Conservation of Cultural Heritage - Characterization of mortars used in cultural heritage

This European Standard specifies a methodology for the characterization of mortars by using the most appropriate analytical techniques on samples taken from cultural heritage structures and objects.
This standard contains guidelines for the selection of methods to determine mineralogical, textural, physical, chemical and mechanical properties of mortars used in cultural heritage structures and objects. This information is used to define mortar typology and to evaluate the mortar condition with respect to its conservation as well as for understanding of the ongoing deterioration processes.

Erhaltung des kulturellen Erbes - Charakterisierung von in kulturellem Erbe verwendeten Mörteln

Diese Europäische Norm legt eine Vorgehensweise für die Charakterisierung von Mörteln fest, bei der die geeignetsten Analyseverfahren für Proben von Bauwerken und Objekten des kulturellen Erbes angewendet werden.
Diese Norm enthält Leitlinien für die Auswahl der Verfahren zur Bestimmung der mineralogischen, strukturellen, physikalischen, chemischen und mechanischen Eigenschaften von Mörteln, die in Bauwerken und Objekten des kulturellen Erbes verwendet wurden. Diese Informationen werden für die Festlegung der Mörteltypologie und für die Bewertung des Mörtelzustands in Hinblick auf dessen Konservierung sowie hinsichtlich des Verständnisses der ablaufenden Abbauprozesse verwendet.

Conservation du patrimoine culturel - Caractérisation des mortiers utilisés dans le patrimoine culturel

Le présent document spécifie une méthode pour la caractérisation des mortiers en utilisant les techniques d'analyse les plus appropriées sur des échantillons prélevés sur des structures et des biens appartenant au patrimoine culturel.
La présente norme contient des lignes directrices pour le choix des méthodes de détermination des propriétés minéralogiques, de texture, physiques, chimiques et mécaniques des mortiers utilisés dans les structures et les biens appartenant au patrimoine culturel. Ces informations sont utilisées pour définir la typologie du mortier et évaluer l'état du mortier en ce qui concerne sa conservation, ainsi que pour la compréhension des processus de détérioration en cours.

Ohranjanje kulturne dediščine - Značilnosti malt, ki se uporabljajo pri kulturni dediščini

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Jan-2018
Publication Date
14-May-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
12-May-2020
Due Date
17-Jul-2020
Completion Date
15-May-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 17187:2020
01-julij-2020
Ohranjanje kulturne dediščine - Značilnosti malt, ki se uporabljajo pri kulturni
dediščini

Conservation of Cultural Heritage - Characterization of mortars used in cultural heritage

Erhaltung des kulturellen Erbes - Charakterisierung von in kulturellem Erbe verwendeten

Mörteln

Conservation du patrimoine culturel - Caractérisation des mortiers utilisés dans le

patrimoine culturel
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 17187:2020
ICS:
91.100.10 Cement. Mavec. Apno. Malta Cement. Gypsum. Lime.
Mortar
97.195 Umetniški in obrtniški izdelki. Items of art and handicrafts.
Kulturne dobrine in kulturna Cultural property and
dediščina heritage
SIST EN 17187:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 17187:2020
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SIST EN 17187:2020
EN 17187
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
April 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 97.195
English Version
Conservation of Cultural Heritage - Characterization of
mortars used in cultural heritage

Conservation du patrimoine culturel - Caractérisation Erhaltung des kulturellen Erbes - Charakterisierung

des mortiers utilisés dans le patrimoine culturel von in kulturellem Erbe verwendeten Mörteln

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 24 February 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 17187:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 17187:2020
EN 17187:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ...................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Typology of mortars ....................................................................................................................................... 6

5 Preliminary operations ................................................................................................................................ 7

6 Methodology ..................................................................................................................................................... 8

7 Characterization report .............................................................................................................................. 13

Bibliography.................................................................................................................................................................. 15

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SIST EN 17187:2020
EN 17187:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 17187:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 346

“Conservation of Cultural Heritage”, the secretariat of which is held by UNI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2020, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by October 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 17187:2020
EN 17187:2020 (E)
Introduction

The characterization of mortars used in cultural heritage is an essential step to formulate a

conservation plan, in order to decide on appropriate remedial interventions, to achieve better working

practices, and technologies for restoration interventions including mortar replacement, reinstatement,

reintegration and stone repair. Many different types of mortars have been used in cultural heritage

structures and objects (for example hydraulic mortars, air lime mortars, pozzolanic, natural cements)

and, therefore, it is important that the typology of mortars is described and the characterization is

achieved through a consistent and uniform methodology. It should be remembered that mortar

characterization can also be carried out as part of the historical/documentation process.

This document provides cultural heritage professionals with a guidance for a common methodology for

the characterization of mortars used in cultural heritage. This information is used to define

mineralogical, petrographic, physical, chemical and mechanical properties of these materials.

The characterization of mortar used in cultural heritage is expected to be carried out and interpreted by

professionals experienced in the field of materials or conservation science and/or conservation/

restoration.

Where possible, existing standards are referred to and guidance provided where different specimens

are required and additional methods can be used. The characterization methods described are generally

destructive, however, non-destructive (NDT) methods are always preferable to destructive methods if

they can provide the required information.

Methods used for mortar analysis can vary depending upon the objectives of the work. All

investigations and analyses will be proportional to the significance of the building or artefact being

investigated, its condition and the likely extent or type of intervention.

In this document the term mortar is defined as in EN 16572, that is “material traditionally composed of

one or more (usually inorganic) binders, aggregates, water, possible additives and admixtures

combined to form a paste used in masonry for bedding, jointing and bonding, and for surface finishing

(plastering and rendering) of masonry units, which subsequently sets to form a stiff material”.

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SIST EN 17187:2020
EN 17187:2020 (E)
1 Scope

This document specifies a methodology for the characterization of mortars by using the most

appropriate analytical techniques on samples taken from cultural heritage structures and objects.

This document contains guidelines for the selection of methods to determine mineralogical, textural,

physical, chemical and mechanical properties of mortars used in cultural heritage structures and

objects. This information is used to define mortar typology and to evaluate the mortar condition with

respect to its conservation as well as for understanding of the ongoing deterioration processes.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 1015-12, Methods of test for mortar for masonry - Part 12: Determination of adhesive strength of

hardened rendering and plastering mortars on substrates

EN 1936, Natural stone test methods - Determination of real density and apparent density, and of total

and open porosity

EN 13755, Natural stone test methods - Determination of water absorption at atmospheric pressure

EN 15801, Conservation of cultural property - Test methods - Determination of water absorption by

capillarity

EN 15803, Conservation of cultural property - Test methods - Determination of water vapour permeability

(δp)

EN 15886, Conservation of cultural property - Test methods - Colour measurement of surfaces

EN 15898, Conservation of cultural heritage - Main general terms and definitions

EN 16085, Conservation of Cultural property - Methodology for sampling from materials of cultural

property - General rules

EN 16572, Conservation of cultural heritage - Glossary of technical terms concerning mortars for masonry,

renders and plasters used in cultural heritage
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 15898, EN 16085 and

EN 16572 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp/ui
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SIST EN 17187:2020
EN 17187:2020 (E)
4 Typology of mortars
4.1 Principal binders
a) clay material;
b) gypsum;
c) air lime;
d) natural hydraulic lime (NHL);
e) natural cement (Roman cement, Parker’s cement, etc.);
f) ordinary Portland cement (OPC);
g) organic.
NOTE Some mortars will be formed from a mixture of binders.
4.2 Principal aggregates
a) natural sediments – sand, etc.;
b) crushed rocks – calcitic, dolomitic, siliceous;
c) artificial materials.
4.3 Principal additives and admixtures
a) inorganic:
natural pozzolans – fine size cocciopesto, etc.
b) organic:
coal, ash, etc.;
resins – oils, waxes, etc.;
fibres – straw, bristles, hair, etc.
The relationship between the mortar components is shown in Figure 1.
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SIST EN 17187:2020
EN 17187:2020 (E)
Figure 1 — Typology of mortars – relationship between components

This figure can be used as a basis to describe the typology of mortars used in cultural heritage. It is

intended to cover most commonly found mortars. It is not exhaustive but the techniques described in

this document can be applied to most mortars.
5 Preliminary operations
5.1 Initial survey

An initial survey of the object, together with the objectives of the mortar characterization, and the

description of the context are essential for the selection of the analytical methodology. Where the object

is part of the immovable heritage a condition survey should be undertaken in accordance with

EN 16096 or if the object is part of the moveable heritage a condition report should be made in

accordance with EN 16095.

The condition report or survey should be supplemented by sufficient information to allow a preliminary

assessment of the existing mortars, their relative chronological position, and their condition. This

preliminary assessment should include: function, general mortar types (pointing mortar, repointing

mortar, repair mortar, bedding mortar, render, plaster, moulded or cast features, etc.), the macroscopic

characteristics, such as colour and texture, main visible components, structural aspects and apparent

condition.
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SIST EN 17187:2020
EN 17187:2020 (E)
5.2 Sampling

Sampling shall be undertaken in accordance with EN 16085. In all cases, the location, the orientation,

the number, the amount, the size and the shape of the specimens used should be documented in the test

report (see Clause 7). In accordance with the initial survey, it should be stated whether the mortar

specimen to be characterized is derived from sound or deteriorated part of the object. Undisturbed

samples should be labelled and then packaged and stored properly during transport in order to avoid

structural alterations.
6 Methodology
6.1 Selection of analytical methods

A flowchart to assist in the selection of analytical methods is given in Figure 2.

Key
Analytical techniques Results ––––- To be undertaken when possible

Figure 2 — Chemical, mineralogical and petrographic characterization of mortars: binder and

aggregate(s)
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SIST EN 17187:2020
EN 17187:2020 (E)
6.2 Macroscopic observations

The preliminary information obtained during the in situ macroscopic observations shall be confirmed

by a further examination of the specimens.
This examination enables an initial assessment of:
a) texture of the mortar (including porosity, etc.);

b) the aggregate (colour, distribution, approximate size, shape (where possible), etc.);

c) the binder (colour);
d) stratigraphy and chronology (if any);
e) cohesion/adhesion within mortar (layers/joints);
f) decay forms (if any);
g) residues of protection and/or aesthetic treatments;
h) other visible components (lumps, fibres, …).
In cases where it is expected that a hydraulic binder is present, the dep
...

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