This document defines a number of specification operators for the specification of extended edge transition features between features. An edge transition feature is an integral feature connecting two adjacent integral features. The extended edge transition feature includes portions of the adjacent features. All these specifications apply to any line in a defined direction in the extended edge transition feature. This document also defines the specification modifiers and the drawing indications for such transition specifications.
The proportions and dimensions of the graphical symbols to be used are also specified.
The specifications defined in this document are suitable for relatively simple edge transition functions, for example ensuring assembly without interference. For more complex functions, geometrical tolerancing offers more precise tools.
This document is by intention limited to only edge transition features between two planes and between a cylinder and a plane nominally perpendicular to it.
Annex A gives the first approach for an algorithm to identify toleranced features and adjacent reference sections. This algorithm is subject to change as more experience is gathered.
This document provides a set of tools to express several transition specifications. It does not present any information on the relationship between a function or a use and a transition specification.
NOTE 1 Corners (the transition between three or more features) are not edge transition features and are consequently not covered by this document.
NOTE 2 An edge transition feature exists between two single features. A defined edge transition feature has a defined nominal shape and is not sharp (r = 0).

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This document defines a number of specification operators for the specification of extended edge transition features between features. An edge transition feature is an integral feature connecting two adjacent integral features. The extended edge transition feature includes portions of the adjacent features. All these specifications apply to any line in a defined direction in the extended edge transition feature. This document also defines the specification modifiers and the drawing indications for such transition specifications. The proportions and dimensions of the graphical symbols to be used are also specified. The specifications defined in this document are suitable for relatively simple edge transition functions, for example ensuring assembly without interference. For more complex functions, geometrical tolerancing offers more precise tools. This document is by intention limited to only edge transition features between two planes and between a cylinder and a plane nominally perpendicular to it. Annex A gives the first approach for an algorithm to identify toleranced features and adjacent reference sections. This algorithm is subject to change as more experience is gathered. This document provides a set of tools to express several transition specifications. It does not present any information on the relationship between a function or a use and a transition specification. NOTE 1 Corners (the transition between three or more features) are not edge transition features and are consequently not covered by this document. NOTE 2 An edge transition feature exists between two single features. A defined edge transition feature has a defined nominal shape and is not sharp (r = 0).

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This document describes principles and tools to control a manufacturing process in accordance with a GPS specification. For this purpose a set of one or more complementary, independent characteristics (size, form, orientation, and location characteristics independent to each other) that correlate to the manufacturing process parameters and to the manufacturing process coordinate system established from the manufacturing datum system are used.
This document describes the concept of decomposition of the macro-geometrical part of the GPS specification. It does not cover the micro-geometry, i.e. surface texture.
The objective of the decomposition presented in this document is to define correction values for manufacturing control or to perform a statistical analysis of the process.

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This document describes principles and tools to control a manufacturing process in accordance with a GPS specification. For this purpose a set of one or more complementary, independent characteristics (size, form, orientation, and location characteristics independent to each other) that correlate to the manufacturing process parameters and to the manufacturing process coordinate system established from the manufacturing datum system are used. This document describes the concept of decomposition of the macro-geometrical part of the GPS specification. It does not cover the micro-geometry, i.e. surface texture. The objective of the decomposition presented in this document is to define correction values for manufacturing control or to perform a statistical analysis of the process.

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ISO 17450-4:2017 specifies general rules for quantifying GPS deviations for individual GPS characteristics.
NOTE GPS deviations can be local or global. A GPS characteristic defined from local GPS deviations is a parameter that transforms the set of local deviations into a global characteristic using a quantifying function (for more details, see Table 1).

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ISO 17450-4:2017 specifies general rules for quantifying GPS deviations for individual GPS characteristics. NOTE GPS deviations can be local or global. A GPS characteristic defined from local GPS deviations is a parameter that transforms the set of local deviations into a global characteristic using a quantifying function (for more details, see Table 1).

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ISO 14253-1:2017 establishes the rules for verifying the conformity or nonconformity with a given tolerance for a characteristic of a workpiece (or a population of workpieces) or with a given maximum permissible errors for a metrological characteristic of a measuring equipment, including when the measured value falls close to the specification limits, taking measurement uncertainty into account.
ISO 14253-1:2017 applies to specifications defined in general GPS standards (see ISO 14638), i.e. standards prepared by ISO/TC 213, including:
- workpiece specifications and population specifications (usually given as an upper specification limit or a lower specification limit or both);
- measuring equipment specifications (usually given as maximum permissible errors).
ISO 14253-1:2017 only applies for characteristics and maximum permissible errors expressed as quantity values.

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ISO 14253-1:2017 establishes the rules for verifying the conformity or nonconformity with a given tolerance for a characteristic of a workpiece (or a population of workpieces) or with a given maximum permissible errors for a metrological characteristic of a measuring equipment, including when the measured value falls close to the specification limits, taking measurement uncertainty into account. ISO 14253-1:2017 applies to specifications defined in general GPS standards (see ISO 14638), i.e. standards prepared by ISO/TC 213, including: - workpiece specifications and population specifications (usually given as an upper specification limit or a lower specification limit or both); - measuring equipment specifications (usually given as maximum permissible errors). ISO 14253-1:2017 only applies for characteristics and maximum permissible errors expressed as quantity values.

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This part of IEC 62788 provides a method for measuring the maximum representative change
in linear dimensions of encapsulation sheet material in an unrestricted thermal exposure as
might or might not be seen during photovoltaic (PV) module fabrication. The standard does
not take into account any resulting stresses which may develop due to restricted dimensional
changes or friction during module fabrication.
Data obtained using this method may be used by encapsulation material manufacturers for
the purpose of quality control of their encapsulation material as well as for reporting in
product datasheets. Data obtained using this method may be used by PV module
manufacturers for the purpose of material acceptance, process development, design analysis,
or failure analysis.
This method may also be used to examine other materials, such as backsheets and
frontsheets as described in IEC 62788-2. Certain details of the test (including specimen size
and substrate) are specified for that application in 62788-2.

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ISO 18391:2016 defines rules to establish and to indicate population specifications, which are used to specify conditions on population characteristics, which are established from a set of characteristic values obtained one on each workpiece of a population of workpieces.
A population specification (as applied to a population of workpieces considered as a collection and not as individual items) can be seen as a complementary requirement to the individual specification (as applied to each workpiece considered as individual items). Population specifications express the statistical hypotheses used on the population of workpieces.
NOTE 1 A population specification is a complement to an individual GPS specification.
NOTE 2 ISO 18391:2016 is not intended to mandate a given tolerancing method or how to calculate tolerance values. Its intent is to specify tools to allow the expression of population specifications.

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ISO 18391:2016 defines rules to establish and to indicate population specifications, which are used to specify conditions on population characteristics, which are established from a set of characteristic values obtained one on each workpiece of a population of workpieces. A population specification (as applied to a population of workpieces considered as a collection and not as individual items) can be seen as a complementary requirement to the individual specification (as applied to each workpiece considered as individual items). Population specifications express the statistical hypotheses used on the population of workpieces. NOTE 1 A population specification is a complement to an individual GPS specification. NOTE 2 ISO 18391:2016 is not intended to mandate a given tolerancing method or how to calculate tolerance values. Its intent is to specify tools to allow the expression of population specifications.

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ISO 1:2016 defines the concepts of a reference temperature and of the standard reference temperature, and specifies the standard reference temperature value for the specification of geometrical and dimensional properties of an object. Some examples of geometrical and dimensional properties include size, location, orientation (including angle), form and surface texture of a workpiece.
ISO 1:2016 Standard is also applicable to the definition of the measurand used in verification or calibration.

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ISO/TS 17865:2016 describes how to evaluate the test value uncertainty when testing is performed according to ISO 10360‑5.

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ISO 1:2016 defines the concepts of a reference temperature and of the standard reference temperature, and specifies the standard reference temperature value for the specification of geometrical and dimensional properties of an object. Some examples of geometrical and dimensional properties include size, location, orientation (including angle), form and surface texture of a workpiece. ISO 1:2016 Standard is also applicable to the definition of the measurand used in verification or calibration.

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ISO 17450-3:2016 gives default definitions for the extracted features (integral or derived) of workpieces, which are toleranced features in GPS specifications (dimensional, geometrical, or surface texture specifications). This part of ISO 17450 defines default geometrical features used to define GPS characteristics.

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ISO 17450-3:2016 gives default definitions for the extracted features (integral or derived) of workpieces, which are toleranced features in GPS specifications (dimensional, geometrical, or surface texture specifications). This part of ISO 17450 defines default geometrical features used to define GPS characteristics.

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ISO 14253-5:2015 specifies concepts and terms for evaluating the uncertainties of the test values derived according to a test protocol agreed upon by the parties and relative to instrument indication(s), obtained in verification testing of GPS indicating measuring instruments.
NOTE The uncertainty of the test values, referred to as test value uncertainty, is not to be confused with the measurement uncertainty associated with using that indicating measuring instrument to measure workpieces. The former only is covered in this part of ISO 14253; for guidance on the latter see the ISO/IEC Guide 98‑3 (GUM) and ISO 14253‑2.
When a test of an indicating measuring instrument comprises several test values, some relative to the instrument indication and some to other metrological characteristics, this part of ISO 14253 is concerned with the uncertainty of the former only.
This part of ISO 14253 does not provide guidelines to ensure the adequacy of a test protocol; rather, once a test protocol is given, it describes how to evaluate the consequent test value uncertainty.

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ISO 14253-5:2015 specifies concepts and terms for evaluating the uncertainties of the test values derived according to a test protocol agreed upon by the parties and relative to instrument indication(s), obtained in verification testing of GPS indicating measuring instruments. NOTE The uncertainty of the test values, referred to as test value uncertainty, is not to be confused with the measurement uncertainty associated with using that indicating measuring instrument to measure workpieces. The former only is covered in this part of ISO 14253; for guidance on the latter see the ISO/IEC Guide 98‑3 (GUM) and ISO 14253‑2. When a test of an indicating measuring instrument comprises several test values, some relative to the instrument indication and some to other metrological characteristics, this part of ISO 14253 is concerned with the uncertainty of the former only. This part of ISO 14253 does not provide guidelines to ensure the adequacy of a test protocol; rather, once a test protocol is given, it describes how to evaluate the consequent test value uncertainty.

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ISO 14638:2014 is a fundamental ISO GPS standard. It explains the concept of Geometrical Product Specification (ISO GPS), and provides a framework to illustrate how current and future ISO GPS standards address the requirements of the ISO GPS system.
The framework is intended to be of use to users of ISO GPS standards, by illustrating the extent of the scope of the different standards, and showing how they relate to each other.
The framework is also used for structuring the development of standards for GPS by technical committee ISO/TC 213.

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ISO 14638:2014 is a fundamental ISO GPS standard. It explains the concept of Geometrical Product Specification (ISO GPS), and provides a framework to illustrate how current and future ISO GPS standards address the requirements of the ISO GPS system. The framework is intended to be of use to users of ISO GPS standards, by illustrating the extent of the scope of the different standards, and showing how they relate to each other. The framework is also used for structuring the development of standards for GPS by technical committee ISO/TC 213.

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ISO 2538-1:2014 specifies terms and definitions for wedges, three series of wedge angles from 120° to 0° 30′ and a series of wedge slopes from 1:10 to 1:500, for general mechanical engineering purposes.

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ISO 2538-2:2014 specifies methods for the dimensioning and tolerancing of wedges.
For simplicity, only truncated wedges have been represented; however, ISO 2538-2:2014 can be applied to any type of wedge.

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ISO 2538-1:2014 specifies terms and definitions for wedges, three series of wedge angles from 120° to 0° 30′ and a series of wedge slopes from 1:10 to 1:500, for general mechanical engineering purposes.

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ISO 2538-2:2014 specifies methods for the dimensioning and tolerancing of wedges. For simplicity, only truncated wedges have been represented; however, ISO 2538-2:2014 can be applied to any type of wedge.

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This Technical Specification gives guidance on the implementation of the concept of "Guide to the estimation of uncertainty in measurement" (in short GUM) to be applied in industry for the calibration of (measurement) standards and measuring equipment in the field of GPS and the measurement of workpiece GPS-characteristics.
The aim is to promote full information on how to achieve uncertainty statements and provide the basis for international comparison of results of measurements and their uncertainties (relationship between purchaser and supplier).
This Technical Specification is intended to support ISO 14253-1. This Technical Specification and ISO 14253-1 are beneficial to all technical functions in a company in the interpretation of GPS specifications (i.e. tolerances of workpiece characteristics and values of maximum permissible errors (MPE) for metrological characteristics of measuring equipment.

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ISO/TS 17863:2013 specifies the indication of constraint conditions in between the parts of movable assemblies in conjunction with tolerancing according to ISO GPS standards. On geometrical tolerancing, one part of the assembly includes tolerance indications and another part includes corresponding datum indications.

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ISO/TR 14253-6:2012 expands the scope of decision rules to industrial situations where the default rule of ISO 14253-1 might not be economically optimal. (ISO 14253-1 provides a default decision rule having a very high probability that a measured value resulting in product acceptance also yields a product with the corresponding measurand conforming to specifications.) ISO/TR 14253-6:2012 does not address how to determine the cost of correct decisions (accepting conforming workpieces or rejecting nonconforming workpieces) or incorrect decisions (rejecting conforming workpieces or accepting nonconforming workpieces) as this is a business concern. However, the terminology and requirements to communicate and implement the particular decision rules desired by an organization are provided along with examples to guide the reader.

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1 Scope
This part of ISO 17450 defines terms related to specifications, operators (and operations) and uncertainties used in geometrical product specifications (GPS) standards. It presents the basic tenets of the GPS philosophy while discussing the impact of uncertainty on those tenets, and examines the processes of specification and verification as they apply to GPS.

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1 Scope This part of ISO 17450 defines terms related to specifications, operators (and operations) and uncertainties used in geometrical product specifications (GPS) standards. It presents the basic tenets of the GPS philosophy while discussing the impact of uncertainty on those tenets, and examines the processes of specification and verification as they apply to GPS.

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ISO 1119:2011 provides calculated values for a series of cones or conical tapers, ranging from 120° to less than 1°, or ratios from 1:0,289 to 1:500, intended for general use in technical engineering.
It applies only to plain conical surfaces, and excludes prismatic pieces, taper threads, bevel gears, etc.

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ISO 17450-1:2011 provides a model for geometrical specification and verification and defines the corresponding concepts. It also explains the mathematical basis of the concepts associated with the model and defines general terms for geometrical features of workpieces.
ISO 17450-1:2011 defines the fundamental concepts for the GPS system in order to provide nonambiguous GPS language to be used in design, manufacturing and verification, to identify features, characteristics and rules to provide the basis for specifications, to provide a complete symbology language to indicate GPS specifications, to provide simplified symbology by defining default rules, and to provide consistent rules for verification.

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ISO 1119:2011 provides calculated values for a series of cones or conical tapers, ranging from 120° to less than 1°, or ratios from 1:0,289 to 1:500, intended for general use in technical engineering. It applies only to plain conical surfaces, and excludes prismatic pieces, taper threads, bevel gears, etc.

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ISO 17450-1:2011 provides a model for geometrical specification and verification and defines the corresponding concepts. It also explains the mathematical basis of the concepts associated with the model and defines general terms for geometrical features of workpieces. ISO 17450-1:2011 defines the fundamental concepts for the GPS system in order to provide nonambiguous GPS language to be used in design, manufacturing and verification, to identify features, characteristics and rules to provide the basis for specifications, to provide a complete symbology language to indicate GPS specifications, to provide simplified symbology by defining default rules, and to provide consistent rules for verification.

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ISO 22432:2011 defines general terms and types of features for geometrical features of specifications for workpieces. These definitions are based on concepts developed in ISO/TS 17450-1.
ISO 22432:2011 is not intended for industrial use as such among designers, but is aimed to serve as the "road map" mapping out the interrelationship between geometrical features, thus enabling future standardization for industry and software makers in a consistent manner.

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ISO 22432:2011 defines general terms and types of features for geometrical features of specifications for workpieces. These definitions are based on concepts developed in ISO/TS 17450-1. ISO 22432:2011 is not intended for industrial use as such among designers, but is aimed to serve as the "road map" mapping out the interrelationship between geometrical features, thus enabling future standardization for industry and software makers in a consistent manner.

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ISO 8015:2011 specifies fundamental concepts, principles and rules valid for the creation, interpretation and application of all other International Standards, Technical Specifications and Technical Reports concerning geometrical product specifications (GPS) and verification.
It applies to the interpretation of GPS indications on all types of drawings. For the purposes of ISO 8015:2011, the term "drawing" is to be interpreted in the broadest possible sense, encompassing the total package of documentation specifying the workpiece.

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ISO 14253-3:2011 provides guidelines and defines procedures for assisting the customer and supplier to reach amicable agreements on disputed measurement uncertainty statements regulated in accordance with ISO 14253-1, and so avoid costly and time-consuming disputes.

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ISO 14253-2:2011 gives guidance on the implementation of the concept of the "Guide to the estimation of uncertainty in measurement" (in short GUM) to be applied in industry for the calibration of (measurement) standards and measuring equipment in the field of GPS and the measurement of workpiece GPS characteristics. The aim is to promote full information on how to achieve uncertainty statements and provide the basis for international comparison of measurement results and their uncertainties (relationship between purchaser and supplier).
ISO 14253-2:2011 is intended to support ISO 14253-1. Both parts are beneficial to all technical functions in a company in the interpretation of GPS specifications [i.e. tolerances of workpiece characteristics and values of maximum permissible errors (MPEs) for metrological characteristics of measuring equipment].
ISO 14253-2:2011 introduces the Procedure for Uncertainty MAnagement (PUMA), which is a practical, iterative procedure based on the GUM for estimating uncertainty of measurement without changing the basic concepts of the GUM. It is intended to be used generally for estimating uncertainty of measurement and giving statements of uncertainty for: single measurement results; the comparison of two or more measurement results; the comparison of measurement results from one or more workpieces or pieces of measurement equipment with given specifications [i.e. maximum permissible errors (MPEs) for a metrological characteristic of a measurement instrument or measurement standard, and tolerance limits for a workpiece characteristic, etc.], for proving conformance or non-conformance with the specification.
The iterative method is based basically on an upper bound strategy, i.e. overestimation of the uncertainty at all levels, but the iterations control the amount of overestimation. Intentional overestimation and not underestimation, is necessary to prevent wrong decisions based on measurement results. The amount of overestimation is controlled by economical evaluation of the situation.
The iterative method is a tool to maximize profit and minimize cost in the metrological activities of a company. The iterative method/procedure is economically self-adjusting and is also a tool to change/reduce existing uncertainty in measurement with the aim of reducing cost in metrology (manufacture). The iterative method makes it possible to compromise between risk, effort and cost in uncertainty estimation and budgeting.

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ISO 14253-3:2011 provides guidelines and defines procedures for assisting the customer and supplier to reach amicable agreements on disputed measurement uncertainty statements regulated in accordance with ISO 14253-1, and so avoid costly and time-consuming disputes.

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ISO 14253-2:2011 gives guidance on the implementation of the concept of the "Guide to the estimation of uncertainty in measurement" (in short GUM) to be applied in industry for the calibration of (measurement) standards and measuring equipment in the field of GPS and the measurement of workpiece GPS characteristics. The aim is to promote full information on how to achieve uncertainty statements and provide the basis for international comparison of measurement results and their uncertainties (relationship between purchaser and supplier). ISO 14253-2:2011 is intended to support ISO 14253-1. Both parts are beneficial to all technical functions in a company in the interpretation of GPS specifications [i.e. tolerances of workpiece characteristics and values of maximum permissible errors (MPEs) for metrological characteristics of measuring equipment]. ISO 14253-2:2011 introduces the Procedure for Uncertainty MAnagement (PUMA), which is a practical, iterative procedure based on the GUM for estimating uncertainty of measurement without changing the basic concepts of the GUM. It is intended to be used generally for estimating uncertainty of measurement and giving statements of uncertainty for: single measurement results; the comparison of two or more measurement results; the comparison of measurement results from one or more workpieces or pieces of measurement equipment with given specifications [i.e. maximum permissible errors (MPEs) for a metrological characteristic of a measurement instrument or measurement standard, and tolerance limits for a workpiece characteristic, etc.], for proving conformance or non-conformance with the specification. The iterative method is based basically on an upper bound strategy, i.e. overestimation of the uncertainty at all levels, but the iterations control the amount of overestimation. Intentional overestimation and not underestimation, is necessary to prevent wrong decisions based on measurement results. The amount of overestimation is controlled by economical evaluation of the situation. The iterative method is a tool to maximize profit and minimize cost in the metrological activities of a company. The iterative method/procedure is economically self-adjusting and is also a tool to change/reduce existing uncertainty in measurement with the aim of reducing cost in metrology (manufacture). The iterative method makes it possible to compromise between risk, effort and cost in uncertainty estimation and budgeting.

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ISO 12781-2:2011 specifies the complete specification operator for flatness of complete integral features only, i.e. geometrical characteristics of individual features of type plane.

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ISO 12780-2:2011 specifies the complete specification operator for straightness of integral features only and covers complete straightness profiles only, i.e. geometrical characteristics of features of type line.

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ISO 25378:2011 defines general terms for geometrical specifications, characteristics and conditions. These definitions are based on concepts developed in ISO 17450-1 and ISO 22432 and they are given by using a mathematical description based on Annex B of ISO 17450-1:2011.
ISO 25378:2011 is not intended for industrial use as such among designers, but is aimed to serve as the "road map" mapping out the requirements based on geometrical features, thus enabling future standardization for industry and software makers in a consistent manner.
ISO 25378:2011 defines general types of geometrical characteristics and conditions which can be used in GPS. These descriptions are applicable to
a workpiece,
an assembly,
a population of workpieces, and
a population of assemblies.
These definitions are based on concepts of operators and the duality principle contained in ISO 17450-1 and ISO/TS 17450-2 and on the description of types of geometrical features defined in ISO 22432.
Conceptually, these specification operators can be used as specification operators or as verification operators (duality principle).
ISO 25378:2011 is not intended to define GPS specifications, symbology or other types of expression.

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ISO 12780-1:2011 defines the terms and concepts related to straightness of individual integral features and covers complete straightness profiles only.

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ISO 12781-1:2011 defines the terms and concepts related to flatness of individual complete integral features only.

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ISO 25378:2011 defines general terms for geometrical specifications, characteristics and conditions. These definitions are based on concepts developed in ISO 17450-1 and ISO 22432 and they are given by using a mathematical description based on Annex B of ISO 17450-1:2011. ISO 25378:2011 is not intended for industrial use as such among designers, but is aimed to serve as the "road map" mapping out the requirements based on geometrical features, thus enabling future standardization for industry and software makers in a consistent manner. ISO 25378:2011 defines general types of geometrical characteristics and conditions which can be used in GPS. These descriptions are applicable to a workpiece, an assembly, a population of workpieces, and a population of assemblies. These definitions are based on concepts of operators and the duality principle contained in ISO 17450-1 and ISO/TS 17450-2 and on the description of types of geometrical features defined in ISO 22432. Conceptually, these specification operators can be used as specification operators or as verification operators (duality principle). ISO 25378:2011 is not intended to define GPS specifications, symbology or other types of expression.

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ISO 12780-2:2011 specifies the complete specification operator for straightness of integral features only and covers complete straightness profiles only, i.e. geometrical characteristics of features of type line.

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ISO 14406:2010 specifies the basic terminology for GPS extraction. It defines a framework for the fundamental operations used in GPS extraction and introduces the concepts of sampling and reconstruction for extraction, together with some principal sampling schemes on several basic geometries.

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ISO 14406:2010 specifies the basic terminology for GPS extraction. It defines a framework for the fundamental operations used in GPS extraction and introduces the concepts of sampling and reconstruction for extraction, together with some principal sampling schemes on several basic geometries.

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