Postal services - Address databases - Part 1: Components of postal addresses

This UPU standard provides a dictionary of the possible ) components of postal addresses, together with examples of and constraints on their use.
The standard defines three hierarchical levels of postal address component:
-   segments, such as addressee specification, which correspond to major logical portions of a postal address.
-   constructs, such as organisation identification, which group elements within segments into units which are meaningful for human interpretation;
-   elements, such as organisation name or legal status, which correspond to the lowest level of constructs, i.e., those which are not themselves made up of subordinate elements, though they may be sub-divided for technical purposes
To cover multiple occurrences and locations of elements in an address, and to be able where necessary to work with sub-divisions of element content, the standard defines a fourth level:
-   element sub-types, such as door type or door indicator, representing parts of conceptual elements, such as door, for database storage or to facilitate presentation, or representing multiple instances of conceptual elements for use in defining address element structures or templates
NOTE   The underlying point is that elements are conceptual whereas sub-types are defined to meet technical needs such as template construction, rendition requirements, accurate representation of address instances, and matching to postal database fields
The standard further provides a methodology for the specification of postal address templates, which stipulate how a postal address is to be written, including the order in which postal address elements are to appear, required and optional elements, and the presentation or rendition of the elements, subject to constraints on the space available for that task. Languages suitable for human comprehension and computer processing of postal address templates are defined and described.
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Postalische Dienstleistungen - Adressdatenbanken - Teil 1: Bestandteile der postalischen Anschrift

Diese UPU-Norm ist ein Nachschlagewerk der möglichen ) Bestandteile der postalischen Anschriften mit Beispielen und Nutzungsbeschränkungen.
In der Norm sind drei Ebenen von Bestandteilen, aus denen postalische Anschriften bestehen, festgelegt:
-   Segmente, wie die Empfängerspezifizierung, die die wesentlichen logischen Anteile einer postalischen Anschrift ausmachen;
-   Aufbauten, wie die Kennzeichnung einer Organisation, die Elemente in Einheiten zusammenfassen, die die Interpretation für Menschen erleichtern;
-   Elemente, wie der Name der Organisation oder der Rechtsstatus, die der niedrigsten Bestandteilebene von Aufbauten entsprechen, d. h., die selbst nicht aus untergeordneten Elementen zusammengesetzt worden sind, obwohl sie zu technischen Zwecken unterteilt werden können.
Um mehrfaches Vorkommen von Elementen sowie deren Vorkommen an mehreren Stellen in einer Anschrift Rechnung zu tragen, und um gegebenenfalls mit Unterteilungen von Elementinhalten umgehen zu können, legt die Norm eine vierte Ebene fest:
-   Elementbestandteile, wie zum Beispiel Türtyp oder Türindikator, die Teile von Begriffen wie Tür darstellen, für die Speicherung in Datenbanken oder um die Abbildung zu erleichtern oder um mehrere Instanzen von Begriffselementen zur Festlegung von Strukturen oder Templates für Anschriftenelemente darzustellen.
ANMERKUNG   Elemente sind begrifflicher Natur, während Bestandteile aus technischen Gründen festgelegt werden, wie zum Aufbau eines Templates, damit sie zu Ausgabeformaten, zur fehlerfreien Darstellung von einzelnen Anschriften und in Datenfelder postalischer Datenbanken passen.

Services postaux - Bases de données d'adresse - Partie 1: Composants des adresses postales

La présente Norme fournit un dictionnaire des composants possibles 5) des adresses postales ainsi que des
exemples d’utilisation et les contraintes associées.
La présente norme définit trois niveaux hiérarchiques d’un composant d’adresse postale :
⎯ les segments, comme la spécification du destinataire, qui correspondent aux principales parties
logiques d'une adresse postale ;
⎯ les constructions, comme l'identification de l'organisme, qui regroupent des éléments dans des
segments en unités plus signifiantes pour l'interprétation humaine ;
⎯ les éléments, comme le nom d'organisme ou le statut juridique, qui correspondent au niveau le plus
bas des constructions, c'est-à-dire ceux qui ne sont pas eux-mêmes constitués de sous-éléments, bien
qu'ils puissent être subdivisés pour des raisons techniques.
Pour prendre en compte la possibilité de multiples occurrences et de multiples emplacements des éléments
dans une adresse ainsi que pour pouvoir utiliser des subdivisions du contenu de l'élément lorsque cela est
nécessaire, la norme définit un quatrième niveau :
⎯ les sous-types d'éléments, comme le type de porte ou l'indicateur de porte, représentant des parties
d’éléments conceptuels, comme une porte, pour le stockage en base de données ou pour faciliter la
présentation, ou représentant de multiples instances d'éléments conceptuels utilisées pour définir des
structures ou des modèles d'éléments d'adresse.
NOTE L'idée sous-jacente est que les éléments sont de nature conceptuelle alors que les sous-types sont définis à
des fins techniques comme la construction de modèle, les exigences de rendu, la représentation exacte des instances
d'une adresse et la mise en correspondance avec des champs de bases de données postales.
La présente norme fournit en outre une méthodologie de spécification de modèles d'adresses postales, qui
stipule comment une adresse postale doit être écrite, y compris l'ordre dans lequel les éléments d'adresse
postale doivent apparaître, les éléments obligatoires et optionnels et la présentation ou le rendu des
éléments, soumis à des contraintes sur l'espace disponible pour cette tâche. Les langages appropriés pour la
compréhension humaine et le traitement informatique des modèles d'adresses postales sont définis et décrits.
Elle définit également un certain nombre de termes utiles, comme adresse de distribution, adresse de
réexpédition, destinataire intermédiaire et initiateur du courrier. Par ce dictionnaire normatif des
composants d’adresses postales, la présente Norme devrait largement faciliter la description formelle des
représentations d’adresses réelles et la définition des procédures de correspondance entre ces
représentations.

Poštne storitve - Baze naslovov - 1. del: Sestavni deli poštnih naslovov

Ta standard zagotavlja slovar mogočih sestavnih delov poštnih naslovov, skupaj s primeri in omejitvami njihove uporabe. Ta standard določa tri hierarhične ravni sestavnih delov poštnih naslovov: segmente, kot je specifikacija naslovnika, ki ustrezajo glavnim logičnim delom poštnega naslova; konstrukte, kot je identifikacija organizacije, ki elemente v segmentih uvrščajo v skupine, ki so smiselne za človeško interpretacijo; elemente, kot je ime organizacije ali pravni status, ki ustrezajo najnižji ravni konstruktov, tj. tisti, ki sami niso sestavljeni iz podrejenih elementov, čeprav se lahko nadalje razdelijo za tehnične namene. Da bi se zajeli večkratno pojavljanje in lokacije elementov v naslovu in da bi lahko, kjer je to potrebno, delali z nadaljnjo razdelitvijo vsebine elementa, standard določa četrto raven: podvrste elementa, kot so vrsta vrat ali indikator vrat, ki predstavljajo dele konceptualnih elementov, kot so vrata za shranjevanje podatkovne baze, ali da se omogoči predstavitev, ali predstavljajo večkratne primere konceptualnih elementov za uporabo pri določanju predlog ali struktur elementov naslova.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Public Enquiry End Date
04-Aug-2010
Publication Date
12-Sep-2011
Withdrawal Date
08-Jan-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
09-Jan-2018
Due Date
01-Feb-2018
Completion Date
09-Jan-2018

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Poštne storitve - Baze naslovov - 1. del: Sestavni deli poštnih naslovovPostalische Dienstleistungen - Adressdatenbanken - Teil 1: Bestandteile der postalischen AnschriftServices postaux - Bases de données d'adresse - Partie 1: Composants des adresses postalesPostal services - Address databases - Part 1: Components of postal addresses03.240Poštne storitvePostal servicesICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 14142-1:2011SIST EN 14142-1:2011en01-oktober-2011SIST EN 14142-1:2011SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 14142-1:20041DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 14142-1:2011
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 14142-1
August 2011 ICS 03.240 Supersedes EN 14142-1:2003English Version
Postal services - Address databases - Part 1: Components of postal addresses

Services postaux - Bases de données d'adresse -Partie 1: Composants des adresses postales

Postalische Dienstleistungen - Adressdatenbanken -Teil 1: Bestandteile der postalischen Anschrift This European Standard was approved by CEN on 18 June 2011.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2011 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 14142-1:2011: ESIST EN 14142-1:2011

EN 14142-1:2011 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................51Scope ......................................................................................................................................................62Normative references ............................................................................................................................73Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................74Symbols and abbreviations ............................................................................................................... 135Postal address components .............................................................................................................. 136Element and element sub-type codes .............................................................................................. 307Postal address templates .................................................................................................................. 328Postal address rendition instructions .............................................................................................. 33Annex A (normative)

prEN 14142-1 Conceptual Hierarchy ........................................................................ 34Annex B (normative)

Postal Address Template Languages ...................................................................... 45Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 57 SIST EN 14142-1:2011

EN 14142-1:2011 (E) 3 Foreword This document (EN 14142-1:2011) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 331 “Postal Services”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN. This document shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by February 2012, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by February 2012. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document supersedes EN 14142-1:2003. NOTE This document has been prepared by experts coming from CEN/TC 331 and UPU, under the framework of the Memorandum of Understanding between the UPU and CEN. This document (EN 14142-1:2011), is the CEN equivalent of UPU1) standard S42-6 Part A. It may be amended only after prior consultation, between CEN/TC 331 and the UPU Standards Board, in accordance with the Memorandum of Understanding between CEN and the UPU. The UPU’s contribution to the document was made, by the UPU Standards Board2) and its sub-groups, in accordance with the rules given in Part V of the "General information on UPU standards". EN 14142-1:2011 is based on UPU S42-6 Part A "International postal address components and templates — Part A: Conceptual hierarchy and template languages" [1]. This document is the equivalent to Part A of a two-part UPU Standard, S42: International postal address components and templates. S42 was originally published as a single part standard covering the definition of address components and postal address templates with examples, but has been split into two parts in order to separate the general aspects which apply to all countries and which can be expected to remain stable from the specific aspects which apply to each country considered in itself and conventions adopted by the working group which may be modified in the light of further experience. For example, the conceptual hierarchy of segments, constructs, elements and element sub-types, code tables, and the definition of the template languages will be found in EN 14142-1:2011, while the specific natural language and XML templates, rendition instructions, mapping conventions, and presentation guidelines for each country are included in CEN/TR 14142-2:2010.

1) The Universal Postal Union (UPU) is the specialized institution of the United Nations that regulates the universal postal service. The postal services of its 189 member countries form the largest physical distribution network in the world. Some 5 million postal employees working in over 660 000 post offices all over the world handle an annual total of 425 billion letters-post items in the domestic service and almost 6,7 billion in the international service. Some 4,5 billion parcels are sent by post annually. Keeping pace with the changing communications market, posts are increasingly using new communication and information technologies to move beyond what is traditionally regarded as their core postal business. They are meeting higher customer expectations with an expanded range of products and value-added services. 2) The UPU's Standards Board develops and maintains a growing number of standards to improve the exchange of postal-related information between posts, and promotes the compatibility of UPU and international postal initiatives. It works closely with posts, customers, suppliers and other partners, including various international organizations. The Standards Board ensures that coherent standards are developed in areas such as electronic data interchange (EDI), mail encoding, postal forms and meters. UPU standards are published in accordance with the rules given in Part VII of the General information on UPU standards, which may be freely downloaded from the UPU world-wide web site (www.upu.int). SIST EN 14142-1:2011

EN 14142-1:2011 (E) 4 EN 14142-1:2011 contains a revised element list with several elements added or deleted, and defines an expanded roster of element sub-types in order to account for addresses from countries around the world that are either represented with templates defined in EN 14142-1:2011 or have been provided to the UPU as sample addresses. Many of these sample addresses can be found on the UPU web site, though from time to time that site is updated with changes and new examples. As part of the work of the Addressing Project Group, the Web site addresses will be mapped according to the UPU element list, including element sub-types, from EN 14142-1:2011, using the mapping conventions detailed in CEN/TR 14142-2:2010. CEN/TR 14142-2:2010 describes the address templates for each country, i.e. the specific way an address is formatted in each country, indicating in particular the order in which the various elements appear. The address templates are supplemented by rendition instructions, specifying how elements are to be rendered for printing.3)

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

3) The Brazilian postcode, for example, is saved in the format 99999999 in a database. However, in an address, the postcode should be printed in the format 99999–999. The rendition instructions therefore state that the Brazilian postcode is printed with a dash between the 5th and 6th digits. SIST EN 14142-1:2011

EN 14142-1:2011 (E) 5 Introduction The postal service provides letter, package and parcel delivery4) on a global and universal basis, without the need for recipients to enter into explicit service contracts. Postal addresses, which combine private recipient information with publicly known delivery point data, provide the mechanism through which mailers specify the intended recipient and the means by which the postal operator can fulfil its delivery commitment. This document deals with physical postal addresses and not with others like email addresses. Traditionally, postal operators have been highly flexible with regard to the manner in which postal items can be addressed: any form and content of address was acceptable as long as it permitted sufficiently unambiguous determination of the delivery point. Even today, many postal services pride themselves on their ability, using staff intelligence and local demographic knowledge, to deliver postal items carrying incomplete or unusual address representations. However, increasing volumes and labour cost rates mean that automation became not only economic, but also essential a long time ago. As a result, it has become more and more vital to ensure that the vast majority of postal items are addressed in a way which can be processed automatically, without risk of misinterpretation. Today, the vast majority of postal items carry printed addresses which are extracted from computer databases. Such databases need to be maintained in the face of population mobility, creation and suppression of delivery points and changes in their specification such as renaming of streets, renumbering of properties, etc. Moreover, there is a growing tendency for companies to exchange or trade address data and, in the context of the European Single Market, for companies in one country to hold address data of organisations and individuals in other countries, which might use different approaches to the structuring of printed addresses. In this context, the UPU Postal Operations Council's POST*Code Project Team charged its sub-project team 2 to develop a standard, covering the definition of address components and postal address templates. This standard, International Postal Address Components and Templates, is the result of this development.

4) Terms in bold are defined either in Clause 3, Terms and Definitions or Clause 5, Postal Address Components. SIST EN 14142-1:2011

EN 14142-1:2011 (E) 6 1 Scope This standard provides a dictionary of the possible5) components of postal addresses, together with examples of and constraints on their use. This standard This standard defines three hierarchical levels of postal address component:  segments, such as addressee specification, which correspond to major logical portions of a postal address;  constructs, such as organisation identification, which group elements within segments into units which are meaningful for human interpretation;  elements, such as organisation name or legal status, which correspond to the lowest level of constructs, i.e. those which are not themselves made up of subordinate elements, though they may be sub-divided for technical purposes. To cover multiple occurrences and locations of elements in an address, and to be able where necessary to work with sub-divisions of element content, the standard defines a fourth level:  element sub-types, such as door type or door indicator, representing parts of conceptual elements, such as door, for database storage or to facilitate presentation, or representing multiple instances of conceptual elements for use in defining address element structures or templates. NOTE The underlying point is that elements are conceptual whereas sub-types are defined to meet technical needs such as template construction, rendition requirements, accurate representation of address instances, and matching to postal database fields. This standard further provides a methodology for the specification of postal address templates, which stipulate how a postal address is to be written, including the order in which postal address elements are to appear, required and optional elements, and the presentation or rendition of the elements, subject to constraints on the space available for that task. Languages suitable for human comprehension and computer processing of postal address templates are defined and described.

It also defines a number of useful terms, such as delivery address, forwarding address, mailee and mail originator. By providing a standard dictionary of postal address components, this standard is expected to greatly facilitate the formal description of actual address representations and the definition of procedures for mapping between them. In practice, many address representations, whether in computer databases, in electronic messages or in printed or written form, combine several of the postal address components defined herein into single fields or lines.6) Considerable intelligence may be required in mapping between different representations, particularly where these are subject to a degree of ambiguity.7)

5) Note that an individual postal address, or a class of postal addresses (such as the addresses used in a given country) may require only a subset of the possible components. For example, Irish postal addresses do not at this time include postcodes. 6)

Note that practical databases (and even printed addresses) may also combine postal address components, as defined herein, with other relevant data. For example, a company's customer database may include a customer reference or identification number along with each customer's address. Such additional data are not considered, for the purpose of this standard, as part of the address, but they obviously need to be taken into account in the design of the database and the applications which use it. 7)

For example, in the individual name John Smith, it is reasonably evident that Smith is the individual's surname and that John is a given name. But James Joyce is rather more ambiguous: does this represent Mr. Joyce, with given name James, or Ms James, with given name Joyce? SIST EN 14142-1:2011

EN 14142-1:2011 (E) 7 This standard does not specify the length or value range of components.

This standard does not cover the topic of data protection. Users of this standard are nevertheless reminded that the storage and exchange of personal data are subject to legislation in many countries. This standard may be applied only to the extent that this is compliant with such legislation. 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN ISO 3166–1, Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions — Part 1: Country codes (ISO 3166-1:2006) UPU Standards Glossary 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions in the UPU Standards Glossary and the following additions and exceptions apply. NOTE This clause of the standard defines a number of general terms and concepts which are referred to in this standard. This clause does not include definitions of individual postal address components, which are separately defined in Clause 5. 3.1 address see postal address 3.2 addressee party who is the intended ultimate recipient of a postal item NOTE 1 The addressee may be explicitly defined as part of the postal address, or may be implicit. For example, in certain countries, omission of addressee information is taken as implying that delivery is to be to an individual or legal entity having legal access to the delivery point. NOTE 2 An address may contain multiple addressee specifications. For example, Mr. or Mrs. Smith specifies that the addressee is either one of two individuals, whilst Mr. Jones and Mrs. Smith denotes that the addressee is a group of two individuals. See also addressee role descriptor. NOTE 3 The use made by the postal operator of addressee and mailee data might be dependent on the postal service applicable to the postal item. For some services, such as registered mail, the postal operator’s responsibility might include ensuring that the addressee, or a duly authorised representative, acknowledges receipt of the postal item. In other cases, addressee data could be purely informative or used by the postal operator only for consistency checking and/or for the activation of forwarding services. In still other cases, it might be used for sorting or sequencing purposes prior to delivery (e.g. in the case of business mail being pre-sequenced by department or individual company official). NOTE 4 When the addressee is explicitly defined (see NOTE 1), there is always one addressee in a syntactically correct postal address, whereas the mailee information does not have to be present. In some countries, the addressee may be an abstraction such as "Postal Customer". 3.3 component see postal address component SIST EN 14142-1:2011

EN 14142-1:2011 (E) 8 3.4 construct see postal address construct 3.5 delivery postal process in which a postal item leaves the responsibility of the postal operator through being handed over to, or left for collection by, the addressee, the mailee or an authorised representative, or deposited in a private letter box accessible to one or other of these NOTE Except in the case of special services, for which the addressee or mailee is required to acknowledge receipt, delivery does not necessarily guarantee that the postal item actually reaches the addressee or mailee. In particular, where postal items are left for collection or deposited in a private letterbox, other persons might have access to them, either legally or otherwise. 3.6 delivery address postal address specified by the mailer to which the postal operator is requested to deliver the postal item NOTE 1 The delivery address may in certain circumstances, e.g. unaddressed mail, not actually be represented on the postal item. In this case, the delivery address is determined by the postal operator in accordance with an agreement between the operator and the mailer. NOTE 2 The postal item might not actually be delivered to the requested delivery address. For example, in the case of forwarding, delivery takes place at the forwarding address. 3.7 delivery point physical location recognised by a postal operator as a valid location at which delivery of a postal item may occur 3.8 element see postal address element 3.9 forwarding address postal address, specified by the addressee or mailee of a postal item, to which the postal operator is requested to deliver the postal item, in place of delivering it to the delivery address NOTE 1 Not all postal items can be forwarded, as for some postal services the mailer might require the return of the postal item if it cannot be delivered at the delivery address. NOTE 2 Forwarding addresses can be permanent, e.g. in case of relocation of the addressee, or temporary. They may also involve the holding of mail for collection by the addressee or the mailee (see poste restante). 3.10 mail originator party responsible for originating the content of a postal item NOTE The mail originator can be thought of as the initiator of the postal item. Mail production, finishing, submission and payment processes may be performed by the mail originator, but may equally be performed by other parties. In particular, the mail originator:  does not necessarily determine the delivery address (e.g. unaddressed mail, or mail which is addressed by a mail-house);  does not necessarily produce (print, fold, insert into envelopes, etc.) the mail;  can be distinct from the mail submitter; SIST EN 14142-1:2011

EN 14142-1:2011 (E) 9  might not pay for the (complete) service (Freepost, Business Reply, COD, under-franking, etc.);  can be distinct from the party to which the postal item is to be returned in case of non-delivery. See mailer 3.11 mail recipient individual who actually receives a postal item at delivery, or who first accesses the postal item if it is left for collection NOTE The mail recipient should normally be the addressee, the mailee or an authorised representative of one of these two. However, this might not always be the case, e.g. if the postal item is left for collection in a location to which third parties have access; if the addressee/mailee has moved without leaving forwarding instructions, or if the addressee or mailee specification was ambiguous and was, as a result, misinterpreted by the postal operator. 3.12 mail submitter party responsible for induction of a postal item into the postal system NOTE The mail submitter may be, but is not necessarily, the same party as the mail originator. 3.13 mailee party designated in a postal address as having responsibility for ensuring that postal items, delivered or handed over by the postal operator at the delivery address, reach their addressee NOTE 1 Unlike addressee specification, mailee specification is never implicit: if a postal address does not contain a mailee specification, then there is no mailee. NOTE 2 Notwithstanding NOTE 1, the mailee may be designated explicitly by use of a role descriptor, or designated implicitly with no role descriptor. NOTE 3 As is the case for addressee, the information in a particular mailee specification might be ambiguous. 3.14 mailer party who carries out one or more of the processes involved in creating, producing, finishing, inducting and paying the postage due for a postal item NOTE Many processes are involved in the production and mailing of postal items. These include:  initiation;  content production, which might be separated into parts produced by several different parties (e.g. inserts might be produced separately from covering letters);  finishing, including assembly of the content and its packaging (e.g. placing in an envelope, or wrapping) for mailing purposes;  addressing;  induction into the postal system;  payment. These processes may be performed by one party, or may be split between different parties, each fulfilling a particular role or combination of roles. Where it is necessary to distinguish between such roles, they are referred to by separate terms, in particular mail originator, mail submitter and payer; where such distinction is not necessary, mailer is used as a generic term. SIST EN 14142-1:2011

EN 14142-1:2011 (E) 10 3.15 party one or more natural and/or legal persons and/or organisations without legal personality that act(s) as a single entity for the purpose of participation in a transaction associated with a postal item 3.16 payer party responsible for payment to the postal operator of the postage due in respect of a postal item NOTE 1 This term is not used in the present document, but is included for consistency with other specifications relating to the interface between mailers and postal operators. 3.17 postal address set of information which, for a postal item, allows the unambiguous determination of an actual or potential delivery point, usually combined with the specification of an addressee and/or a mailee see delivery address, forwarding address, return address. NOTE 1 The components of postal addresses are defined in Clause 5. NOTE 2 Postal addresses can be ambiguous, incorrect or non-existing. See also syntactically correct postal address, valid postal address. 3.18 postal address component collective term for postal address elements, postal address constructs and postal address segments, as defined in this standard

NOTE Clause 5 of this standard defines the postal address components which may occur in an actual postal address. It should be noted that not all components are necessarily used in a specific instance or class of postal addresses. 3.19 postal address construct combination of postal address elements which together form a logical portion of a postal address NOTE 1 Some constructs are defined hierarchically. That is, a construct may comprise a logical grouping of postal address elements, a logical grouping of lower level constructs, or a combination of elements and lower level constructs. NOTE 2 5.3 of this standard defines the constructs which may occur in a postal address. It should be noted that not all constructs are necessarily used in a specific instance or class of postal addresses. see postal address component, postal address segment 3.20 postal address element basic entity of a postal address that has a well-defined conceptual meaning and representation and has significance for customer or postal processing purposes NOTE

A thoroughfare name which may comprise one or more words is an example of a postal address construct, but that does not imply that the individual words of which it is comprised are also constructs. For example, with Pine Grove Avenue, there are at most two postal address constructs. So Pine Grove might be considered as a postal address element, the thoroughfare name. On the other hand, it is part of a larger thoroughfare construct that includes thoroughfare type and thoroughfare qualifier. These entities can precede or follow the thoroughfare name. This makes it helpful to have separate placeholders for each possible sequential ordering of components in designing postal address templates, and since the meaning of an element is independent of the position, this shows the need for element sub-types alongside elements.

So is thoroughfare name an element sub-type, an element, or a larger construct made up of elements? EN 14142-1 approaches this by defining those components needed to represent instances or parts of constructs as element sub-types. SIST EN 14142-1:2011

EN 14142-1:2011 (E) 11 Following this, the elements are the lowest level constructs remaining. As a result, some elements have one or more levels of sub-types, while others have none. The remaining components above the element level are the higher level constructs and segments. Alternate representations of information that have a distinct function are given the status of elements, which conforms with the above definition of postal address element. An example would be country name and EN ISO 3166-1 country code, which are separate elements.

On the segment level, though not the construct level, it is possible to replicate a group of elements and have them recognized in the templates. This provides a way to solve certain problems in designing address database, such as multiple addressees at one address, or multiple addresses for one addressee. Leaving aside the cases of representations and replication, EN 14142-1:2011 handles multiplicity and subdivision of elements by defining element sub-types. It uses two levels of sub-type in the notation, one for instances and one for parts. Instances can be levels, positions, or occurrences, and parts can be physical or logical. This approach keeps the number of postal address elements limited. Elements should have meaning in a general rather than only a specialized postal context, while this is not always the case with element sub-types, particularly those representing parts of elements. Some cases could be decided either way, but this approach results in combining some previously defined elements, including the components of thoroughfare and the components of delivery service identifier, into single elements, while leaving others such as surname prefix and name qualifier to retain their status as elements. 5.4 of this standard defines the elements which may occur in a postal address. It should be noted that not all elements are necessarily used in a specific instance or class of postal a

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