This document specifies: a) A multi-pass filtration performance test under cyclic flow conditions with continuous contaminant injection for hydraulic fluid power filter elements. b) A procedure for determining the contaminant capacity, particulate removal and differential pressure characteristics. c) A test currently applicable to hydraulic fluid power filter elements that exhibit an average filtration ratio greater than or equal to 75 for particle sizes ≤25 µm(c), and a final test system reservoir gravimetric level of less than 200 mg/L. It is necessary to determine by validation the range of flow rates and the lower particle size limit that can be used in test facilities. d) A test using ISO12103-1 A3 medium test dust contaminant and a test fluid. This document provides a test procedure that yields reproducible test data for appraising the filtration performance of a hydraulic fluid power filter element without influence of electrostatic charge. This document is applicable to three test conditions: 1)   Base upstream gravimetric level of 3 mg/L. 2)   Base upstream gravimetric level of 10 mg/L. 3)   Base upstream gravimetric level of 15 mg/L.

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This document establishes methods to:
— validate equipment used to prepare secondary calibration suspensions for automatic particle counters;
— perform online secondary calibration of automatic particle counters;
— match two or more online particle counters, i.e. to count the same number of particles at a given size by two APCs associated on line;
— validate online particle counting systems with and without online dilution as used, for example, to measure the filtration efficiency of a hydraulic filter as described in the multipass filter test in ISO 16889.

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ISO 11171:2016 specifies procedures for the following:
a) primary particle-sizing calibration, sensor resolution and counting performance of automatic particle counters (APCs) for liquids capable of analysing bottle samples;
b) secondary particle-sizing calibration using suspensions verified with a primary calibrated APC;
c) establishing acceptable operation and performance limits;
d) verifying particle sensor performance using a truncated test dust;
e) determining coincidence and flow rate limits.

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This document establishes methods for: —  validating equipment used to prepare secondary calibration suspensions for automatic particle counters; —   performing online secondary calibration of automatic particle counters; —   matching two or more online particle counters, i.e. to count the same number of particles at a given size by two APCs associated online; —   validating online particle counting systems with and without online dilution as used, for example, to measure the filtration efficiency of a hydraulic filter as described in the multi-pass filter test in ISO 16889.

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This document describes a recommended method for the interpolation of particle concentration and filter Beta Ratio data when results are not otherwise available at the desired particle sizes. It is applicable for assessing conformance with existing fluid cleanliness and filter Beta Ratio specifications whereby the specification and actual test results are provided in different units of particle size, for example, the specification is in µm(c), but the particle counts or Beta Ratio data are in units of µm(b). This document is also applicable when particle sizes in specifications and available data use the same units of particle size, but do not correspond to exactly the same sizes, for example, when particle counts at 20 µm(c) are specified, but data was collected at 21 µm(c). This method allows interpolation to intermediate particle sizes within the range of existing data and does not permit extrapolation to particle sizes outside the range of available data.

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This document provides the background for ISO 11171:2020 and the use of µm(c) as the sole means of reporting particle size for APC particle count data. It also summarizes results of the international inter-laboratory study (ILS) of its reproducibility using SRM 2806d candidate material and suspensions of Reference Material (RM) 8632a. The ILS results provided the basis for certification of SRM 2806d used for primary calibration of APC. Their implications with respect to particle counting and filter testing are discussed in this document.

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This document specifies the code to be used in defining the quantity of solid particles in the fluid used in a given hydraulic fluid power system.

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This document specifies procedures for the following: a) primary particle-sizing calibration for particle sizes 1 µm(c) and larger, sensor resolution and counting performance of liquid automatic particle counters that are capable of analysing bottle samples; b) secondary particle-sizing calibration using suspensions verified with a primary calibrated APC; c) establishing acceptable operation and performance limits; d) verifying particle sensor performance using a test dust; e) determining coincidence and flow rate limits. This document is applicable for use with hydraulic fluids, aviation and diesel fuels, engine oil and other petroleum-based fluids. This document is not applicable to particle-sizing calibration using NIST SRM 2806b primary calibration suspensions.

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This document explains the use of the two acceptable methods of reporting particle size, µm(c) and µm(b), that are defined in ISO 11171:2016. It also explains the reasons for the existence of two alternative size reporting methods and its implications with respect to particle count and filter Beta Ratio data.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the particulate contamination level using the light extinction technique (also known as light blockage or light obscuration) either online or offline in containers. It also defines procedures for calibrating the instruments and verifying their correct operation both in the laboratory and in service. In general, the techniques described in this document are suitable for monitoring: — the general cleanliness level in hydraulic systems, — the progress in flushing operations, and — support equipment and test rigs. The use of this method is applicable to single-phase liquid systems only.

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This document specifies a bubble-point test method applicable to filter elements used in hydraulic fluid power systems. It can be used both to verify the fabrication integrity of a filter element (by checking the absence of bubbles) and to permit the localization of the largest pore of the filter element by determining the first bubble point. NOTE Verification of fabrication integrity is used to define the acceptability of the filter elements for further use or testing. The first bubble point is established through continuation of the fabrication integrity test. It is under no circumstances a functional characteristic of a filter element; in particular, it cannot be used to estimate filtration rating, efficiency or retention capacity and is intended to be used for information only. This document specifies a method to normalise fabrication integrity and bubble point data to a standard value of surface tension when test fluids other than 2-propanol are used.

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This document establishes methods to: — validate equipment used to prepare secondary calibration suspensions for automatic particle counters; — perform online secondary calibration of automatic particle counters; — match two or more online particle counters, i.e. to count the same number of particles at a given size by two APCs associated on line; — validate online particle counting systems with and without online dilution as used, for example, to measure the filtration efficiency of a hydraulic filter as described in the multipass filter test in ISO 16889.

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ISO 5782-1:2017 specifies which characteristics of compressed air filters are to be included in the supplier's literature. It also specifies product-marking requirements. ISO 5782-1:2017 is applicable to compressed air filters, constructed from light alloys (aluminium, etc.), zinc diecast alloys, brass, steel and plastic, with a rated pressure of up to 1 600 kPa (16 bar) and a maximum temperature of 80 °C, designed to remove solid and liquid contaminants from compressed air by mechanical means

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ISO 18237:2017 specifies: - test equipment, test circuit and a procedure for the evaluation of the water separation capabilities of a dehydrator; - a procedure for preparing test fluid; - a procedure for obtaining and analysing the test fluid samples. ISO 18237:2017 applies only to those dehydration units that can dry a hydraulic fluid to less than 20 % of the hydraulic fluid's water saturation level at the test temperature. ISO 18237:2017 provides a test procedure that yields reproducible results for dehydrator water removal performance so that the performance of candidate units is compared on the same basis using the same test fluid. This procedure can be used to test the dehydrator's capabilities on different types of hydraulic fluids at different conditions. Parts of the procedure might need to be changed to suit the hydraulic fluid's characteristics. For example, the testing of hydraulic fluids with high water solubility (many synthetic and fire-resistant fluids) needs higher concentrations of water at the start of the test; the testing of hydraulic fluids with zinc-based additives needs modifications to the Karl Fischer analysis procedure. However, comparison of performance can be made under the conditions defined in ISO 18237:2017.

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ISO 12669 specifies a method of determining the required cleanliness level of a hydraulic system, that is, the most appropriate fluid cleanliness level for an operating hydraulic system based upon the individual requirements of that system. It is applicable to systems where the level of fluid cleanliness is expressed in accordance with ISO 4406, although conversion to other contamination coding systems is possible. It is applicable to both high and low pressure fluid power systems and also lubrication systems. It does not include the effects of soft deformable particles that can be generated by thermal decomposition of the hydraulic fluid.

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This document specifies dimensions and performance requirements for external hex and internal hex
port plugs for use with ISO 6149-1 ports.
Port plugs in accordance with this document can be used at working pressures up to 63 MPa (630 bar1)).
The permissible working pressure depends upon the plug end size, materials, design, working
conditions, application, etc.
Conformance to the dimensional information in this document does not guarantee rated performance.
Each manufacturer is expected to perform testing according to the specification contained in this
document to assure that components comply with the performance ratings.
WARNING — The use of stud ends conforming to this document with ports conforming to the
relevant parts of ISO 1179, ISO 9974 and ISO 11926 could lead to a hazardous situation.

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ISO 4406:2017 specifies the code to be used in defining the quantity of solid particles in the fluid used in a given hydraulic fluid power system.

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ISO 3668:2017 specifies a procedure for evaluating differential pressure versus flow characteristics of hydraulic filters and constitutes a basis for agreement between the filter manufacturer and user. It also specifies a method for measurement of the differential pressure generated at different flow rates and viscosities by the relevant parts of a filter assembly, spin-on and any valves contained within the filter which are in the flow stream. The typical types of filter to be tested are as follows: Type 1: which are spin-on filters in which the replaceable unit does not include a filter head (it might or might not include the element by-pass valve); Type 2: which are spin-on filters in which the replaceable element is tested together with a filter head (it might or might not include the element by-pass valve); Type 3: which are filter assembly, usually of the replacement element type, that is the housing (head and bowl) and element.

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ISO 11171:2016 specifies procedures for the following: a) primary particle-sizing calibration, sensor resolution and counting performance of automatic particle counters (APCs) for liquids capable of analysing bottle samples; b) secondary particle-sizing calibration using suspensions verified with a primary calibrated APC; c) establishing acceptable operation and performance limits; d) verifying particle sensor performance using a truncated test dust; e) determining coincidence and flow rate limits.

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ISO 12829:2016 specifies methods for verifying the rated fatigue life and the rated static burst pressure of the pressure-containing envelope (i.e. the filter housing) of a spin-on hydraulic filter with a disposable filter element and a finite life. Because the service life of housings for these types of filters is relatively short, a rated fatigue life of 100 000 cycles is judged sufficient for typical industrial applications.

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ISO 3601-2:2016 specifies the housing (gland) dimensions for class A O-rings for general industrial applications conforming to ISO 3601-1, as well as housing dimensions for class B O-rings used on selected metric-dimensioned hardware, e.g. fluid power cylinder bores and piston rods. These O-rings are for use in general hydraulic and pneumatic applications without and with anti-extrusion rings (back-up rings). The dimensions of the O-rings (d1 and d2), size codes (SC) and tolerances conform to ISO 3601-1. Housing dimensions for the O-rings intended for aerospace applications that are specified in ISO 3601-1 are addressed in Annex A.

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This part of ISO 3601 contains the material specification of a selection of standard elastomeric materials
(rubber) for O-rings used in general industrial applications. It also indicates the ability of the materials
to satisfy many of the requirements associated with fluid power components.
Only materials which are in universal usage are specified; other compounds are available and can be used.
The required physical properties and test methods (including test specimen) should be agreed upon
between equipment manufacturer/user and O-ring manufacturer/supplier.

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This Technical Report discusses the impact of changes in International Standards for particle counting,
contamination control, and filter testing.
Liquid automatic particle counters (APCs) are used in monitoring contamination levels in hydraulic
fluids, to establish component and assembly cleanliness level specifications, and in determining filter
efficiencies and particle size ratings. As a result of the replacement of ISO 4402 with ISO 11171 (APC
calibration), the replacement of ISO 4572 with ISO 16889 (multi-pass filter test), and the publication
of ISO 11943 (online particle counter calibration), the quality and reliability of particle count and filter
test data have improved, increasing their usefulness to industry. However, the resultant redefinition of
particle sizes and the use of a new test dust affect how contamination levels and filter performance are
reported and interpreted.
NOTE The first editions of ISO 11171, ISO 16889 and ISO 11943 were published in 1999; all three of these
International Standards either have been, or are in the process of being, revised.

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This International Standard specifies the content of an inspection document that specifies both the
cleanliness requirement for the specified hydraulic fluid power component and the inspection method
to be used for evaluating its cleanliness level. In addition, guidelines for relevant extraction methods
and analysis methods are given.
Determination of what constitutes as an appropriate cleanliness level requirement for any particular
component is beyond the scope of this International Standard. ISO 12669 provides a method of
determining the required cleanliness of a hydraulic system. ISO TR 10686 provides a method of relating
the required cleanliness of components to the required cleanliness of the hydraulic system.
For the purposes of this International Standard, approved functional liquids are considered to be components.
This International Standard is applicable to the particulate contamination on the wetted surfaces and
volumes of any hydraulic fluid power system component. Appearance defects and liquid or gaseous
contamination are not covered by this International Standard.
This International Standard does not address safety problems that might arise from hazardous
materials, operations, and equipment associated with its use. The user of this International Standard is
responsible for establishing appropriate safety and health practices and determining the applicability
of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This International Standard specifies a method for verifying the end load rating of a hydraulic fluid
power filter element. It also verifies the ability of a hydraulic fluid power filter element to withstand the
designated axial loading imposed by installation and use.

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ISO 3723:2015 specifies a method for verifying the end load rating of a hydraulic fluid power filter element. It also verifies the ability of a hydraulic fluid power filter element to withstand the designated axial loading imposed by installation and use.

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ISO 3601-5:2015 contains the material specification of a selection of standard elastomeric materials (rubber) for O-rings used in general industrial applications. It also indicates the ability of the materials to satisfy many of the requirements associated with fluid power components. Only materials which are in universal usage are specified; other compounds are available and can be used. The required physical properties and test methods (including test specimen) should be agreed upon between equipment manufacturer/user and O-ring manufacturer/supplier.

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ISO 18413:2015 specifies the content of an inspection document that specifies both the cleanliness requirement for the specified hydraulic fluid power component and the inspection method to be used for evaluating its cleanliness level. In addition, guidelines for relevant extraction methods and analysis methods are given. Determination of what constitutes as an appropriate cleanliness level requirement for any particular component is beyond the scope of ISO 18413:2015. ISO 12669 provides a method of determining the required cleanliness of a hydraulic system. ISO TR 10686 provides a method of relating the required cleanliness of components to the required cleanliness of the hydraulic system. For the purposes of ISO 18413:2015, approved functional liquids are considered to be components. ISO 18413:2015 is applicable to the particulate contamination on the wetted surfaces and volumes of any hydraulic fluid power system component. Appearance defects and liquid or gaseous contamination are not covered by ISO 18413:2015. ISO 18413:2015 does not address safety problems that might arise from hazardous materials, operations, and equipment associated with its use. The user of ISO 18413:2015 is responsible for establishing appropriate safety and health practices and determining the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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ISO/TR 16386:2014 discusses the impact of changes in International Standards for particle counting, contamination control, and filter testing. Liquid automatic particle counters (APCs) are used in monitoring contamination levels in hydraulic fluids, to establish component and assembly cleanliness level specifications, and in determining filter efficiencies and particle size ratings. As a result of the replacement of ISO 4402 with ISO 11171 (APC calibration), the replacement of ISO 4572 with ISO 16889 (multi-pass filter test), and the publication of ISO 11943 (online particle counter calibration), the quality and reliability of particle count and filter test data have improved, increasing their usefulness to industry. However, the resultant redefinition of particle sizes and the use of a new test dust affect how contamination levels and filter performance are reported and interpreted. NOTE The first editions of ISO 11171, ISO 16889 and ISO 11943 were published in 1999; all three of these International Standards either have been, or are in the process of being, revised.

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ISO 16908:2014 specifies a test procedure to thermally condition a hydraulic filter element and simulate cold start, such as that which can be encountered in mobile machinery applications. It is intended to provide a procedure that yields reproducible results and can be used prior to other filter element performance tests, such as those specified in ISO 11170.

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This International Standard defines a sequence of tests for verifying filter elements. It can be used to check their hydraulic, mechanical and separation characteristics. This International Standard is not intended to qualify a filter for a particular duty or replicate conditions of service. This can only be done by a specific test protocol developed for the purpose, including actual conditions of use (e.g. the operating fluid). The procedure in this International Standard is applicable to individual fluids or types of fluids that have similar chemistry.

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ISO 16589 specifies seals utilizing sealing elements manufactured from suitably formulated compounds based on thermoplastic materials, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). They are considered suitable for use under low pressure conditions. This part of ISO 16589 specifies general performance tests which can be used for seal qualification purposes. Materials quality control, dynamic testing, and supplementary low temperature testing requirements are covered.

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ISO 16589 specifies seals utilizing sealing elements manufactured from suitably formulated compounds based on thermoplastic materials, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). They are considered suitable for use under low pressure conditions. This part of ISO 16589 shows seal types and examples. It also specifies the nominal dimensions and tolerance of the seals, shafts and housings, as well as a dimensional identification code.

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ISO 16589 specifies seals utilizing sealing elements manufactured from suitably formulated compounds based on thermoplastic materials, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). They are considered suitable for use under low pressure conditions. This part of ISO 16589 defines and classifies typical surface imperfections that could impair the function of the seals, and is intended as a convenience for purchasers and manufacturers in their discussions concerning the importance of these imperfections in different applications.

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ISO 16589 specifies seals utilizing sealing elements manufactured from suitably formulated compounds, based on thermoplastic materials, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). They are considered suitable for use under low pressure conditions. This part of ISO 16589 gives users of lip-type seals guidance on the careful storage and handling and proper installation of rotary shaft lip-type seals; attention is drawn to the hazards involved and ways of avoiding them are pointed out.

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ISO 16589 specifies seals utilising sealing elements manufactured from suitably formulated compounds, based on thermoplastic materials, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). They are considered suitable for use under low pressure conditions. This part of ISO 16589 establishes the appropriate vocabulary, where the terms and definitions given in ISO 5598 apply.

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ISO 11170:2013 defines a sequence of tests for verifying filter elements. It can be used to check their hydraulic, mechanical and separation characteristics. ISO 11170:2013 is not intended to qualify a filter for a particular duty or replicate conditions of service. This can only be done by a specific test protocol developed for the purpose, including actual conditions of use (e.g. the operating fluid). The procedure in ISO 11170:2013 is applicable to individual fluids or types of fluids that have similar chemistry.

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ISO 3601-1:2012 specifies the inside diameters, cross-sections, tolerances and designation codes for O-rings used in fluid power systems for general industrial and aerospace applications. The dimensions and tolerances specified in ISO 3601-1:2012 are suitable for any elastomeric material, provided that suitable tooling is available.

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ISO16431:2012 defines methods to measure the cleanliness of a fluid in an assembled hydraulic fluid power system, to verify a required system cleanliness upon release of the system from the production area, and if needed, to clean the system to the required cleanliness level. The clean-up procedure specified in ISO16431:2012 is not intended to replace proper system flushing procedures; see ISO 23309 for a system flushing procedure. Components and parts used in such systems should be clean prior to assembly; see ISO 18413 for guidance.

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ISO/TR 15640:2011 is applicable to contamination control principles for hydraulic fluid power systems and includes guidelines for the selection and application of hydraulic filters. Although control of non-particulate contamination, e.g. air, water and chemicals, is important, and is briefly discussed, the primary focus of ISO/TR 15640:2011 is the control of particulate contamination and the selection and application of filters for that function.

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ISO 16589-2:2011 establishes the vocabulary for seals utilizing sealing elements manufactured from suitably formulated compounds, based on thermoplastic materials, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) that are considered suitable for use under low-pressure conditions.

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ISO 16589 specifies seals utilizing sealing elements manufactured from suitably formulated compounds based on thermoplastic materials, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). They are considered suitable for use under low-pressure conditions. ISO 16589-5:2011 defines and classifies typical surface imperfections that could impair the function of the seals, and is intended as a convenience for purchasers and manufacturers in their discussions concerning the importance of these imperfections in different applications.

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ISO 16589 specifies seals utilizing sealing elements manufactured from suitably formulated compounds, based on thermoplastic materials, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). They are considered suitable for use under low-pressure conditions. ISO 16589-3:2011 gives users of lip-type seals guidance on the careful storage and handling and proper installation of rotary shaft lip-type seals; attention is drawn to the hazards involved and ways of avoiding them are pointed out.

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ISO 16589 specifies seals utilizing sealing elements manufactured from suitably formulated compounds based on thermoplastic materials, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). They are considered suitable for use under low-pressure conditions. ISO 16589-4:2011 specifies general performance tests which can be used for seal qualification purposes. Materials quality control, dynamic testing, and supplementary low-temperature testing requirements are covered.

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ISO 16589 specifies seals utilizing sealing elements manufactured from suitably formulated compounds based on thermoplastic materials, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). They are considered suitable for use under low-pressure conditions. ISO 16589-1:2011 shows seal types and examples. It also specifies the nominal dimensions and tolerance of the seals, shafts and housings, as well as a dimensional identification code.

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