorrectes du système de commande de la machine aux entrées du système de commande de la machine.
La cybersécurité n'est pas couverte par le présent document.
NOTE Voir une norme appropriée relative à la sécurité pour des recommandations à propos de la cybersécurité.
Le présent document n'est pas applicable aux engins de terrassement fabriqués avant la date de sa publication.

Stroji za zemeljska dela - Funkcijska varnost - 4. del: Načrtovanje in vrednotenje programske opreme in prenosa podatkov za dele krmilnega sistema, povezane z varnostjo (ISO 19014-4:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Jul-2019
Publication Date
03-Sep-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
27-Aug-2020
Due Date
01-Nov-2020
Completion Date
04-Sep-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 19014-4:2020
01-november-2020

Stroji za zemeljska dela - Funkcijska varnost - 4. del: Načrtovanje in vrednotenje

programske opreme in prenosa podatkov za dele krmilnega sistema, povezane z
varnostjo (ISO 19014-4:2020)

Earth-moving machinery - Functional safety - Part 4: Design and evaluation of software

and data transmission for safety-related parts of the control system (ISO 19014-4:2020)

Erdbaumaschinen - Sicherheit - Teil 4: Gestaltung und Beurteilung von Software und

Datenübertragung für sicherheitsrelevante Steuerungssysteme (ISO 19014-4:2020)

Engins de terrassement - Sécurité - Partie 4: Conception et évaluation du logiciel et de

la transmission des données pour les parties relatives à la sécurité du système de

commande (ISO 19014-4:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 19014-4:2020
ICS:
35.080 Programska oprema Software
53.100 Stroji za zemeljska dela Earth-moving machinery
SIST EN ISO 19014-4:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 19014-4:2020
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SIST EN ISO 19014-4:2020
EN ISO 19014-4
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
August 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 53.100
English Version
Earth-moving machinery - Functional safety - Part 4:
Design and evaluation of software and data transmission
for safety-related parts of the control system (ISO 19014-
4:2020)

Engins de terrassement - Sécurité fonctionnelle - Partie Erdbaumaschinen - Funktionale Sicherheit - Teil 4:

4: Conception et évaluation du logiciel et de la Gestaltung und Beurteilung von Software und

transmission des données pour les parties relatives à la Datenübertragung für sicherheitsrelevante

sécurité du système de commande (ISO 19014-4:2020) Steuerungssysteme (ISO 19014-4:2020)

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 29 June 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 19014-4:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 19014-4:2020
EN ISO 19014-4:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 19014-4:2020
EN ISO 19014-4:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 19014-4:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 127 "Earth-

moving machinery" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 151 “Construction equipment

and building material machines - Safety” the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by February 2021, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by February 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 19014-4:2020 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 19014-4:2020 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 19014-4:2020
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SIST EN ISO 19014-4:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 19014-4
First edition
2020-07
Earth-moving machinery —
Functional safety —
Part 4:
Design and evaluation of software and
data transmission for safety-related
parts of the control system
Engins de terrassement — Sécurité fonctionnelle —
Partie 4: Conception et évaluation du logiciel et de la transmission
des données pour les parties relatives à la sécurité du système de
commande
Reference number
ISO 19014-4:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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SIST EN ISO 19014-4:2020
ISO 19014-4:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 19014-4:2020
ISO 19014-4:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Software development .................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Planning ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.3 Artifacts ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Software safety requirements specification .................................................................................................................. 7

4.5 Software architecture design ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.6 Software module design and coding .................................................................................................................................... 8

4.7 Language and tool selection ........................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.8 Software module testing ..............................................................................................................................................................10

4.9 Software module integration and testing .....................................................................................................................11

4.10 Software validation ..........................................................................................................................................................................12

5 Software-based parameterization ..................................................................................................................................................12

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.2 Data integrity .........................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.3 Software-based parameterization verification ........................................................................................................13

6 Transmission protection of safety-related messages on bus systems .......................................................13

7 Independence by software partitioning ....................................................................................................................................14

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................14

7.2 Several partitions within a single microcontroller ...............................................................................................15

7.3 Several partitions within the scope of an ECU network ...................................................................................16

8 Information for use .........................................................................................................................................................................................17

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

8.2 Instruction handbook ....................................................................................................................................................................17

Annex A (informative) Description of software methods/measures ...............................................................................18

Annex B (normative) Software validation test environments ................................................................................................31

Annex C (informative) Data integrity assurance calculation....................................................................................................34

Annex D (informative) Methods and measures for transmission protection .........................................................36

Annex E (informative) Methods and measures for data protection internal to microcontroller .......38

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................40

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 19014-4:2020
ISO 19014-4:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by ISO/TC 127, Earth-moving machinery, Subcommittee SC 2, Safety,

ergonomics and general requirements, in collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization

(CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 151, Construction equipment and building material machines - Safety,

in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This first edition of ISO 19014-4, together with other parts in the ISO 19014 series, cancels and replaces

ISO 15998:2008 and ISO/TS 15998-2:2012, which have been technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous documents are as follows:
— additional requirements for software development,
— requirements for software-based parametrization development,

— requirements for transmission of safety related messages on a communication bus, and

— requirements for software validation and verification of machine performance levels.

A list of all parts in the ISO 19014 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 19014-4:2020
ISO 19014-4:2020(E)
Introduction

This document addresses systems comprising any combination of electrical, electronic, and

programmable electronic components [electrical/electronic/programmable electronic systems (E/E/

PES)] used for functional safety in earth-moving machinery.
The structure of safety standards in the field of machinery is as follows.

Type-A standards (basis standards) give basic concepts, principles for design, and general aspects that

can be applied to machinery.

Type-B standards (generic safety standards) deal with one or more safety aspect(s), or one or more

type(s) of safeguards that can be used across a wide range of machinery:

— type-B1 standards on particular safety aspects (e.g. safety distances, surface temperature, noise);

— type-B2 standards on safeguards (e.g. two-hands controls, interlocking devices, pressure sensitive

devices, guards).

Type-C standards (machinery safety standards) deal with detailed safety requirements for a particular

machine or group of machines.
This document is a type-C standard as stated in ISO 12100.

This document is of relevance, in particular, for the following stakeholder groups representing the

market players with regard to machinery safety:
— machine manufacturers (small, medium, and large enterprises);

— health and safety bodies (regulators, accident prevention organisations, market surveillance etc.).

Others can be affected by the level of machinery safety achieved with the means of the document by the

above-mentioned stakeholder groups:
— machine users/employers (small, medium, and large enterprises);

— machine users/employees (e.g. trade unions, organizations for people with special needs);

— service providers, e. g. for maintenance (small, medium, and large enterprises);

The above-mentioned stakeholder groups have been given the possibility to participate at the drafting

process of this document.

The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards, hazardous situations, or hazardous events

are covered are indicated in the Scope of this document.

When requirements of this type-C standard are different from those which are stated in type-A or

type-B standards, the requirements of this type-C standard take precedence over the requirements of

the other standards for machines that have been designed and built according to the requirements of

this type-C standard.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 19014-4:2020
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SIST EN ISO 19014-4:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 19014-4:2020(E)
Earth-moving machinery — Functional safety —
Part 4:
Design and evaluation of software and data transmission
for safety-related parts of the control system
1 Scope

This document specifies general principles for software development and signal transmission

requirements of safety-related parts of machine-control systems (MCS) in earth-moving machinery

(EMM) and its equipment, as defined in ISO 6165. In addition, this document addresses the significant

hazards as defined in ISO 12100 related to the software embedded within the machine control system.

The significant hazards being addressed are the incorrect machine control system output responses

from machine control system inputs.
Cyber security is out of the scope of this document.
NOTE For guidance on cybersecurity, see an appropriate security standard.

This document is not applicable to EMM manufactured before the date of its publication.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 6750-1, Earth-moving machinery — Operator's manual — Part 1: Contents and format

ISO 12100:2010, Safety of machinery — General principles for design — Risk assessment and risk reduction

ISO 13849-1, Safety of machinery — Safety-related parts of control systems — Part 1: General principles

for design

ISO 19014-1, Earth-moving machinery — Functional safety — Part 1: Methodology to determine safety-

related parts of the control system and performance requirements

ISO 19014-2:— , Earth-moving machinery — Functional safety — Part 2: Design and evaluation of

hardware and architecture requirements for safety-related parts of the control system

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions in ISO 12100, ISO 19014-1, ISO 13849-1

and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DIS 19014-2:2020.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 19014-4:2020
ISO 19014-4:2020(E)
3.1
bus system

subsystem used in an electronic control system for the transmission of messages (3.6)

Note 1 to entry: The bus system consists of the system unit (sources and sinks of information), a transmission

path/transmission medium (e.g. electrical lines, fiber-optical lines, radio frequency transmission) and the

interface between message source/sink and bus electronics (e.g. protocol application specific integrated circuit,

transceivers).
3.2
encapsulated bus system

bus system (3.1) comprising a fixed number or a predetermined maximum number of bus participants

connected to each other through a transmission medium with well-defined and fixed performance/

characteristics
3.3
failure of peer communication
situation in which the communication peer is not available
3.4
unintended message repetition
situation in which the same message (3.6) is unintentionally sent again
3.5
message repetition
situation in which the same message (3.6) is intentionally sent again

Note 1 to entry: This technique of resending the same message addresses failures such as message loss (3.10).

3.6
message
electronic transmission of data

Note 1 to entry: Transmitted data can include user data, address, or identifier data and data to ensure

transmission integrity.
3.7
ECU
electronic control unit

electronic device (electronic programmable controller) used in a control system on earth-moving

machinery

[SOURCE: ISO 22448:2010, 3.3, modified — The admitted terms "ECM" and "electronic control module"

have been removed.]
3.8
reaction time

time from the detection of a safety-related event until the initiation of a safety reaction

3.9
artifact

work products that are produced and used during a project to capture and convey information

3.10
message loss
unintended deletion of a message (3.6) due to a fault of a bus participant
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 19014-4:2020
ISO 19014-4:2020(E)
3.11
incorrect sequence

unintended modification of the sequence of messages (3.6) due to a fault of a bus participant

Note 1 to entry: Bus systems (3.1) can contain elements with stored messages (first-in, first-out (FIFOs), etc.) that

can modify the correct sequence.
3.12
message falsification

unintended modification of messages (3.6) due to an error of a bus participant or due to errors on the

transmission channel
3.13
message retardation

unintended delay or prevention of the safety function, caused by an overload of the transmission path

by normal data exchange or by sending incorrect messages (3.6)
3.14
alive counter

accounting component initialised with “0” when the object to be monitored is created or restored

Note 1 to entry: The counter increases from time t–1 to time t as long as the object is alive. Finally, the alive

counter shows the period of time for which the object has been alive within a network.

3.15
black box testing

testing of an object that does not require knowledge of its internal structure or its concrete

implementation
3.16
partition

resource entity allocating a portion of memory, input/output devices, and central processing unit usage

to one or more system tasks (3.21)

Note 1 to entry: The partitions can be assigned to one or more subsystems within the microcontroller network.

3.17
software partitioning

software fault (3.26) containment method consisting of assigning resources to specific software

components with the intention of avoiding the propagation of a software fault to multiple partitions (3.16)

3.18
software component
one or more software modules (3.19)

[SOURCE: ISO 26262-1:2018, 3.157, modified — The word "units" has been replaced with "modules".]

3.19
software module

independent piece of software that can be independently tested and traced to a specification

Note 1 to entry: The software module is an indivisible software component.
3.20
software partitions
runtime environment with separate system resources assigned
3.21
system task

runtime entities that are executed within the resource budget of partitions (3.16) and with different

priorities
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 19014-4:2020
ISO 19014-4:2020(E)
3.22
independence of software

exclusion of unintended interactions between software components, as well as freedom from impact on

the correct operation of a software component resulting from errors of another software component

3.23
operational history

operating data about a software component or a software module (3.19) during its time in service

3.24
maximum cycle time
static time to access a communication bus between nodes at a bus or node level

Note 1 to entry: The application of a time-triggered protocol ensures this cycle time is not exceeded.

3.25
maximum response time

fixed time assigned to a system activity to exchange globally-synchronised messages (3.6) on a bus in a

time-triggered architecture
3.26
software fault

incorrect step, process, or data definition in software which causes the system to produce

unexpected results
3.27
impact analysis

documentation that records the understanding and implications of a proposed change

3.28
configuration management process

task of tracking and controlling changes to the artifacts (3.9) in the development process

3.29
constant transmission of messages

situation in which the faulty node continually transmits messages (3.6) that compromises the operation

of the bus
3.30
blocking access to the data bus

situation in which the faulty node does not adhere to the expected patterns of use and makes excessive

demands of service, thereby reducing its availability to other nodes
4 Software development
4.1 General

The main objective of the following requirements is to achieve software reliability by means of

readable, understandable, testable, and maintainable software. This clause gives recommendations for

the design of software and the subsequent related testing. The avoidance of software faults shall be

considered during the entire software development process.

Where an existing software component has been developed to a previous standard and demonstrated

through application usage and validation to reduce the risk to as low as reasonably practicable, there

shall be no requirement to update the software life cycle documentation at the software module level.

Machine control software shall comply with the safety requirements of this clause. In addition, the

machine control software shall be designed and developed according to the principles of ISO 12100:2010

for relevant but not significant hazards which are not dealt with by this document.

4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 19014-4:2020
ISO 19014-4:2020(E)
4.2 Planning

A plan shall be developed to define the relationship between the individual phases of the software

development and the related artifacts.

Appropriate methods and measures from Table 3 through Table 9 shall be selected for software

development according to the machine performance level required (MPLr).

The MPLr of the system may be achieved by adding, in parallel, two systems of a lower performance

level. When adding in parallel (according to ISO 19014-2), the software can be developed in each system

to the lower MPLr requirements. This is only allowable when there are no common cause failures

between the two systems.

The suitability of the selected methods or measures to the application shall be justified and shall be

made at the beginning of each planned development phase. For a particular application, the appropriate

combination of methods or measures shall be stated during development planning. Methods or

measures not listed in Table 3 through Table 9 may be used.
Figure 1 — Software development V-model

Figure 1 is a representation of one possible design method (V-model). Any organized, proven

development process that meets the requirements of this document may be used for the software

development.

When selecting methods and measures, in addition to manual coding, model-based development may

be applied where the source code is automatically generated from models.

With each method or measure in the tables, there is a different level of provision for each performance

level. Table 1 indicates the requir
...

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