Nanotechnologies - Vocabulary - Part 8: Nanomanufacturing processes (ISO/TS 80004-8:2020)

This document defines terms related to nanomanufacturing processes in the field of nanotechnologies.
All the process terms in this document are relevant to nanomanufacturing, however, many of the listed
processes are not exclusively relevant to the nanoscale. Terms that are not exclusive are noted within
the definitions. Depending on controllable conditions, such processes can result in material features at
the nanoscale or, alternatively, at larger scales.
There are many other terms that name tools, components, materials, systems control methods or
metrology methods associated with nanomanufacturing that are beyond the scope of this document.
Terms and definitions from other parts of the ISO/TS 80004 series are reproduced in Clause 3 for
context and better understanding.

Nanotechnologien - Fachwörterverzeichnis - Teil 8: Industrieller Nanoherstellungsprozess (ISO/TS 80004-8:2020)

Dieses Dokument legt Begriffe zu industriellen Nanoherstellungsprozessen auf dem Gebiet der Nanotechnologien fest.
Alle in diesem Dokument enthaltenen prozessbezogenen Begriffe sind für die industrielle Nanoherstellung von Bedeutung, viele der aufgeführten Prozesse jedoch sind nicht ausschließlich auf den Nanomaßstab anwendbar. Begriffe, die nicht in dieser Weise exklusiv sind, sind in den Definitionen als solche gekennzeichnet. In Abhängigkeit von regelbaren Bedingungen können derartige Prozesse zu Materialeigenschaften im Nanomaßstab oder alternativ auch in größeren Maßstäben führen.
Es gibt im Zusammenhang mit der industriellen Nanoherstellung viele weitere Begriffe, die Werkzeuge, Teile, Werkstoffe, Verfahren zur Systemkontrolle oder Messtechnik-Verfahren bezeichnen, die aber nicht Gegenstand des Anwendungsbereiches dieses Dokumentes sind.
Um den Zusammenhang zu verdeutlichen und für ein besseres Verständnis zu sorgen, werden in Abschnitt 3 Begriffe aus anderen Teilen der Reihe ISO/TS 80004 wiedergegeben.

Nanotechnologies - Vocabulaire - Partie 8: Processus de nanofabrication (ISO/TS 80004-8:2020)

Nanotehnologije - Slovar - 8. del: Procesi nanoproizvodnje (ISO/TS 80004-8:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
24-Sep-2020
Publication Date
13-Dec-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
10-Dec-2020
Due Date
14-Feb-2021
Completion Date
14-Dec-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2021
01-februar-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2015
Nanotehnologije - Slovar - 8. del: Procesi nanoproizvodnje (ISO/TS 80004-8:2020)

Nanotechnologies - Vocabulary - Part 8: Nanomanufacturing processes (ISO/TS 80004-

8:2020)
Nanotechnologien - Fachwörterverzeichnis - Teil 8: Industrieller
Nanoherstellungsprozess (ISO/TS 80004-8:2020)

Nanotechnologies - Vocabulaire - Partie 8: Processus de nanofabrication (ISO/TS 80004

-8:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2020
ICS:
01.040.07 Naravoslovne in uporabne Natural and applied sciences
vede (Slovarji) (Vocabularies)
07.120 Nanotehnologije Nanotechnologies
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2021
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2021
CEN ISO/TS 80004-8
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
December 2020
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
ICS 01.040.07; 07.120 Supersedes CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2015
English Version
Nanotechnologies - Vocabulary - Part 8:
Nanomanufacturing processes (ISO/TS 80004-8:2020)

Nanotechnologies - Vocabulaire - Partie 8: Processus Nanotechnologien - Fachwörterverzeichnis - Teil 8:

de nanofabrication (ISO/TS 80004-8:2020) Industrieller Nanoherstellungsprozess (ISO/TS 80004-

8:2020)

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 26 October 2020 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to

submit their comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS

available promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in

parallel to the CEN/TS) until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 229

"Nanotechnologies" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 352 “Nanotechnologies” the

secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2015.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO/TS 80004-8:2020 has been approved by CEN as CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2020 without any

modification.
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2021
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2021
TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 80004-8
Second edition
2020-11
Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary —
Part 8:
Nanomanufacturing processes
Nanotechnologies — Vocabulaire —
Partie 8: Processus de nanofabrication
Reference number
ISO/TS 80004-8:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2021
ISO/TS 80004-8:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 80004-8:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Terms related to general aspects ........................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 Terms related to directed assembly ................................................................................................................................................. 4

6 Terms related to self-assembly processes ................................................................................................................................. 5

7 Terms related to synthesis ......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.1 Gas process phase — Physical methods ........................................................................................................................... 6

7.2 Gas process phase — Chemical methods ......................................................................................................................... 7

7.2.1 Flame synthesis processes ...................................................................................................................................... 7

7.2.2 Other terms .......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.3 Liquid process phase — Physical methods .................................................................................................................... 8

7.4 Liquid process phase — Chemical methods .................................................................................................................. 9

7.5 Solid process phase — Physical methods .....................................................................................................................10

7.6 Solid process phase — Chemical methods ..................................................................................................................12

8 Terms related to fabrication .................................................................................................................................................................12

8.1 Nanopatterning lithography .....................................................................................................................................................12

8.2 Deposition processes ......................................................................................................................................................................16

8.3 Etching processes ..............................................................................................................................................................................18

8.4 Printing and coating ........................................................................................................................................................................21

Annex A (informative) Identification of output resulting from defined synthesis processes ................22

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................25

Index .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................26

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared jointly by Technical Committee ISO/TC 229, Nanotechnologies, and

Technical Committee IEC/TC 113, Nanotechnology for electrotechnical products and systems, in

collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/

TC 352, Nanotechnologies, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and

CEN (Vienna Agreement). The draft was circulated for voting to the national bodies of both ISO and IEC.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/TS 80004-8:2013), which has been

technically revised throughout.
A list of all parts in the ISO/TS 80004 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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Introduction

Nanomanufacturing is the essential bridge between the discoveries of the nanosciences and real-world

nanotechnology products.

Advancing nanotechnology from the laboratory into volume production ultimately requires careful

study of manufacturing process issues including product design, reliability and quality, process design

and control, shop floor operations, supply chain management, workplace safety and health practices

during the production, use and handling of nanomaterials. Nanomanufacturing encompasses directed

self-assembly and assembly techniques, synthetic methodologies, and fabrication processes such as

lithography and biological processes. Nanomanufacturing also includes bottom-up directed assembly,

top-down high-resolution processing, molecular systems engineering and hierarchical integration with

larger scale systems. As dimensional scales of materials and molecular systems approach the nanoscale,

the conventional rules governing their behaviour may change significantly. As such, the behaviour of a

final product is enabled by the collective performance of its nanoscale building blocks.

Biological process terms are not included in this second edition of the nanomanufacturing vocabulary,

but considering the rapid development of the field, it is expected that terms in this important area will

be added in a future update to this document or in companion documents in the ISO/TS 80004 series.

This could include both the processing of biological nanomaterials and the use of biological processes to

manufacture materials at the nanoscale.

Similarly, additional terms from other developing areas of nanomanufacturing, including composite

manufacturing, roll-to-roll manufacturing and others, will be included in future documents.

There is a distinction between the terms “nanomanufacturing” and “nanofabrication”.

Nanomanufacturing encompasses a broader range of processes than does nanofabrication.

Nanomanufacturing encompasses all nanofabrication techniques and also techniques associated with

materials processing and chemical synthesis.

This document provides an introduction to processes used in the early stages of the nanomanufacturing

value chain, namely the intentional synthesis, generation or control of nanomaterials, including

fabrication steps in the nanoscale. The nanomaterials that result from these manufacturing processes

are distributed in commerce where, for example, they may be further purified, be compatabilized to

be dispersed in mixtures or composite matrices, or serve as integrated components of systems and

devices. The nanomanufacturing value chain is, in actuality, a large and diverse group of commercial

value chains that stretch across these sectors:

— the semiconductor industry (where the push to create smaller, faster, and more efficient

microprocessors heralded the creation of circuitry less than 100 nm in size);
— electronics and telecommunications;
— aerospace, defence and national security;
— energy and automotive;
— plastics and ceramics;
— forest and paper products;
— food and food packaging;
— pharmaceuticals, biomedicine and biotechnology;
— environmental remediation;
— clothing and personal care.

There are thousands of tonnes of nanomaterials on the market with end-use applications in several of

these sectors, such as carbon black and fumed silica. Nanomaterials that are rationally designed with

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/TS 80004-8:2020(E)

specific purpose are expected to radically change the landscape in areas such as biotechnology, water

purification and energy development.

The majority of clauses in this document are organized by process type. In Clause 6, the logic of

placement is as follows: in the step before the particle is made, the material itself is in a gas/liquid/

solid phase. The phase of the substrate or carrier in the process does not drive the categorization of the

process. As an example, consider iron particles that are catalysts in a process by which you seed oil with

iron particles, the oil vaporizes and condenses forming carbon particles on the iron particles. What

vaporizes is the oil, and therefore it is a gas phase process. Nanotubes grow from the gas phase, starting

with catalyst particles that react with the gas phase to grow the nanotubes, thus this is characterized

as a gas process. Indication of whether synthesis processes are used to manufacture nano-objects,

nanoparticles or both is provided in Annex A.

In addition, Annex A identifies the processes that are also applicable to macroscopic materials and are

therefore not exclusively relevant to nanomanufacturing. A common understanding of the terminology

used in practical applications will enable communities of practice in nanomanufacturing and will

advance nanomanufacturing strength worldwide. Extending the understanding of terms across the

existing manufacturing infrastructure will serve to bridge the transition between the innovations of

the research laboratory and the economic viability of nanotechnologies.
[11]

For informative terms supportive of nanomanufacturing terminology, see BSI PAS 135 .

This document belongs to a multi-part vocabulary covering the different aspects of nanotechnologies.

vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 80004-8:2020(E)
Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary —
Part 8:
Nanomanufacturing processes
1 Scope

This document defines terms related to nanomanufacturing processes in the field of nanotechnologies.

All the process terms in this document are relevant to nanomanufacturing, however, many of the listed

processes are not exclusively relevant to the nanoscale. Terms that are not exclusive are noted within

the definitions. Depending on controllable conditions, such processes can result in material features at

the nanoscale or, alternatively, at larger scales.

There are many other terms that name tools, components, materials, systems control methods or

metrology methods associated with nanomanufacturing that are beyond the scope of this document.

Terms and definitions from other parts of the ISO/TS 80004 series are reproduced in Clause 3 for

context and better understanding.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
carbon nanotube
CNT
nanotube (3.9) composed of carbon

Note 1 to entry: Carbon nanotubes usually consist of curved graphene layers, including single-walled carbon

nanotubes and multi-walled carbon nanotubes.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-3:2010, 4.3]
3.2
nanocomposite

solid comprising a mixture of two or more phase-separated materials, one or more being nanophase

Note 1 to entry: Gaseous nanophases are excluded (they are covered by nanoporous material).

Note 2 to entry: Materials with nanoscale (3.7) phases formed by precipitation alone are not considered to be

nanocomposite materials.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-4:2011, 3.2]
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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3.3
nanofibre

nano-object (3.5) with two external dimensions in the nanoscale (3.7) and the third dimension

significantly larger

Note 1 to entry: The largest external dimension is not necessarily in the nanoscale.

Note 2 to entry: The terms “nanofibril” and “nanofilament” can also be used.

Note 3 to entry: The largest external dimension is not necessarily in the nanoscale.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 4.5, modified — Note 3 to entry has been replaced.]

3.4
nanomaterial

material with any external dimension in the nanoscale (3.7) or having internal structure or surface

structure in the nanoscale

Note 1 to entry: This generic term is inclusive of nano-object (3.5) and nanostructured material (3.8).

Note 2 to entry: See also engineered nanomaterial, manufactured nanomaterial and incidental nanomaterial.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.4]
3.5
nano-object

discrete piece of material with one, two or three external dimensions in the nanoscale (3.7)

Note 1 to entry: Generic term for all discrete nano-objects.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.5, modified — Note 1 to entry has been replaced.]

3.6
nanoparticle

nano-object (3.5) with all external dimensions in the nanoscale (3.7) where the lengths of the longest

and the shortest axes of the nano-object do not differ significantly

Note 1 to entry: If the dimensions differ significantly (typically by more than three times), terms such as

“nanofibre” or “nanoplate” may be preferred to the term “nanoparticle”.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 4.4]
3.7
nanoscale
length range from approximately from 1 nm to 100 nm

Note 1 to entry: Properties that are not extrapolations from a larger size are predominately exhibited in this

length range.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.1]
3.8
nanostructured material
material having internal or surface structure in the nanoscale (3.7)

Note 1 to entry: If external dimensions are in the nanoscale, the term nano-object (3.5) is recommended.

Note 2 to entry: Adapted from ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.7.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-4:2011, 2.11]
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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3.9
nanotube
hollow nanofibre (3.3)
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 4.8]
4 Terms related to general aspects
4.1
bottom-up nanomanufacturing

processes that use small fundamental units in the nanoscale (3.7) to create larger, functionally rich

structures or assemblies
4.2
co-deposition
simultaneous deposition of two or more source materials

Note 1 to entry: Common methods include vacuum, thermal spray (8.2.16), electrodeposition (8.2.7) and liquid

suspension deposition techniques.
4.3
comminution
crushing or grinding (7.5.6) for particle size reduction
Note 1 to entry: The term is not exclusive to nanomanufacturing.
4.4
directed assembly

guided formation of a structure guided by external intervention using components at the nanoscale

(3.7) that can, in principle, have any defined pattern
4.5
directed self-assembly

self-assembly (4.11) influenced by external intervention to produce a preferred structure, orientation

or pattern

Note 1 to entry: Examples of external intervention include an applied field, a chemical or structural template,

chemical gradient and fluidic flow.
4.6
lithography
reproducible creation of a pattern

Note 1 to entry: The pattern can be formed in a radiation sensitive material or by transfer of material onto a

substrate by one of the following: transfer, printing or direct writing.
4.7
multilayer deposition

alternating deposition of two or more source materials to produce a composite layer structure

4.8
nanofabrication

ensemble of activities to intentionally create nano-objects (3.5) or nanostructured materials (3.8)

4.9
nanomanufacturing

intentional synthesis, generation or control of nanomaterials (3.4), or fabrication steps in the nanoscale

(3.7), for commercial purposes
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.11]
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4.10
nanomanufacturing process

ensemble of activities to intentionally synthesize, generate or control nanomaterials (3.4), or fabrication

steps in the nanoscale (3.7), for commercial purposes
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.12]
4.11
self-assembly

autonomous action by which components organize themselves into patterns or structures

4.12
surface functionalization

chemical process that acts upon a surface to impart a selected chemical or physical functionality

4.13
top-down nanomanufacturing
processes that create structures at the nanoscale (3.7) from macroscopic objects
5 Terms related to directed assembly
5.1
electrostatic driven assembly

use of electrostatic force to orient or place nanoscale (3.7) elements in a device or material

5.2
fluidic alignment
use of fluid flow to orient nanoscale (3.7) elements in a device or material
5.3
hierarchical assembly

use of more than one type of nanomanufacturing (4.9) process to control a structure at multiple

length scales
5.4
magnetic driven assembly

use of magnetic force to assemble elements/particles at the nanoscale (3.7) in a desired pattern or

configuration
5.5
shape-based assembly

use of geometric shapes of nanoparticles (3.6) to achieve a desired pattern or configuration

5.6
supramolecular assembly

use of non-covalent chemical bonding to assemble molecules or nanoparticles (3.6) with surface ligands

5.7
surface-to-surface transfer

transfer of nanoparticles (3.6) or structures from the surface of one substrate, on which they have been

deposited, grown or assembled, onto another substrate
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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6 Terms related to self-assembly processes
6.1
colloidal crystallization

sedimentation of nanoparticles (3.6) from a solution containing nano-objects (3.5) and their aggregates

and agglomerates (NOAAs) to form a solid, which consists of an organization of particles to form an

array of repeating units

Note 1 to entry: The term is not exclusive to nanomanufacturing but has been adapted to apply to

nanomanufacturing processes.
6.2
graphioepitaxy
directed self-assembly (4.5) using nanoscale (3.7) topographical features

Note 1 to entry: Includes the growth of a thin layer on the surface and growth of an additional layer on top of a

substrate, which has the same or different structure as the underlying crystal.

Note 2 to entry: The term is not exclusive to nanomanufacturing but has been adapted to apply to

nanomanufacturing processes.
6.3
ion beam surface reconstruction

use of an accelerated ion beam to cause surface modification, which can be at the nanoscale (3.7)

Note 1 to entry: The term is not exclusive to nanomanufacturing but has been adapted to apply to

nanomanufacturing processes.
6.4
Langmuir-Blodgett film formation
creation of a film at an air-liquid interface
6.5
Langmuir-Blodgett film transfer

transfer of a Langmuir-Blodgett film formed at an air-liquid interface onto a solid surface by dipping a

solid substrate into the supporting liquid
6.6
layer-by-layer deposition
LbL deposition

electrostatic process of depositing polyelectrolytes with opposite charges laid over or under another

6.7
modulated elemental reactant method

use of vapour deposited precursors with regions of controlled composition as a template for the

formation of interleaved layers of two or more structures
Note 1 to entry: The term is not exclusive to nanomanufacturing.
6.8
self-assembled monolayer formation
SAM formation

spontaneous formation of an organized molecular layer on a solid surface from solution or the vapour

phase, driven by molecule-to-surface bonding and weak intermolecular interaction
6.9
Stranski-Krastanow growth

mode of thin film growth which starts as a two-dimensional Frank-van der Merve growth (6.10), and

then continues as a three-dimensional Volmer-Weber growth (6.11)
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6.10
Frank-van der Merve growth
layer-by-layer film growth

Note 1 to entry: Frank-van der Merve growth corresponds to the situation when atoms of a film have a stronger

connection with a substrate than with each other. As a result, the next layer growth could not begin until the

previous is completed.

Note 2 to entry: Frank-van der Merve growth is strictly a two-dimensional growth mode.

6.11
Volmer-Weber growth
island film growth
Note 1 to entry: Volmer-Weber growth mode corresponds to the situat
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TS FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2020
01-september-2020
Nanotehnologije - Slovar - 8. del: Procesi nanoproizvodnje (ISO/PRF TS 80004-
8:2020)
Nanotechnologies - Vocabulary - Part 8: Nanomanufacturing processes (ISO/PRF TS
80004-8:2020)
Nanotechnologien - Fachwörterverzeichnis - Teil 8: Industrieller
Nanoherstellungsprozess (ISO/PRF TS 80004-8:2020)

Nanotechnologies - Vocabulaire - Partie 8: Processus de nanofabrication (ISO/PRF TS

80004-8:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-8
ICS:
01.040.07 Naravoslovne in uporabne Natural and applied sciences
vede (Slovarji) (Vocabularies)
07.120 Nanotehnologije Nanotechnologies
kSIST-TS FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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kSIST-TS FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2020
TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 80004-8
Second edition
Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary —
Part 8:
Nanomanufacturing processes
Nanotechnologies — Vocabulaire —
Partie 8: Processus de nanofabrication
Member bodies are requested to consult relevant national interests in IEC/TC
113 before casting their ballot to the e-Balloting application.
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/TS 80004-8:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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kSIST-TS FprCEN ISO/TS 80004-8:2020
ISO/TS 80004-8:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

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Published in Switzerland
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Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions from other parts of the ISO/TS 80004 series ............................................................1

4 Terms related to general aspects ........................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 Terms related to directed assembly ................................................................................................................................................. 4

6 Terms related to self-assembly processes ................................................................................................................................. 5

7 Terms related to synthesis ......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.1 Gas process phase — Physical methods ........................................................................................................................... 6

7.2 Gas process phase — Chemical methods ......................................................................................................................... 7

7.2.1 Flame synthesis processes ...................................................................................................................................... 7

7.2.2 Other terms .......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.3 Liquid process phase — Physical methods .................................................................................................................... 8

7.4 Liquid process phase — Chemical methods .................................................................................................................. 9

7.5 Solid process phase — Physical methods .....................................................................................................................10

7.6 Solid process phase — Chemical methods ..................................................................................................................12

8 Terms related to fabrication .................................................................................................................................................................12

8.1 Nanopatterning lithography .....................................................................................................................................................12

8.2 Deposition processes ......................................................................................................................................................................16

8.3 Etching processes ..............................................................................................................................................................................18

8.4 Printing and coating ........................................................................................................................................................................21

Annex A (informative) Identification of output resulting from defined synthesis processes ................22

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................25

Index .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................26

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 229, Nanotechnologies, in collaboration

with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 352,

Nanotechnologies, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN

(Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/TS 80004-8:2013), which has been

technically revised throughout.
A list of all parts in the ISO/TS 80004 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
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Introduction

Nanomanufacturing is the essential bridge between the discoveries of the nanosciences and real-world

nanotechnology products.

Advancing nanotechnology from the laboratory into volume production ultimately requires careful

study of manufacturing process issues including product design, reliability and quality, process design

and control, shop floor operations, supply chain management, workplace safety and health practices

during the production, use and handling of nanomaterials. Nanomanufacturing encompasses directed

self-assembly and assembly techniques, synthetic methodologies, and fabrication processes such as

lithography and biological processes. Nanomanufacturing also includes bottom-up directed assembly,

top-down high-resolution processing, molecular systems engineering and hierarchical integration with

larger scale systems. As dimensional scales of materials and molecular systems approach the nanoscale,

the conventional rules governing their behaviour may change significantly. As such, the behaviour of a

final product is enabled by the collective performance of its nanoscale building blocks.

Biological process terms are not included in this second edition of the nanomanufacturing vocabulary,

but considering the rapid development of the field, it is expected that terms in this important area will

be added in a future update to this document or in companion documents in the ISO/TS 80004 series.

This could include both the processing of biological nanomaterials and the use of biological processes to

manufacture materials at the nanoscale.

Similarly, additional terms from other developing areas of nanomanufacturing, including composite

manufacturing, roll-to-roll manufacturing and others, will be included in future documents.

There is a distinction between the terms “nanomanufacturing” and “nanofabrication”.

Nanomanufacturing encompasses a broader range of processes than does nanofabrication.

Nanomanufacturing encompasses all nanofabrication techniques and also techniques associated with

materials processing and chemical synthesis.

This document provides an introduction to processes used in the early stages of the nanomanufacturing

value chain, namely the intentional synthesis, generation or control of nanomaterials, including

fabrication steps in the nanoscale. The nanomaterials that result from these manufacturing processes

are distributed in commerce where, for example, they may be further purified, be compatabilized to

be dispersed in mixtures or composite matrices, or serve as integrated components of systems and

devices. The nanomanufacturing value chain is, in actuality, a large and diverse group of commercial

value chains that stretch across these sectors:

— the semiconductor industry (where the push to create smaller, faster, and more efficient

microprocessors heralded the creation of circuitry less than 100 nm in size);
— electronics and telecommunications;
— aerospace, defence and national security;
— energy and automotive;
— plastics and ceramics;
— forest and paper products;
— food and food packaging;
— pharmaceuticals, biomedicine and biotechnology;
— environmental remediation;
— clothing and personal care.

There are thousands of tonnes of nanomaterials on the market with end-use applications in several of

these sectors, such as carbon black and fumed silica. Nanomaterials that are rationally designed with

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specific purpose are expected to radically change the landscape in areas such as biotechnology, water

purification and energy development.

The majority of clauses in this document are organized by process type. In Clause 6, the logic of

placement is as follows: in the step before the particle is made, the material itself is in a gas/liquid/

solid phase. The phase of the substrate or carrier in the process does not drive the categorization of the

process. As an example, consider iron particles that are catalysts in a process by which you seed oil with

iron particles, the oil vaporizes and condenses forming carbon particles on the iron particles. What

vaporizes is the oil, and therefore it is a gas phase process. Nanotubes grow from the gas phase, starting

with catalyst particles that react with the gas phase to grow the nanotubes, thus this is characterized

as a gas process. Indication of whether synthesis processes are used to manufacture nano-objects,

nanoparticles or both is provided in Annex A.

In addition, Annex A identifies the processes that are also applicable to macroscopic materials and are

therefore not exclusively relevant to nanomanufacturing. A common understanding of the terminology

used in practical applications will enable communities of practice in nanomanufacturing and will

advance nanomanufacturing strength worldwide. Extending the understanding of terms across the

existing manufacturing infrastructure will serve to bridge the transition between the innovations of

the research laboratory and the economic viability of nanotechnologies.
[11]

For informative terms supportive of nanomanufacturing terminology, see BSI PAS 135 .

This document belongs to a multi-part vocabulary covering the different aspects of nanotechnologies.

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 80004-8:2020(E)
Nanotechnologies — Vocabulary —
Part 8:
Nanomanufacturing processes
1 Scope

This document defines terms related to nanomanufacturing processes in the field of nanotechnologies.

All the process terms in this document are relevant to nanomanufacturing, however, many of the listed

processes are not exclusively relevant to the nanoscale. Terms that are not exclusive are noted within

the definitions. Depending on controllable conditions, such processes can result in material features at

the nanoscale or, alternatively, at larger scales.

There are many other terms that name tools, components, materials, systems control methods or

metrology methods associated with nanomanufacturing that are beyond the scope of this document.

Terms and definitions from other parts of the ISO/TS 80004 series are reproduced in Clause 3 for

context and better understanding.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions from other parts of the ISO/TS 80004 series

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
carbon nanotube
CNT
nanotube (3.9) composed of carbon

Note 1 to entry: Carbon nanotubes usually consist of curved graphene layers, including single-walled carbon

nanotubes and multi-walled carbon nanotubes.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-3:2010, 4.3]
3.2
nanocomposite

solid comprising a mixture of two or more phase-separated materials, one or more being nanophase

Note 1 to entry: Gaseous nanophases are excluded (they are covered by nanoporous material).

Note 2 to entry: Materials with nanoscale (3.7) phases formed by precipitation alone are not considered to be

nanocomposite materials.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-4:2011, 3.2]
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3.3
nanofibre

nano-object (3.5) with two external dimensions in the nanoscale (3.7) and the third dimension

significantly larger

Note 1 to entry: The largest external dimension is not necessarily in the nanoscale.

Note 2 to entry: The terms “nanofibril” and “nanofilament” can also be used.

Note 3 to entry: The largest external dimension is not necessarily in the nanoscale.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 4.5, modified — Note 3 to entry has been replaced.]

3.4
nanomaterial

material with any external dimension in the nanoscale (3.7) or having internal structure or surface

structure in the nanoscale

Note 1 to entry: This generic term is inclusive of nano-object (3.5) and nanostructured material (3.8).

Note 2 to entry: See also engineered nanomaterial, manufactured nanomaterial and incidental nanomaterial.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.4]
3.5
nano-object

discrete piece of material with one, two or three external dimensions in the nanoscale (3.7)

Note 1 to entry: Generic term for all discrete nano-objects.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.5, modified — Note 1 to entry has been replaced.]

3.6
nanoparticle

nano-object (3.5) with all external dimensions in the nanoscale (3.7) where the lengths of the longest

and the shortest axes of the nano-object do not differ significantly

Note 1 to entry: If the dimensions differ significantly (typically by more than three times), terms such as

“nanofibre” or “nanoplate” may be preferred to the term “nanoparticle”.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 4.4]
3.7
nanoscale
length range from approximately from 1 nm to 100 nm

Note 1 to entry: Properties that are not extrapolations from a larger size are predominately exhibited in this

length range.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.1]
3.8
nanostructured material
material having internal or surface structure in the nanoscale (3.7)

Note 1 to entry: If external dimensions are in the nanoscale, the term nano-object (3.5) is recommended.

Note 2 to entry: Adapted from ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.7.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-4:2011, 2.11]
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3.9
nanotube
hollow nanofibre (3.3)
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-2:2015, 4.8]
4 Terms related to general aspects
4.1
bottom-up nanomanufacturing

processes that use small fundamental units in the nanoscale (3.7) to create larger, functionally rich

structures or assemblies
4.2
co-deposition
simultaneous deposition of two or more source materials

Note 1 to entry: Common methods include vacuum, thermal spray (8.2.16), electrodeposition (8.2.7) and liquid

suspension deposition techniques.
4.3
comminution
crushing or grinding (7.5.6) for particle size reduction
Note 1 to entry: The term is not exclusive to nanomanufacturing.
4.4
directed assembly

guided formation of a structure guided by external intervention using components at the nanoscale

(3.7) that can, in principle, have any defined pattern
4.5
directed self-assembly

self-assembly (4.11) influenced by external intervention to produce a preferred structure, orientation

or pattern

Note 1 to entry: Examples of external intervention include an applied field, a chemical or structural template,

chemical gradient and fluidic flow.
4.6
lithography
reproducible creation of a pattern

Note 1 to entry: The pattern can be formed in a radiation sensitive material or by transfer of material onto a

substrate by one of the following: transfer, printing or direct writing.
4.7
multilayer deposition

alternating deposition of two or more source materials to produce a composite layer structure

4.8
nanofabrication

ensemble of activities to intentionally create nano-objects (3.5) or nanostructured materials (3.8)

4.9
nanomanufacturing

intentional synthesis, generation or control of nanomaterials (3.4), or fabrication steps in the nanoscale

(3.7), for commercial purposes
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.11]
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4.10
nanomanufacturing process

ensemble of activities to intentionally synthesize, generate or control nanomaterials (3.4), or fabrication

steps in the nanoscale (3.7), for commercial purposes
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.12]
4.11
self-assembly

autonomous action by which components organize themselves into patterns or structures

4.12
surface functionalization

chemical process that acts upon a surface to impart a selected chemical or physical functionality

4.13
top-down nanomanufacturing
processes that create structures at the nanoscale (3.7) from macroscopic objects
5 Terms related to directed assembly
5.1
electrostatic driven assembly

use of electrostatic force to orient or place nanoscale (3.7) elements in a device or material

5.2
fluidic alignment
use of fluid flow to orient nanoscale (3.7) elements in a device or material
5.3
hierarchical assembly

use of more than one type of nanomanufacturing (4.9) process to control a structure at multiple

length scales
5.4
magnetic driven assembly

use of magnetic force to assemble elements/particles at the nanoscale (3.7) in a desired pattern or

configuration
5.5
shape-based assembly

use of geometric shapes of nanoparticles (3.6) to achieve a desired pattern or configuration

5.6
supramolecular assembly

use of non-covalent chemical bonding to assemble molecules or nanoparticles (3.6) with surface ligands

5.7
surface-to-surface transfer

transfer of nanoparticles (3.6) or structures from the surface of one substrate, on which they have been

deposited, grown or assembled, onto another substrate
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6 Terms related to self-assembly processes
6.1
colloidal crystallization

sedimentation of nanoparticles (3.6) from a solution containing nano-objects (3.5) and their aggregates

and agglomerates (NOAAs) to form a solid, which consists of an organization of particles to form an

array of repeating units

Note 1 to entry: The term is not exclusive to nanomanufacturing but has been adapted to apply to

nanomanufacturing processes.
6.2
graphioepitaxy
directed self-assembly (4.5) using nanoscale (3.7) topographical features

Note 1 to entry: Includes the growth of a thin layer on the surface and growth of an additional layer on top of a

substrate, which has the same or different structure as the underlying crystal.

Note 2 to entry: The term is not exclusive to nanomanufacturing but has been adapted to apply to

nanomanufacturing processes.
6.3
ion beam surface reconstruction

use of an accelerated ion beam to cause surface modification, which can be at the nanoscale (3.7)

Note 1 to entry: The term is not exclusive to nanomanufacturing but has been adapted to apply to

nanomanufacturing processes.
6.4
Langmuir-Blodgett film formation
creation of a film at an air-liquid interface
6.5
Langmuir-Blodgett film transfer

transfer of a Langmuir-Blodgett film formed at an air-liquid interface onto a solid surface by dipping a

solid substrate into the supporting liquid
6.6
layer-by-layer deposition
LbL deposition

electrostatic process of depositing polyelectrolytes with opposite charges laid over or under another

6.7
modulated elemental reactant method

use of vapour deposited precursors with regions of controlled composition as a template for the

formation of interleaved layers of two or more structures
Note 1 to entry: The term is not exclusive to nanomanufacturing.
6.8
self-assembled monolayer formation
SAM formation

spontaneous formation of an organized molecular layer on a solid surface from solution or the vapour

phase, driven by molecule-to-surface bonding and weak intermolecular interaction
6.9
Stranski-Krastanow growth

mode of thin film growth which starts as a two-dimensional Frank-van der Merve growth (6.10), and

then continues as a three-dimensional Volmer-Weber growth (6.11)
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6.10
Frank-van der Merve growth
layer-by-layer film growth

Note 1 to entry: Frank-van der Merve growth corresponds to the situation when atoms of a film have a stronger

connection with a substrate than with each other. As a result, the next layer growth could not begin until the

previous is completed.

Note 2 to entry: Frank-van der Merve growth is strictly a two-dimensional growth mode.

6.11
Volmer-Weber growth
island film growth

Note 1 to entry: Volmer-Weber growth mode corresponds to the situation when atoms of a film have a stronger

connection with each other than with a substrate.

Note 2 to entry: Frank-van der Merve growth (6.10) is a three-dimensional growth mode.

7 Terms related to synthesis
7.1 Gas process phase — Physical methods
7.1.1
cold gas dynamic spraying

process in which either nanoscale (3.7) crystalline powders or conventional powders are fluidized and

then consolidated onto a surface coating in a high velocity inert gas

Note 1 to entry: The term is not exclusive to nanomanufacturing but has been adapted to apply to

nanomanufacturing processes.
7.1.2
electro-spark deposition

pulsed-arc micro-welding process using short-duration, high-current electrical pulses to deposit an

electrode material onto a substrate
7.1.3
electron-beam evaporation

process in which a material is vaporized by incidence of high energy electrons in high or ultra-high

vacuum conditions for subsequent deposition onto a substrate
7.1.4
wire electric explosion

formation of nanoparticles (3.6) by applying an electrical pulse of high current density through a wire

causing it to volatilize with subsequent recondensation
7.1.5
freeze drying

dehydration or solvent removal by rapid cooling immediately followed by vacuum sublimation

Note 1 to entry: The term is not exclusive to nanomanufacturing.
7.1.6
spray drying

method in which a dry powder is produced from a liquid or slurry by rapid evaporation (8.2.10) of the

liquid from droplets formed by nebulization, via contact with a hot gas or equivalent

Note 1 to entry: The term is not exclusive to nanomanufacturing.
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7.1.7
supercritical expansion

precipitation of nano-objects (3.5) resulting from an expansion of a solution above its critical

temperature and critical pressure through a spray device

Note 1 to entry: The term is not exclusive to nanomanufacturing but has been adapted to apply to

nanomanufacturing processes.
7.1.8
suspension combustion thermal spray

thermal spray (8.2.16) in which the precursor is introduced to a plasma jet in the form of a liquid

suspension
7.1.9
vaporization
process of assisted change of phase from solid or liquid to gas or plasma phases

Note 1 to entry: The vaporization process is often used to consequently deposit the vaporized material on a

target substrate. The whole process is known as physical vapour deposition (PVD) (8.2.14).

−6 −9

Note 2 to entry: High vacuum PVD is usually performed at pressures in the range of 10 to 10 Torr. Ultra-high

vacuum (UHV) PVD is the deposition performed at pressures below 10 Torr.
Note 3 to entry: The term is not exclusive to nanomanufacturing.
7.2 Gas process phase — Chemical methods
7.2.1 Flame synthesis processes
7.2.1.1
liquid precursor combustion

creation of solid product, typically a nanomaterial (3.4) in aggregate form, via exothermic reaction of a

feedstock solution with an oxidizer

Note 1 to entry: The term is not exclusive to nanomanufacturing but has been adapted to apply to

nanomanufacturing processes.
7.2.1.2
plasma spray

creation of a jet of solid product, typically a nanomaterial (3.4) in aggregate form, from an ionized

gaseous source

Note 1 to entry: The term is not exclusive to nanomanufacturing but has been adapted to apply to

nanomanufacturing processes.
7.2.1.3
pyrogenesis

process using combustion or another heat source to produce solid product, typically a nanomaterial

(3.4) in aggregate form, facilitated by an aerosolized spray
Note 1 to entry: The term is not exclusive to
...

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