Plastics - Thermoplastic stretch films for wrapping silage bales

This European Standard specifies the requirements for dimensional, mechanical, oxygen transmission rate and optical characteristics of stretch thermoplastic films for wrapping bales used for ensilaging of forage. It specifies a classification for solar reflectance of the films.
This European Standard specifies also test methods to check these requirements.
It specifies also test methods for the determination of the airtightness and oxygen permeability determined on a wrapped artificial bale.
This European Standard is applicable to white, black or coloured films based on polyolefin materials. It covers the width range from 250 mm up to 1 000 mm.
The performances of the stretch films in conformance with this European Standard are based on the use of at least six layers of films, pre-stretched at a ratio between 60 % and 70 % for round bales and a ratio of 55 % and 65 % for wrapping square bales.
This European Standard also gives guidance for storage of rolls and instructions for wrapping, storage of wrapped bales and for disposal of films.

Kunststoffe - Thermoplastische Stretchfolien zum Umwickeln von Silage-Ballen

Diese Europäische Norm legt die Anforderungen an Maße, mechanische Eigenschaften, Sauerstoffdurchlässig¬keitsrate und optische Charakteristiken von thermoplastischen Stretchfolien zur Umwicklung von Ballen, die zum Silieren von Futtermittel genutzt werden, fest. Sie spezifiziert eine Klassifizierung für den Solar¬reflexionsgrad der Folien.
Diese Europäische Norm legt außerdem Prüfverfahren zur Überprüfung dieser Anforderungen fest.
Außerdem legt sie Prüfverfahren für die Bestimmung der Luftdichtheit sowie der Sauerstoffdurchlässigkeit fest, die auf umwickelten künstlichen Ballen bestimmt wurden.
Diese Europäische Norm ist für weiße, schwarze und farbige Folien, die aus polyolefinen Werkstoffen bestehen, gültig. Sie umfasst den Breitenbereich von 250 mm bis zu 1 000 mm.
Die Funktionen von Stretchfolien in Übereinstimmung mit dieser Europäischen Norm basieren auf der Nutzung von mindestens sechs Folienlagen, vorgedehnt auf ein Verhältnis zwischen 60 % und 70 % für Rund¬ballen sowie 55 % und 65 % zur Umwicklung von Quaderballen.
Diese Europäische Norm gibt zudem eine Anleitung zur Lagerung von Rollen zur Umwicklung, Lagerung von umwickelten Ballen und zur Entsorgung der Folien.

Plastiques — Films thermoplastiques étirables pour l'enrubannage de balles d'ensilage

La présente Norme européenne spécifie les exigences relatives aux caractéristiques dimensionnelles, mécaniques, au coefficient de transmission de l’oxygène et aux caractéristiques optiques des films thermoplastiques étirables utilisés pour enrubanner les balles pour l’ensilage du fourrage. Elle spécifie une classification du facteur de réflectance solaire des films.
La présente Norme européenne spécifie également des méthodes d’essai permettant de vérifier ces exigences.
Elle spécifie également des méthodes d’essai pour la détermination de l’étanchéité à l’air et la perméabilité à l’oxygène sur une balle artificielle enrubannée.
La présente Norme européenne est applicable aux films blancs, noirs et de couleur, à base de polyoléfines. Elle couvre une plage de largeur allant de 250 mm à 1 000 mm.
Les performances des films étirables en conformité avec la présente Norme européenne reposent sur l’utilisation d’au moins six couches de film, pré-étiré à un taux d’étirage compris entre 60 % et 70 % pour les balles rondes et entre 55 % et 65 % pour les balles carrées.
La présente Norme européenne fournit également des préconisations pour le stockage des bobines et des instructions d’enrubannage, de stockage des balles enrubannées et d’élimination des films.

Polimerni materiali - Raztegljive plastomerne folije za zavijanje v bale

Ta evropski standard določa zahteve za dimenzijske, mehanske in optične lastnosti raztegljivih plastomernih folij za zavijanje v bale, ki se uporabljajo za silažo ali krmo. Določa razvrščanje folij na podlagi njihove odsevnosti sončne svetlobe.
Ta evropski standard določa tudi preskusne metode za preverjanje teh zahtev.
Ta evropski standard se uporablja za bele, črne ali barvne folije na osnovi poliolefinskih materialov. Zajema širine v razponu od 250 mm do 1000 mm.
Učinkovitosti raztegljivih folij, skladne s tem evropskim standardom, temeljijo na uporabi najmanj šestih plasti folij, ki so predhodno raztegnjene med 60 % in 70 % za okrogle bale ter med 55 % in 65 % za ovijanje kvadratnih bal.
Ta evropski standard podaja tudi smernice za shranjevanje zvitkov ter navodila za ovijanje, shranjevanje ovitih bal in odstranjevanje folij.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Jan-2018
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
10-Jan-2018
Completion Date
10-Jan-2018

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Polimerni materiali - Raztegljive plastomerne folije za zavijanje v baleKunststoffe - Thermoplastische Stretchofolien zum Umwickeln von BallenPlastiques - Films thermoplastiques étirables pour l'enrubannage de balles d'ensilagePlastics - Thermoplastic stretch films for wrapping silage bales83.140.10Filmi in folijeFilms and sheets55.040SDNLUDQMHPackaging materials and accessoriesICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 14932:2018SIST EN 14932:2018en,fr,de01-marec-2018SIST EN 14932:2018SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 14932:20071DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 14932:2018
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 14932
January
t r s z ICS
w wä r v râ
z uä s v rä s r Supersedes EN
s v { u tã t r r xEnglish Version

Plastics æ Thermoplastic stretch films for wrapping silage bales Plastiques æ Films thermoplastiques étirables pour l 5enrubannage de balles d 5ensilage

Kunststoffe æ Thermoplastische Stretchfolien zum Umwickeln von SilageæBallen This European Standard was approved by CEN on

t r November
t r s yä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Serbiaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey and United Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23,
B-1040 Brussels

t r s z CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s v { u tã t r s z ESIST EN 14932:2018
EN 14932:2018 (E) 2

Contents Page European foreword ...................................................................................................................................................... 5 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 6 1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7 2 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 7 3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................................... 8 4 Materials .................................................................................................................................................................. 9 5 Solar reflectance ................................................................................................................................................... 9 6 Durability ................................................................................................................................................................ 9 7 Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................... 10 7.1 General requirements .............................................................................................................................................. 10 7.2 Requirement for visual inspection ...................................................................................................................... 11 7.3 Optional characteristics ........................................................................................................................................... 11 7.3.1 Airtightness and oxygen permeability determined on a wrapped artificial bale ............................. 11 7.3.2 Adhesion .............................................................................................................................................................................. 11 8 Test methods ....................................................................................................................................................... 12 8.1 Determination of film thickness ........................................................................................................................... 12 8.1.1 Determination of single point thickness ............................................................................................................... 12 8.1.2 Determination of average thickness ...................................................................................................................... 12 8.2 Determination of width ........................................................................................................................................... 12 8.3 Determination of core protrusion ....................................................................................................................... 12 8.4 Determination of film length ................................................................................................................................. 12 8.5 Determination of neck-in during film stretching .......................................................................................... 13 8.6 Determination of tensile characteristics .......................................................................................................... 13 8.7 Determination of impact resistance ................................................................................................................... 14 8.8 Determination of the tightening force ............................................................................................................... 14 8.9 Determination of the tear resistance ................................................................................................................. 14 8.10 Determination of total luminous transmittance ........................................................................................... 14 8.11 Determination of resistance to weathering .................................................................................................... 14 8.11.1 Principle ......................................................................................................................................................................... 14 8.11.2 Exposure to xenon-arc lamps ............................................................................................................................... 14 8.11.3 Procedure ...................................................................................................................................................................... 14 8.11.4 Calculation and expression of results ............................................................................................................... 15 8.12 Determination of oxygen transmission rate ................................................................................................... 15 9 Film acceptance .................................................................................................................................................. 15 10 Designation .......................................................................................................................................................... 15 11 Marking of packaging ....................................................................................................................................... 16 12 Instructions for use of stretch films ............................................................................................................ 16 13 Instructions for disposal of stretch films and end-of-life ................................................................... 16 Annex A (informative)

Exposure to other light sources ............................................................................. 17 SIST EN 14932:2018

EN 14932:2018 (E) 3 A.1 Medium pressure mercury vapour lamps ............................................................................................ 17 A.2 Fluorescent UV lamps ................................................................................................................................... 18 Annex B (informative)

Numerical correlation between durations of stretch forage films exposed to artificial weathering and a natural exposure .............................................................................................. 20 B.1 Exposure to xenon-arc lamps .................................................................................................................... 20 B.2 Exposure to medium pressure mercury vapour lamps ................................................................... 20 B.3 Exposure to fluorescent UV lamps ........................................................................................................... 21 Annex C (normative)

Determination of solar reflectance ........................................................................... 22 C.1 General............................................................................................................................................................... 22 C.2 Principle ............................................................................................................................................................ 23 C.3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................. 23 C.4 Apparatus ....................................................................................................................................................................... 23 C.5 Test specimens ............................................................................................................................................................ 24 C.6 Procedure ....................................................................................................................................................................... 24 C.7 Calculation of the solar reflectance Rs ............................................................................................................... 24 Annex D (normative)

Determination of neck-in during stretching ......................................................... 25 D.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................... 25 D.2 Principle ............................................................................................................................................................ 25 D.3 Apparatus ......................................................................................................................................................... 25 D.4 Atmosphere for conditioning and testing ............................................................................................. 26 D.5 Procedure ......................................................................................................................................................... 26 Annex E (normative)

Determination of tightening force ............................................................................ 27 E.1 Principle ............................................................................................................................................................ 27 E.2 Apparatus ......................................................................................................................................................... 27 E.3 Procedure ......................................................................................................................................................... 27 E.4 Preparation of the specimens ................................................................................................................... 27 E.5 Results ................................................................................................................................................................ 27 Annex F (informative)

Determination of oxygen permeability and airtightness on an artificial bale ................................................................................................................................................................................... 29 F.1 General............................................................................................................................................................... 29 F.2 Principle ............................................................................................................................................................ 29 F.3 Apparatus ......................................................................................................................................................... 29 F.4 Films ................................................................................................................................................................... 31 F.5 Conditioning of the film ............................................................................................................................... 31 F.6 Procedure ......................................................................................................................................................... 32 Annex G (informative)

Determination of adhesion characteristic .......................................................... 35 G.1 Principle ............................................................................................................................................................ 35 G.2 Apparatus ......................................................................................................................................................... 35 SIST EN 14932:2018

EN 14932:2018 (E) 4 G.3 Preparation of the apparatus ................................................................................................................... 35 G.4 Procedure ........................................................................................................................................................ 38 G.5 Report ................................................................................................................................................................ 39 Annex H (informative)

Guidance for use and disposal of stretch films ................................................. 40 H.1 Instructions for storage of rolls ............................................................................................................... 40 H.2 Instructions for baling ................................................................................................................................. 40 H.3 Instruction for wrapping ............................................................................................................................ 40 H.4 Instruction for storage of wrapped bales ............................................................................................. 41 H.5 Instruction for disposal of films ............................................................................................................... 41 Bibliography................................................................................................................................................................. 43

SIST EN 14932:2018

EN 14932:2018 (E) 5 European foreword This document (EN 14932:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 249 “Plastics”, the secretariat of which is held by NBN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by July 2018, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by July 2018. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document supersedes EN 14932:2006. In comparison with the previous edition, the following technical modifications have been made: — classification according to the solar reflectance is changed; — durability

makes reference to the exposure of films by artificial weathering; — optional characteristics are introduced by revised annexes; — paragraphs on instructions for use, for disposal and end-of-life of stretch films have been added. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 14932:2018

EN 14932:2018 (E) 6 Introduction The biological and practical requirements for silage stretch films and the interactions with the machinery, used for the wrapping and handling of round bales and square bales, have been considered for the design of this standard. However, it is difficult to simulate in laboratory conditions some parameters like leak tightness, oxygen permeability, temperature and the manner they interact. In order to obtain silage of high quality it is essential to reduce unwanted microbiological activities to very low levels. It is necessary to limit the penetration of oxygen of air inside the bale in order to create the best conditions for conservation. Consequently, the wrapped bale should be as gas tight as possible. This European Standard does not include as mandatory a test method for the determination of air tightness and oxygen permeability on artificial bale. Nevertheless, it is recommended for the manufacturers of stretch films to check this property near an appropriate testing laboratory. There are discussions regarding how the temperature inside the bale will influence how different types of “good” and “bad” microbiological activities will develop in forage. Although the film can be made of any colour, it is a fact that the pigmentation or colour itself will influence the temperature inside the bale, due to sun-radiation. Therefore, this standard also includes a method for the determination of the solar reflectance of stretch films [1]. SIST EN 14932:2018

EN 14932:2018 (E) 7 1 Scope This European Standard specifies the requirements for dimensional, mechanical, oxygen transmission rate and optical characteristics of stretch thermoplastic films for wrapping bales used for ensilaging of forage. It specifies a classification for solar reflectance of the films. This European Standard specifies also test methods to check these requirements. It specifies also test methods for the determination of the airtightness and oxygen permeability determined on a wrapped artificial bale. This European Standard is applicable to white, black or coloured films based on polyolefin materials. It covers the width range from 250 mm up to 1 000 mm. The performances of the stretch films in conformance with this European Standard are based on the use of at least six layers of films, pre-stretched at a ratio between 60 % and 70 % for round bales and a ratio of 55 % and 65 % for wrapping square bales. This European Standard also gives guidance for storage of rolls and instructions for wrapping, storage of wrapped bales and for disposal of films. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN ISO 527-1, Plastics — Determination of tensile properties — Part 1: General principles (ISO 527-1) EN ISO 527-3, Plastics — Determination of tensile properties — Part 3: Test conditions for films and sheets (ISO 527-3) EN ISO 4892-2:2013, Plastics — Methods of exposure to laboratory light sources — Part 2: Xenon-arc lamps (ISO 4892-2:2013) EN ISO 6383-2, Plastics — Film and sheeting — Determination of tear resistance — Part 2: Elmendorf method (ISO 6383-2) EN ISO 7765-1, Plastics film and sheeting — Determination of impact resistance by the free-falling dart method — Part 1: Staircase methods (ISO 7765-1) EN ISO 13468-2, Plastics — Determination of the total luminous transmittance of transparent materials — Part 2: Double-beam instrument (ISO 13468-2) ISO 4592, Plastics — Film and sheeting — Determination of length and width ISO 4593, Plastics — Film and sheeting — Determination of thickness by mechanical scanning ISO 9845-1:1992, Solar energy — Reference solar spectral irradiance at the ground at different receiving conditions — Part 1: Direct normal and hemispherical solar irradiance for air mass 1,5 ISO 15105-2:2003, Plastics — Film and sheeting — Determination of gas-transmission rate — Part 2: Equal-pressure method SIST EN 14932:2018

EN 14932:2018 (E) 8 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1 width total film width when laid flat Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in millimetres (mm). 3.2 nominal width W0 film width, as declared by the manufacturer Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in millimetres (mm). 3.3 nominal thickness film thickness, as declared by the manufacturer Note 1 to entry: It is expressed

3.4 film length largest dimension of a film corresponding to the length of the unwinded roll (or reel) Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in metres (m). 3.5 nominal length L0 length of the film, as declared by the manufacturer Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in metres (m). 3.6 longitudinal direction MD direction parallel to the film length corresponding to the extrusion direction 3.7 transverse direction TD direction parallel to the film width (at right angles to the length) 3.8 core protrusion Cp distance from the edge of a roll to the edge of its core Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in millimetres (mm). SIST EN 14932:2018

EN 14932:2018 (E) 9 3.9 neck-in Ni shrinkage of a film in the transverse direction (TD) induced by stretching the film in longitudinal direction (MD) Note 1 to entry:

It is expressed as a %. 3.10 radiant exposure H time integral of irradiance

«2) [SOURCE: ISO 9370:2017, 3.27 [2]] 4 Materials Stretch films for wrapping silage bales according this European Standard are usually manufactured from polyolefin materials. 5 Solar reflectance The stretch silage films shall be classified in two classes “High reflectance” or “Low reflectance” according to the solar reflectance, as defined in Table 1. The solar reflectance shall be determined according to Annex C by using one layer of unstretched film [2]. The class of solar reflectance shall be declared by the manufacturer. Table 1 — Classification according to the solar reflectance Class of film Solar reflectance Rs % High reflectance

· 24 Low reflectance < 24 6 Durability The durability of stretch forage films shall be declared by the manufacturer in kLy1. The duration of exposure of the film shall be determined by an artificial weathering using xenon-arc lamps, conforming to 8.11, which induces a decrease of the value of tensile strain at break equal or less than 50 % of the initial value. Other light sources may be used provided that a correlation between the test results obtained with these light sources and these obtained after a natural exposure can be demonstrated. Details of these methods are given in Annex A (informative). In case of dispute, the exposure to xenon-arc lamps according to 8.11 shall be used.

1 1kLy = 0,04184 GJ/m2 SIST EN 14932:2018

EN 14932:2018 (E) 10 NOTE A numerical correlation between durability of stretch films exposed to artificial weathering and natural exposure is given in Annex B (informative). 7 Requirements 7.1 General requirements Stretch silage films shall fulfil the requirements given in Table 2. Table 2 — Requirements for stretch silage films Characteristics Unit Requirements Test method subclause Appearance

Shall conform to 7.2 7.2 Tolerance of average thickness/nominal thickness % from
« z to
s t 8.1 Tolerance of single point thickness/nominal thickness % from
« t r to
t z 8.1 Width tolerance mm W0 - 5
¶ W
¶ W0 + 5 8.2 Core protrusion mm 3
¶ Cp
¶ 10 8.3 Film length m

· 99,0 % of nominal roll length 8.4 Neck in during film stretching % < 25 8.5 Tensile stress at break

8.6
MD MPa
· 25
TD MPa
· 23
Tensile stress at yield
8.6
MD MPa
· 9
Tensile strain at break
8.6
MD %
· 400
TD %
· 600
Impact resistance g
· 150 8.7 Tightening force N
· 8,75 8.8 Tear resistance
8.9
MD cN
· 120
TD cN
· 600

Total luminous transmittance % < 50 8.10 Oxygen transmission rate a (expressed as for one layer of unstretched film)

8.12 For film with solar reflectance b
· 24 % cm3 /(m2 < 10 000
SIST EN 14932:2018

EN 14932:2018 (E) 11 Characteristics Unit Requirements Test method subclause b t vhbbar e) For film with solar reflectance c

· 10 % and
< 24 % cm3 /(m2b t vhbbar e) < 9 500
For film with solar reflectance d < 10 % cm3 /(m2b t vhbbar e) < 8 500

a A commonly used unit for the oxygen gas transmission rate is the cm3 (STP)/(m2 pressure differential, where: 1cm3 at Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP = 273,15K; 1,013 × 105 Pa) is 44,62

× 103 s . The oxygen transmission rate in mol/(m2 multiplying the value in cm3 (STP)/(m2

s r Í10. b Example white and light green films c
Example dark green films d

Example black films e 1 bar = 0,1 MPa = 105 Pa; 1 MPa = 1 N/mm2 7.2 Requirement for visual inspection The edges of the reels shall be straight. Bubbles and wrinkles on the reel and visible defects on the film which affect the proper use of the film shall be limited. 7.3 Optional characteristics 7.3.1 Airtightness and oxygen permeability determined on a wrapped artificial bale NOTE 1 The quality of silage is strongly depending on the global airtightness of wrapped bales. Several parameters can influence the global airtightness results: measurable properties such as the permeability cling force or tightening force of the film and also properties difficult to quantify by means of laboratory equipments, such as wrinkles, tiger stripes or film appearance when stretched. NOTE 2 At the date of publication of this standard, there is no European or international standardized method to determine the airtightness and the oxygen permeability by wrapping an artificial bale. Guidance for assessing the airtightness and the oxygen permeability of a stretch silage film by wrapping an artificial bale is given in Annex F. The oxygen permeability is defined in Annex F as the amount of permeated oxygen (from the atmosphere) through the artificial bale per 100 h. The airtightness is defined in Annex F as the time for the internal pressure to increase from

« w r r Pa to

« s r r Pa. 7.3.2 Adhesion NOTE Adhesion is a major property of stretch films for wrapping silage bales but no specific method has been developed for this application. SIST EN 14932:2018

EN 14932:2018 (E) 12 The adhesion may be evaluated by determining the airtightness of a wrapped bale or by expressing the force needed to separate two film layers. For information, see the test methods described in Annex G or ASTM D5458:2012 [3] 8 Test methods 8.1 Determination of film thickness 8.1.1 Determination of single point thickness The film thickness at single points shall be determined in accordance with ISO 4593. The test shall be performed using one strip of film cut in transverse direction of the roll (TD). 8.1.2 Determination of average thickness The average film thickness shall be determined by measuring the length and width of the film and by weighing the roll. The manufacturer shall state the density of the film material. The average film thickness shall be calculated by using Formula (1). ρ=××610mdlw (1) where d is the mean thickness of the film, expressed in micrometres (m); m is the weight of the film roll, excluding the core, expressed in kilograms (kg) and measured on a weighing machine with a maximum permissible error of ± 0,010 kg or better; l is the total length of the film (see 8.4), expressed in metres (m); w is the mean width of the film (see 8.2), measured on the film roll, expressed in metres (m);

is the density of the film as stated by the manufacturer, expressed in kilograms per cubic metres (kg/m3). 8.2 Determination of width The width of the film shall be determined in accordance with ISO 4592. 8.3 Determination of core protrusion The core protrusion of a roll shall be measured on each side of the roll. The two values shall be expressed in millimetres (mm) recorded and compared with the value in Table 2. 8.4 Determination of film length The length of the film shall be determin

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