Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - Surface texture: Areal - Part 73: Terms and definitions for surface defects on material measures (ISO 25178-73:2019)

This document defines classes of geometrical defects that might be present on the surfaces of material measures and calibration specimens conforming to ISO 5436-1 and ISO 25178-70, and defines terms for ways of responding to these defects.
This document is applicable as follows:
a)    to help customers and users of material measures for surface metrology specify their nominal features (ideal geometrical properties) when obtaining them from manufacturers and suppliers;
b)    to enable users of material measures to formulate their own rules and policies for responding to the occurrence of defects in such a way as to minimize the uncertainty of their own measurements;
NOTE       Such policies are required in ISO/IEC 17025:2017, 7.2.1.1, 7.2.1.3, 7.3.1 and 7.8.5 c) and d), for example.
c)    to enable calibration laboratories and their customers to agree on a common policy on how to treat defects on a material measure that has been sent for calibration;
d)    to educate users of material measures about the different significance and importance of different kinds of defect;
e)    for other GPS standards which make reference to the issue of selection of measuring locations, or selection of areas to be measured or avoided in measurement.

Geometrische Produktspezifikation (GPS) - Oberflächenbeschaffenheit: Flächenhaft - Teil 73: Begriffe für Oberflächenfehler an Maßverkörperungen (ISO 25178-73:2019)

Dieses Dokument definiert Klassen geometrischer Fehler, die an den Oberflächen von Maßverkörperungen und Kalibrierkörpern nach ISO 5436 1 und ISO 25178 70 auftreten können und Begriffe für Arten des Umgangs mit diesen Fehlern.
Dieses Dokument gilt für Folgendes:
a)   Kunden und Anwendern von Maßverkörperungen für die Oberflächenmesstechnik dabei zu helfen, ihre Nenngeometrieelemente (ideale geometrische Eigenschaften) festzulegen, wenn sie diese von Herstellern und Lieferanten erhalten;
b)   Anwendern von Maßverkörperungen zu ermöglichen, ihre eigenen Regeln und Richtlinien zu formulieren, um mit auftretenden Fehler so umzugehen, dass die Unsicherheit ihrer eigenen Messungen minimiert wird;
ANMERKUNG   Solche Richtlinien werden z. B. in ISO/IEC 17025:2017, 7.2.1.1, 7.2.1.3, 7.3.1 und 7.8.5 c) und d) gefordert.
c)   Kalibrierlaboren und ihren Kunden zu ermöglichen, eine gemeinsame Richtlinie zum Umgang mit Fehlern an einer zu kalibrierenden Maßverkörperung zu vereinbaren;
d)   Anwender von Maßverkörperungen über die unterschiedliche Bedeutung und Wichtigkeit von verschiedenen Fehlerarten aufzuklären;
e)   für andere GPS Normen, die auf das Problem der Auswahl von Messorten oder der zu messenden oder bei der Messung zu vermeidenden Bereiche verweisen.

Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) - État de surface: surfacique - Partie 73: Termes et définitions pour les défauts de surface sur les mesures matérialisées (ISO 25178-73:2019)

Le présent document traite des défauts géométriques pouvant être présents sur les surfaces des mesures matérialisées et des échantillons d'étalonnage conformes à l'ISO 5436-1 et à l'ISO 25178-70 et définit les termes désignant les manières de répondre à ces défauts.
Le présent document est applicable comme suit:
a)    pour aider les clients et les utilisateurs de mesures matérialisées en métrologie de surface à spécifier leurs éléments nominaux (propriétés géométriques idéales) en cas d'obtention de ces mesures auprès des fabricants et des fournisseurs;
b)    pour permettre aux utilisateurs de mesures matérialisées de formuler leurs propres règles et politiques pour répondre à l'occurrence de défauts de manière à réduire le plus possible l'incertitude de leurs propres mesurages;
NOTE       Ces politiques sont par exemple requises dans l'ISO/IEC 17025:2017, 7.2.1.1, 7.2.1.3, 7.3.1 et 7.8.5 c) et d).
c)    pour permettre aux laboratoires d'étalonnage et à leurs clients de convenir d'une politique commune sur la manière de traiter les défauts présents sur une mesure matérialisée ayant été envoyée en vue d'être étalonnée;
d)    pour former les utilisateurs de mesures matérialisées à la signification et à l'importance variable des différents types de défauts;
e)    pour les autres normes GPS qui font référence à la question du choix des emplacements de mesure ou du choix des zones à mesurer ou des zones à éviter lors du mesurage.

Specifikacija geometrijskih veličin izdelka (GPS) - Tekstura površine: ravna - 73. del: Izrazi in definicije za površinske napake pri meritvah materiala (ISO 25178-73:2019)

Ta del standarda ISO 25178 obravnava geometrijske napake, ki so lahko prisotne na površinah materialov in kalibracijskih preskušancev v skladu s standardoma ISO 5436-1 in ISO 25178-70. Opredeljuje razrede teh geometrijskih napak in določa načine odzivanja na te pomanjkljivosti.
Ta del standarda ISO 25178 se uporablja za:
a) pomoč kupcem in uporabnikom meritev materialov pri meroslovju površin, da pri nakupu od proizvajalcev in dobaviteljev določijo njihove nazivne lastnosti (idealne geometrijske lastnosti);
b) podporo uporabnikom meritev materialov, da oblikujejo svoja pravila in pravilnike za odzivanje na pojavljanje napak s tem, da zmanjšajo negotovost svojih lastnih meritev;
c) podporo laboratorijem za umerjanje in njihovim strankam, da se dogovorijo o skupni politiki ravnanja z napakami pri meritvah materialov, poslanih na umerjanje;
d) izobraževanje uporabnikov meritev materialov o različnem pomenu in pomenu različnih vrst napak;
e) druge standarde GPS, ki se sklicujejo na vprašanje izbire merilnih mest ali izbire območij, ki jih je treba izmeriti oziroma se jih pri merjenju izogibati.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Jun-2019
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
12-Jun-2019
Completion Date
12-Jun-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 25178-73:2019
01-september-2019

Specifikacija geometrijskih veličin izdelka (GPS) - Tekstura površine: ravna - 73.

del: Izrazi in definicije za površinske napake pri meritvah materiala (ISO 25178-

73:2019)

Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - Surface texture: Areal - Part 73: Terms and

definitions for surface defects on material measures (ISO 25178-73:2019)

Geometrische Produktspezifikation (GPS) - Oberflächenbeschaffenheit: Flächenhaft -

Teil 73: Begriffe für Oberflächenfehler an Maßverkörperungen (ISO 25178-73:2019)

Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) - État de surface: surfacique - Partie 73:

Termes et définitions pour les défauts de surface sur les mesures matérialisées (ISO

25178-73:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 25178-73:2019
ICS:
01.040.17 Meroslovje in merjenje. Metrology and measurement.
Fizikalni pojavi (Slovarji) Physical phenomena
(Vocabularies)
17.040.40 Specifikacija geometrijskih Geometrical Product
veličin izdelka (GPS) Specification (GPS)
SIST EN ISO 25178-73:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 25178-73:2019
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SIST EN ISO 25178-73:2019
EN ISO 25178-73
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
June 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 01.040.17; 17.040.40
English Version
Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - Surface texture:
Areal - Part 73: Terms and definitions for surface defects
on material measures (ISO 25178-73:2019)

Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) - État de Geometrische Produktspezifikation (GPS) -

surface: surfacique - Partie 73: Termes et définitions Oberflächenbeschaffenheit: Flächenhaft - Teil 73:

pour les défauts de surface sur les mesures Begriffe für Oberflächenfehler an Maßverkörperungen

matérialisées (ISO 25178-73:2019) (ISO 25178-73:2019)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 3 May 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, North

Macedonia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 25178-73:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 25178-73:2019
EN ISO 25178-73:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 25178-73:2019
EN ISO 25178-73:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 25178-73:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 213

"Dimensional and geometrical product specifications and verification" in collaboration with Technical

Committee CEN/TC 290 “Dimensional and geometrical product specification and verification” the

secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by December 2019, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by December 2019.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 25178-73:2019 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 25178-73:2019 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 25178-73:2019
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SIST EN ISO 25178-73:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 25178-73
First edition
2019-05
Geometrical product specifications
(GPS) — Surface texture: Areal —
Part 73:
Terms and definitions for surface
defects on material measures
Spécification géométrique des produits (GPS) — État de surface:
surfacique —
Partie 73: Termes et définitions pour les défauts de surface sur les
mesures matérialisées
Reference number
ISO 25178-73:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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SIST EN ISO 25178-73:2019
ISO 25178-73:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 25178-73:2019
ISO 25178-73:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 General terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Terms and definitions for classes of defects .................................................................................................................. 2

3.3 Terms and definitions for ways of responding to defects .................................................................................. 3

Annex A (informative) Stains and discolorations .................................................................................................................................... 5

Annex B (informative) Relation to the GPS matrix model .............................................................................................................. 6

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 25178-73:2019
ISO 25178-73:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 213, Dimensional and geometrical product

specifications and verification.
A list of all parts in the ISO 25178 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 25178-73:2019
ISO 25178-73:2019(E)
Introduction
0.1 General

This document is a geometrical product specification (GPS) standard and is to be regarded as a general

GPS standard (see ISO 14638). It influences chain link F of the chain of standards on profile surface

texture, areal surface texture and surface imperfections.

The ISO GPS masterplan given in ISO 14638 gives an overview of the ISO GPS system of which this

document is a part. The fundamental rules of ISO GPS given in ISO 8015 apply to this document.

The default decision rules given in ISO 14253-1 apply to specifications made in accordance with this

document, unless otherwise stated.

For more detailed information on the relation of this document to the GPS matrix model, see Annex B.

This document is based on the premise that a material measure has a real geometrical surface which

is a realization of an ideal or nominal surface, which in turn can in most cases be regarded as a simple

mathematical concept: for example a plane, a sphere, a step function or a sinusoidal shape. In each

case there will be an associated precisely known quantity, which is used when the material measure is

measured by a surface texture-measuring instrument in one or more operations during the calibration

and set-up of that instrument.

Any portion of the measuring surface of the material measure at which the real surface deviates from

the ideal nominal surface is therefore more or less undesirable, and is here denoted by the term defect.

0.2 Relationship to ISO 8785

ISO 8785 was intended to apply to all types of surface, whether functional or otherwise. Examples

of functional surfaces are: brake disks, cylinder linings, optical lens and mirror surfaces, fluid pipe

couplings, marine propeller blades and artificial hip joints. In each case, the surface has to perform one

or more definite jobs and, consequently, the choice of method of manufacture and the type of surface

geometry, together with a certain range of parameter values which are specified for it, are usually a

compromise between conflicting requirements which might not all be perfectly fulfilled. The functional

surface can then be measured in order to find out how closely it matches the parameter values which

have been specified.

However, this is not the same as determining how well the surface functions. In many cases it is not

obvious exactly what the ideal profile shape from the point of view of best function would be. Therefore,

it is possible that a surface which deviates from the specified profile in some places actually performs

better than one which has no deviations. For this reason, ISO 8785 used the general term imperfections,

which does not suggest undesirability, in preference to the term defects, which does suggest this.

Unlike ISO 8785, this document does not deal with any classes of defect, other than geometrical, that

might appear upon the surfaces of material measures. Examples of other classes of defect are: unwanted

variations in such physical properties as:
— surface hardness;
— surface colour;
— electrical properties.

For the purposes of this document, no instance of such an unwanted variation in a physical property

is considered to be a defect unless it coincides spatially with the area of a geometrical defect. For

information on variations in surface colour, see Annex A.
0.3 Relationship to ISO 5436-1 and ISO 25178-70

The material measures and calibration specimens which are described in ISO 5436-1 and ISO 25178-70

are not functional surfaces as described in 0.2. Material measures exist only in order to be measured;

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 25178-73:2019
ISO 25178-73:2019(E)

there are no physical jobs which they have to do. They are physical representations of a mathematically

simple shape, which is therefore the ideal shape and which can be specified precisely.

Any deviation from this ideal shape is therefore undesirable, and so the term defect is preferable to the

term imperfection. It is possible for a single calibration specimen to be used in two or more different

applications, but for each application there exists a theoretically ideal shape, although certain features

of the ideal might be more important in one application than in the other.

For example, a sinusoidal roughness specimen can be used to check Ra or RSm parameter values. In

the first application it is more important that the sinusoidal specimen exhibits uniformity of amplitude

(peak height) than uniformity of wavelength (peak spacing), but in the second application it is the

other way around. The fact that the calibration specimen can be used in two different applications does

not make it a functional surface; it is still a measurement standard which exists only in order to be

measured.
0.4 Defining defects by reference to geometrical shape rather than cause

ISO 8785:1998, Clause 4, contains several descriptions of surface imperfections in terms which make

reference to the cause of the imperfection, instead of just their geometrical shape. This can create the

following difficulties when applying these descriptions in practice:

a) the possibility of confusion, in cases where a feature has the shape of one type of imperfection, but

has the cause of a different one;

b) in many cases, particularly with very small features at the limits of visibility, the cause might be

unknown and hard to discover;
c) it becomes more difficult to translate the terms into other languages.

In this document the emphasis is on geometrical shape, and three terms will be defined corresponding

to the cases in which the deviation is upwards from the surface (outward defect, 3.2.6), downwards into

the surface (inward defect, 3.2.7) or neither upward nor downward (neutral defect, 3.2.8). However,

there is one exception: it is necessary to define one special type of defect (negative defect, 3.2.9) which

sometimes appears on material measures that have been manufactured by one of the widely-used

methods of replication and which appears on such a replicated material measure as the result of a

corresponding defect on the surface of the mother mould (often called a negative), which produced the

replica.
0.5 Terms for ways of responding to defects

Consistent with the general idea that defects are undesirable, this document contains a section which

defines terms for all possible responses to the presence of defects. It does not specify which of these

responses should be applied in any particular situation, it simply defines terms and names for them, and

thus enables users, manufacturers, calibration metrologists and writers of other standards documents

to state their own policies and procedures clearly and unambiguously.

0.6 Defect as a portion of the surface rather than a property of the whole surface

A defect is a geometrical feature limited by natural boundaries (in the language of ISO 8015:2011, 5.4

and ISO 22432:2011, 3.2), that is non-ideal and real (ISO 22432:2011, 3.2.2). In this document a defe

...

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