Vertical formwork - Part 1: Performance requirements, general design and assessment

This standard sets out the significant parameters which are relevant to the provision of formwork for all types of vertical concrete faces. For most parameters, it gives ranges of values from which a choice has to be made. It also gives some additional parameters for factory made panels which are part of a system and are assembled to create vertical formwork. Four groups are used to form a classification.

Vertikale Schalungen - Teil 1: Leistungsanforderungen, Entwurf, Konstruktion und Bewertung

Diese Europäische Norm legt die wesentlichen Parameter fest, die für die Auswahl von Schalungen aller Arten für vertikale Betonflächen relevant sind. Bezüglich der meisten Parameter werden Bereiche von Werten angegeben, aus denen eine Auswahl zu treffen ist.
Es werden außerdem zusätzliche Parameter für in der Werkstatt hergestellte Tafeln festgelegt, die Teil eines Systems sind, das zur vertikalen Schalung zusammengesetzt wird. Einige Gruppen sind klassifiziert.
Er werden Hinweise zur Bemessung mit dem Traglastverfahren gegeben.
Die Mikroqualität für die Schalungsfläche oder irgendein Parameter für die Betonoberfläche, die nach dem Ausschalen entsteht, ist nicht festgelegt.

Systèmes de coffrages verticaux pour le béton - Exigences de performance, étude en général et évaluation

Navpični opaži – 1. del: Zahtevane lastnosti, splošna zasnova in ocena

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oSIST prEN 15113-1:2005
Vertical formwork - Part 1: Performance requirements, general design and assessment
Vertikale Schalungen - Teil 1: Leistungsanforderungen, Entwurf, Konstruktion und
Systemes de coffrages verticaux pour le béton - Exigences de performance, étude en
général et évaluation
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 15113-1
91.220 Gradbena oprema Construction equipment
oSIST prEN 15113-1:2005 en
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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prEN 15113-1
December 2004
English version
Vertical formwork - Part 1: Performance requirements, general
design and assessment
This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 53.
If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which
stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.
This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language
made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has the same
status as the official versions.
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
: This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without notice and
shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36  B-1050 Brussels
© 2004 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 15113-1:2004: E
worldwide for CEN national Members.

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prEN 15113-1:2004 (E)
Contents Page
1 Scope .5
2 Normative references .5
3 Terms and definitions .6
4 Materials .8
5 General requirements.9
6 Requirements for structural design.15
7 Product Manual.19
8 Information for a specific jobsite .19
9 Work on site .20
10 Structural design .21
11 Characteristic strength of formworks.24
12 Assessment of formworks and their accessories.24
Annex A (informative) Hazards and other matters which should be taken into account in the
provision of formwork.28
Annex B (informative) Methods of achieving stability and adjustment.30
Annex C (informative) Examples of front side protection.31
Annex D (informative) Some different methods for testing panels, frame panels and form skin.33
Annex E (informative) Pressure of fresh concrete for vertical formworks and formworks
featuring a maximum pitch of up to ±±±± 5°°°° compared to the vertical .38


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prEN 15113-1:2004 (E)
This document (prEN 15113-1:2004) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 53 “Temporary
works equipment”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.

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prEN 15113-1:2004 (E)
The purpose of this European Standard is to sets out performance requirements for vertical formwork and to
provide a safe place of work with safe access suitable for the work being done. These are substantially
independent of the materials of which the vertical formwork is made. The standard is intended to be used as
the basis for enquiry and design.
As a number of options are given to suit different applications, a choice has to be made between the various
alternatives within this European Standard. All other requirements would be in an associated job specification.
Based on these requirements, a set of rules can be drawn up for a particular type of equipment. These may
be standard for general use, or specially prepared for a particular job.
This European Standard includes rules for structural design, which are of particular relevance to vertical
formworks of certain materials.
This standard does not cover the use of materials conforming to EN or ISO standards not still valid.
For access and working facilities for operatives, reference should be made to the requirements of EN 12811-1
but this standard also gives more specific details which will be needed in some cases.


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prEN 15113-1:2004 (E)
1 Scope
This part of standard sets out the significant parameters which are relevant to the provision of formwork for all
types of vertical concrete faces. For most parameters, it gives ranges of values from which a choice has to be
It also gives some additional parameters for factory made panels which are part of a system and are
assembled to create vertical formwork. Several groups are used to form a classification.
It gives guidance on design by the limit state method.
It does not specify the micro quality of the form face or any of the parameters of the concrete face which will
be revealed when the formwork is removed.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated
references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced
document (including any amendments) applies.
EN 39, Loose Steel tubes for tube and couplers scaffold – Technical delivery conditions.
EN 74-1, Couplers, spigots and base-plates for use in falsework and scaffolds – Part 1: Couplers for tubes -
Requirements and test procedures.
EN 12811-1, Temporary works equipment – Part 1: Scaffolds – Performance requirements and general design.
EN 12811-2, Temporary works equipment – Part 2: Information on material.
EN 12811-3, Temporary works equipment – Part 3: Load testing.
EN 131-1, Ladders; terms, types, functional sizes.
EN 131-2, Ladders; requirements, testing, marking.
EN 338, Structural timber – Strength classes.
EN 789, Timber structures – Tests methods – Determination of the mechanical properties of wood.
EN 10219-1, Cold formed welded structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain steels – Part 1:
Technical delivery requirements.
EN 10219-2, Cold formed welded structural hollow section of non-alloy and fine grain steels – Part 2:
Tolerances, dimensions and sectional properties.
EN 10240, Internal and/or external protective coatings for steel tubes - Specification for hot dip galvanized
coatings applied in automatic plants.
ENV 1991-1, Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures – Part 1: Basis of design.
ENV 1991-2-4, Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures – Part 2.4 : Wind actions.


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prEN 15113-1:2004 (E)
ENV 1993-1-1, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures – Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings.
ENV 1993-1-3, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures – Part 1-3: General rules - Supplementary rules for cold
formed thin gauge members and sheeting.
ENV 1995-1-1, Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures – Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings.
ENV 1999-1-1:1998, Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures – Part 1-1: General rules - General rules
and rules for buildings.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
See standard EN 12811-1 for the definitions of other terms.
tension device balancing the forces from opposing formwork assemblies. It may also provide a means of
controlling the distance apart of the assemblies. A common example of a tie assembly comprises:
 a rod;
 a spacer unit for controlling the spacing;
 a type of nut to transfer the force between rod and plate;
 a plate for spreading the load.
vertical formwork
a structure with a surface not more than 5° out of plumb intended to contain fluid concrete ; this includes any
supports such as ties or props necessary to meet the requirements of this standard
Typical elements are :
 panels each comprising a frame (work) and a surface to contain the concrete;
 sheeting material supported by framing equipment;
 devices to keep the formwork vertical;
 devices to keep it in position and to stop it overturning;
 fixing and connecting devices, for assembly or for lifting;
 platform with side protection and access.
form skin
contact area with the concrete
a set of components necessary for the assembly of the formwork, the great part of which were conceived to
connect directly by means of purpose designed connections or connecting devices

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prEN 15113-1:2004 (E)
concrete surface specification
the requirements specified by the building or structure owner for the surface, such as position, dimensional
tolerances and quality
lifting point
a point for attaching lifting gear for handling
gap between two form faces
distance between two form faces put side by side
one ormore platform units in one level within a bay
platform unit
unit (prefabricated or other wise) that supports a load on its own and which forms the platform or part of the
platform and may form a structural part of the working area
Side protection
set of components forming a barrier to protect people from the risk of falling and to retain materials
element of protection against falling from height from the working platform, articulated for allowing access to it,
reconstituting automatically the continuity of the protection at any time
lifting gear
equipment usually interposed between the crane hook and formwork
base Jack
base plate, which has a means of vertical adjustement
raking shore for stability and adjustment
device positioned at an angle behind formwork for adjusting plumb
stability prop
linear component fixed significantly above the foot of the formwork and at the other end to an anchorage
significantly away from the face of the formwork and intended to prevent the formwork overturning
stability equipment
device related to a formwork or a pair of formworks ensuring the stability under external action, without
anchorage on an external point
horizontal connection
device ensuring the connection of the two vertical edges of two adjacent formworks

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prEN 15113-1:2004 (E)
vertical connection
device ensuring the connection of two horizontal edges of two superimposed formworks
4 Materials
4.1 General
Materials shall fulfil the requirements given in EN Standards, where design data are provided. Information for
the most commonly used materials are given in prEN 12811-2. Material used shall be sufficiently robust and
durable to withstand normal working conditions.
Materials shall be free from any impurities and defects, which may affect their satisfactory use.
Protecting coating for components, when required, shall fulfil prEN 12811-2, chapter 8
NOTE When further use is made of old materials, the properties should justify the application of relevant design and
fabrication rules with the same safety level of materials defined in EN or ISO Standards.
4.2 Specified Material requirements
4.2.1 Steel General
 Steels of deoxidation type FU (rimming steels) shall not be used (see EN 12811-2);
 yield stress ≥ 235 N/mm . Form skin
Any steel fulfilling the requirements in can be used for form skin (TBD).
NOTE Oil or equivalent coating should be used to inhibit rust. Tubes for incorporation in formwork components
See paragraphs and in EN 12811, part 1. Side protection
See paragraph in EN 12811, part 1. Components
See paragraph in EN 12811, part 1. Frame and other components
See paragraph in EN 12811, part 1.

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prEN 15113-1:2004 (E)
4.2.2 Aluminium alloys General
For aluminium allays see chapter 6 in pr EN 12811-2 Form skin
Without protection against the concrete, aluminium alloys should not be used for from skin tubes for incorporation in formwork components
See paragraphs and in EN 12811-Part 1. side protection
See paragraph in EN 12811, part 1. Platform components
See paragraph in EN 12811, part 1.
4.2.3 Timber and timber based materials General
See paragraph 7 in pr EN 12811, part 2. Platform
See paragraph 7 in pr EN 12811, part 2.
4.2.4 Other materials
Any other material which can meet the general requirements established in this standard may be used. In that
case, the material properties and the structural requirements shall be established by testing.
5 General requirements
5.1 Structural requirements which also relative to product classification
5.1.1 General
The strength and deviation are the principal requirements for assembled formwork and values commonly used
are given in 5.1.2 and 5.1.3. These two parameters form the basis of system formwork classification for which
the requirements are given in Annex D.
5.1.2 Concrete pressure classes
The formwork shall be strong enough to resist the concrete pressure, without permanent deflection.
Suggested values are :20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150.
k 2
 Each represents the working concrete pressure Q in KN/m considered as a uniformly distributed load.

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prEN 15113-1:2004 (E)
5.1.3 Flatness tolerance / deflection Flatness tolerances
The loaded formwork shall deviate from a true plane by not more than the values given in Figure 2 or as
otherwise specified. The deviation is the sum of manufacturing (see X.) or material tolerances, assembly
tolerances and deflection caused by the concrete pressure, see 6.3. Figure 3 gives examples, δ1 and δ2, how
to measure deviations.
The maximum value of steps (or offsets), see Figure 4, is controlled by the lowest deflection value, which for
group 5 to 7 is shown at the left and side of Figure 1.
Particular attention should be drawn in the pressure specification to any requirements more stringent than
group 6.
Table 2 gives the data on which Figure 2 is based.
Table 1 — Flatness tolerances
Column 1 2 3 4 5 6
Group Applicable to Point deviations (limit values), in mm,
for distance between measuring
points, in m, up to
1) 1) 1) 1)
 0,1 1 4 10 15
5 non surface-finised walls, unplastered ceilings 5 10 15 25 30
6 surface-finished walls and ceilings, e.g. plastered 3 5 10 20 25
walls, wall coverings, suspended ceilings.
7 as group 6, but complying with more stringent 2 3 8 15 20
Intermediate values shall be taken from Figure 2 and 3, and rounded to the nearest mm. Fabrication tolerances
Table 1 describes 4 different classes of fabrication tolerances for one panel.

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prEN 15113-1:2004 (E)
Table 2 — Tolerances on one formwork panel the measures are in millimetres
Straightness of edge members:
 in elevation
± 1 ± 1,5 ± 2 ± 3
 in side elevation
≤ 2 ≤ 3 ≤ 5 ≤ 6
Length of edges L(c,d) +0 +1 +1 +2

1 1 1 1
− (1+ L) − (2 + L) − (3 + L) − (4 + L)

1500 1000
4000 2000
Difference between two h1 - h2
c ≥ d
1 1
2 + C
1 + C 3 + C

4 + C

4000 1500

Figure 1 — Explanation of symbols for tolerance of system panel dimensions

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prEN 15113-1:2004 (E)

1 Tolerances
2 Distanza tra punti di misura
3 Group 5
4 Group 6
5 Group 7
Figure 2 — Flatness tolerances for loaded formwork
(the group numbers refer to Table 2)
Fitted the explanations with the new Table 1 and the new Figure 2.

Figure 3 — Deflection Figure 4 — Offsets

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prEN 15113-1:2004 (E)
5.2 Other requirements
5.2.1 Leakage
Where the specification for the quality of the concrete surface limits leakage (water, cement, aggregate,
surface, absorption) the formwork specifications shall include appropriate details.
NOTE A more suitable location for this advice to be considered.
5.2.2 Connection devices
The connection devices must be able to:
 avoid the leakages;
 ensure and to respect flatness tolerances describe in paragraph;
 allow the handling of panels in a vertical position with maximum safety.
5.2.3 Gap
When assembled as intended, the gap between the form faces of two systems panels shall not exceed the
value 2 x a where a is the value of the straightness of the edge member for the class specified; see Table 2
and Figure 1.
5.2.4 Lifting and handling
Where individual panels or assemblies of units are to be lifted by crane, a lifting point or points should be
Detachable lifting points are not covered by this standard, as they come under the Machinery Directive.
However the principles specified here for integral lifting points will apply, and fixing positions should be
provided for such lifting points. The manufacturer should supply the necessary information so that appropriate
equipment is used.
Lifting may occur when raising a unit from the flat to the vertical as well as a simple lift. The initial force will be
at 90º to the plane of the formwork. Where slings are used, the angle from the vertical to the line of the leg of
the sling may be up to 60°.
Two lifting points should be provided along the top edge. Unless the panel is small enough that it is not
necessary. Unless dedicated lifting gear, with its own connecting attachment and release method is to be
used, a hole in each lifting point should be provided, such that the connection can be made to a crane hook of
capacity twice the force in a leg.
Should it be necessary to have separate points for direct lifting and raising into a vertical position, the points
should be clearly marked.
5.2.5 Facilities for adjustment
Formwork, when assembled, should have facilities to adjust it the to the final position for concreting in:
a) the horizontal plane : movement along and across the main axis;
b) the vertical plane : rotation to move the face to a vertical orientation and to make it level along the top
Adjustment may be made with the assistance of a crane.

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prEN 15113-1:2004 (E)
5.2.6 Stability
Provision should be made to prevent formwork from overturning. When facilities for fine adjustment are
provided they shall not reduce the stability safety.
5.3 Platform
5.3.1 General requirement
Requirements are given in EN 12811-1, chapter 5.
5.3.2 Access Access to Platform
Requirements are given in EN 12811-1, paragraph 5.8 Access through the side protection
Where an opening gate is provided to permit access through the side protection, it shall open in wards or
upwards, and shall close automatically. When closed, it shall conform to all requirements for side protection,
see 5.3.3. It shall be incapable of opening except by intentional action. The minimum dimensions shall be :
width: 0,60 m ; height of opening: 1,75 m.
5.3.3 Side protection to platform General requirements
Side protection shall fulfil the requirements of EN 12811-1 see chapters 5.5 and 6.2.5 Inclined side protection
For side protection of working platforms in combination with vertical formwork the post may be inclined up
to 15° from the vertical, see Figure 5.

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prEN 15113-1:2004 (E)

Figure 5 — Dimensions for inclined side protection with one intermediate guardrail Front side protection
If the platform level is more than 3 meter above the surface below side protection shall be used also on the
front side of vertical formwork.
NOTE A person can fall into the opening of the vertical platform when the distance is greater than 300 mm.
For examples see informative Annex C
6 Requirements for structural design
6.1 General
Each formwork component shall be capable of withstanding the appropriate actions as specified in chapter 10.
Horizontal loads shall either be dissipated within the formwork structure or be taken to an adequate external
6.2 Actions
6.2.1 General
The values specified in the following clauses shall be treated as characteristic values of the actions (loads).
There are four main types of loading which need to be considered :
a) permanent loads, these include the self weight of the formwork structure, including all the components of
formwork and attached accessories,

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prEN 15113-1:2004 (E)
b) variable loads : these include service loads (platform loading and loads on the side protection) and the
wind loads. In general, no allowance for snow and ice loading.
NOTE An allowance for snow and ice loading may be required by national regulations, for example in areas with
extreme snow conditions.
c) loads generated by concrete pressure;
d) accidental loads.
6.2.2 Characteristic concrete pressure
When erected ready for concreting, the formwork shall be capable of withstanding the forces created by the
pouring of concrete up to the characteristic pressure specified.
NOTE Requirements about deflection are given in 6.3.4.
The concrete pressure specified shall be taken to include all dynamic forces produced by placing concrete.
Figure 6 gives examples of pressure diagrams. For system panels, the pressure shall be considered to be
uniform, as shown in Figure 6a).
NOTE Examples of pressure diagrams are given in Figure 6:
"a" shows that for system formwork
"b" "c" are other possibilities

a) Uniform b) Truncated c) Triangular
1 pressure P
Figure 6 — Concrete pressure diagrams
6.2.3 Platform loading
The platform shall conform to at least class 2 of EN 12811.
The platforms shall be able to support the uniformly distributed service load of at least of 1,50 KN/m .
6.2.4 Access routes
Access for formwork shall conform to 12811-1 paragraph 6.2.4.

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prEN 15113-1:2004 (E)
6.2.5 Loads on the side protection
(See paragraph 6.2.5 in EN 12811-1).
6.2.6 Wind General
Wind loads shall be calculated by assuming that there is a velocity pressure on a reference area of the
formworks system, which in general is the projected area in the wind direction. The resultant wind force, F,
in kN, is obtained from the equation:
 
 
F = 1,3 A q
∑ i i
 
i 
F is the resultant wind force;
1.3 is the force coefficient for the formwork system;
A is the reference area of the system component i;
q is the velocity pressure acting on the system component i;
Shielding effects shall not be taken in account. Velocity pressure Maximum wind loading
The maximum wind loading for the region shall take into account the type and location of the site. Data may
be taken from national standards or ENV 1991-2-4. in areas of higher wind, it will be necessary to redesign
the formwork for the individual application.
NOTE the velocity pressure may be modified by a factor of not less than 0,7 for when the period of use of the
formwork system is less than 24 months. Working wind load
A uniformly distributed velocity pressure of 0,2 kN/m shall be taken into account.
6.2.7 Lifting loads
The load supported at each point should be calculated based on the dimensions and the density of the
materials of the panel. In addition allowance shall be made for any force created by lifting gear which is not
vertical. The angle of the chain should not exceed 30° from vertical.
To enable the panel to be raised from a horizontal position to a working orientation, each lifting point should
also have a resistance at right angles to the plane of the panel both ways.
The design resistance is obtained by multiplying the load calculated at the beginning of this sub-clause by a
partial factor, γ , normally taken as 2,0.

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prEN 15113-1:2004 (E)
Where, for example in a system, panels are lifted attached one above another or side by side, the connections
should have adequate capacity to resist at the forces regenerated by lifting. Where panels are assembled side
by side, lifting points should be positioned and be of adequate resistance to ensure safe lifting in the correct
orientation. Where the lifting gear creates an angled lifting force, there should be adequate capacity to resist
the compression created.
6.2.8 Dynamic loads
The following figures may be taken to represent the excess loading caused by dynamic effects.
a) dynamic loading from an individual item moving vertically by powered means shall be represented by a
20 % increase in the weight of the item;
b) dynamic loading from an individual item moving horizontally, except people, shall be as follows, acting in
any of the practical possible horizontal directions.
For a velocity not exceeding 2 m/s the load shall be represented by a minimum 10 % of the weight of the item.
The loading given in 6.2.3 and 6.2.4 does not allow for people falling down from a height onto the platform or
onto the side protection. Additional calculation or testing would be needed if this is a requirement.
6.2.9 Accidental loads
For the accidental loads on side protection, see chapter 6.2.5 in EN 12811-1.
This standard does not give values for loads accidentally created by unintentional site operations.
6.2.10 Load combinations for formworks
The formwork shall be designed for the worst combinations of loads that are likely to occur simultaneously at
the time.
The intended method of operations on the site shall be established and the loading combination determined
In case of a normal use, the following combinations shall be used :
A : Erecting
B : Concreting
C : Storage
Table 3 — Loading combinations to be used (A = erecting, B = concreting, C = storage)
Loading A B C
Self weight 1 1 1
Service load 1 1
Pressure of fresh concrete 1
Working wind load 1
Extreme wind/Maximum wind  1

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prEN 15113-1:2004 (E)
6.3 Deflections
6.3.1 Elastic deflection of decking platform
See paragraph 6.3 in EN 12811, part 1.
6.3.2 Elastic deflection of the side protection
See paragraph 6.3 in EN 12811, part 1.
6.3.3 Deflection of fencing structures
See paragraph 6.3 in EN 12811, part 1.
6.3.4 Elastic deflection of the form face
The deflection of the form face under the specified maximum concrete pressure from its unloaded state shall
not exceed that specified. For individual system panels, values are given in Table 3. In the other cases, the
maximum deflection shall not exceed that specified by the procurer.
δ, the actual deviation from a line joining any two points on the form face, is represented as the proportion of
this actual deflection divided by the distance between the two points:
Proportion ≤
The significant length for "l" is usually the d

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