Ambient air - Monitoring the effects of genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Pollen monitoring - Part 2: Biological pollen sampling using bee colonies

This Technical Specification describes a procedure through which pollen – in particular pollen of genetically modified organisms (GMO) – can be sampled by means of bee colonies.
Bee colonies, especially the foraging bees, actively roam an area and are therefore area related samplers. Pollen sampling depends on the collection activity of the bees and the availability of pollen sources within the spatial zone according to the bees' preferences (supply of melliferous plants). A colony of bees normally forages over an area of up to 5 km radius (median 1,6 km, mean 2,2 km), in rare cases some bees may also forage in greater distances up to 10 km and more [26].
Foragers fix the gathered pollen on the outside of their hind legs (pollen loads, also known as pollen pellets). Inside the hive they place these pollen loads into comb cells close to the brood nest (bee bread). Furthermore, foragers gather nectar and honeydew. Nectar contains pollen which fell from the anthers of the blossom into the nectar drop, or pollen which was dispersed by the wind and sticks in the nectar of other blossoms or adheres to the sticky honeydew of plants. Nectar and honeydew are converted to honey and stored by the bees in the beehive.
Honey, pollen load and bee-bread may be used as sample matrices for the subsequent analysis of pollen as it is possible to concentrate sufficient amounts of pollen for microscopic and molecular biological diagnostics.
Microscopic analysis is used to identify the various pollen types and to quantify the exposure to the target pollen types in question. GMO exposure is analyzed by molecular-biological methods: For analysis of pollen DNA quantitative PCR methods are used and described here in this Technical Specification. The analysis of GMO specific proteins and toxins in pollen is possible, too, using ELISA, but to this date the method has not been evaluated enough in pollen matrices for standardization in this Technical Specification.

Außenluft - Monitoring der Wirkungen von gentechnisch veränderten Organismen (GVO) - Pollenmonitoring - Teil 2: Biologische Pollensammlung mit Bienenvölkern

Diese Technische Spezifikation beschreibt ein Verfahren, mit dem Pollen — insbesondere Pollen von gentechnisch veränderten Organismen (GVO) — mittels Bienenvölkern gesammelt werden können.
Bienenvölker, insbesondere die sammelnden Flugbienen, durchstreifen aktiv ein Gebiet und sind daher flächenbezogene Sammler. Die Pollensammlung steht in Abhängigkeit von der Sammelaktivität der Bienen sowie der Verfügbarkeit von Pollenquellen nach den Vorlieben der Bienen innerhalb des räumlichen Gebiets (Trachtangebot). Ein Bienenvolk befliegt in der Regel ein Gebiet mit einem Radius von bis zu 5 km (Medianwert 1,6 km, Mittelwert 2,2 km), in seltenen Fällen können einige Bienen auch Gebiete in größeren Entfernungen von bis zu 10 km und mehr anfliegen [26].
Sammelbienen befestigen die gesammelten Pollen auf der Außenseite ihrer Hinterbeine (Pollenladung, auch als Pollenhöschen bezeichnet). Im Inneren des Bienenstocks werden diese Pollenladungen in Wabenzellen in der Nähe des Brutnestes verbracht (Bienenbrot). Außerdem tragen Sammelbienen Nektar und Honigtau ein. Der Nektar enthält Pollen, der aus den Antheren der Blüte in den Nektartropfen gefallen ist, oder Pollen, der durch den Wind verbreitet im Nektar anderer Blüten bzw. auf klebrigem Honigtau an Pflanzen haften bleibt. Im Bienenstock werden Nektar und Honigtau zu Honig konvertiert und gelagert.
Honig, Pollenladung und Bienenbrot können als Probenmatrices für die anschließende Pollenanalyse genutzt werden, da es möglich ist, ausreichende Pollenmengen für eine molekularbiologische Diagnostik zu konzentrieren.
Die mikroskopische Analyse dient der Identifizierung der verschiedenen Pollenarten sowie zur quantitativen Bestimmung der Exposition gegenüber den betrachteten Zielpollenarten. Die GVO-Exposition wird durch molekularbiologische Verfahren ermittelt: Zur Analyse der Pollen-DNA werden quantitative PCR-Verfahren eingesetzt, die in der vorliegenden Technischen Spezifikation beschrieben werden. Durch Verwendung von ELISA können auch in Pollen befindliche GVO-spezifische Proteine und Toxine analysiert werden, jedoch wurde dieses Verfahren bis zum heutigen Datum noch nicht ausreichend für den Einsatz in Pollenmatrices und somit für eine Standardisierbarkeit im Rahmen dieser Technischen Spezifikation validiert.

Air ambiant - Surveillance des effets d'organismes génétiquement modifiés (OGM) - Surveillance du pollen - Partie 2 : Échantillonnage biologique du pollen à l'aide de colonies d'abeilles

La présente Spécification technique décrit un mode opératoire avec lequel le pollen, en particulier le pollen d’organismes génétiquement modifiés (OGM), peut être échantillonné à l’aide de colonies d’abeilles.
Les colonies d’abeilles, notamment les abeilles butineuses, se déplacent activement sur une zone et sont donc des échantillonneurs de zone. L’échantillonnage du pollen dépend de l’activité de récolte des abeilles et de la disponibilité des sources de pollen dans la zone spatiale selon les préférences des abeilles (abondance des plantes mellifères). Une colonie d’abeilles butine normalement sur une zone de 5 km de rayon (médiane de 1,6 km, moyenne de 2,2 km), dans de rares cas certaines abeilles peuvent également butiner à des distances supérieures à 10 km et plus [26].
Les butineuses fixent le pollen récolté sur la partie extérieure de leurs pattes arrières (charges de pollen, également appelées pelotes de pollen). Une fois dans la ruche, elles placent ces charges de pollen dans les alvéoles qui entourent le nid à couvain (pain d’abeille). Par ailleurs, les butineuses récoltent le nectar et le miellat. Le nectar contient du pollen tombé des anthères de la fleur dans la goutte de nectar, ou du pollen qui a été dispersé par le vent et se colle au nectar d’autres fleurs ou adhère au miellat collant de plantes. Le nectar et le miellat sont transformés en miel et stockés par les abeilles dans la ruche.
Le miel, la charge de pollen et le pain d’abeille peuvent être utilisés comme matrices d’échantillons pour l’analyse ultérieure du pollen car il est possible de concentrer des quantités suffisantes de pollen pour les diagnostics microscopiques et par biologie moléculaire.
L’analyse microscopique est utilisée pour identifier les différents types de pollen et pour quantifier l’exposition aux types de pollen cibles étudiés. L’analyse de l’exposition aux OGM utilise des méthodes par biologie moléculaire. Pour l’analyse de l’ADN du pollen, des méthodes de PCR quantitative sont utilisées et décrites dans la présente Spécification technique. Il est également possible d’analyser les protéines et les toxines spécifiques des OGM dans le pollen à l’aide de la méthode ELISA. Toutefois, la méthode n’a pas encore été suffisamment évaluée dans les matrices de pollen pour être normalisée dans la présente Spécification technique.

Zunanji zrak - Monitoring učinkov gensko spremenjenih organizmov (GSO) - Monitoring peloda - 2. del: Biološko vzorčenje peloda z uporabo čebelje družine

Načrtovani standard opisuje postopek, v katerem je mogoče pelod – zlasti pelod gensko spremenjenih organizmov – vzorčiti s pomočjo kolonij čebel. Aktivne pašne čebele nabirajo pelod in nektar. Med in cvetni prah se lahko uporabita kot vzorca v naknadnih analizah peloda, saj je mogoče zbrati zadostne količine peloda za molekularno-biološko diagnostiko. Vzorčenje peloda v medu in cvetnem prahu je treba obravnavati skupaj s tehničnim vzorčenjem monitoringa gensko spremenjenih organizmov (NWI št. 264088).

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Publication Date
20-Oct-2015
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9093 - Decision to confirm - Review Enquiry
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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN/TS 16817-2:2016
01-februar-2016
=XQDQML]UDN0RQLWRULQJXþLQNRYJHQVNRVSUHPHQMHQLKRUJDQL]PRY *62 
0RQLWRULQJSHORGDGHO%LRORãNRY]RUþHQMHSHORGD]XSRUDERþHEHOMHGUXåLQH

Ambient air - Monitoring the effects of genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Pollen

monitoring - Part 2: Biological pollen sampling using bee colonies
Außenluft - Monitoring der Wirkungen gentechnisch veränderter Organismen (GVO) -
Pollenmonitoring - Teil 2: Biologische Pollensammlung mit Bienenvölkern

Air ambiant - Surveillance des effets d'organismes génétiquement modifiés (OGM) -

Surveillance du pollen - Partie 2 : Échantillonnage biologique du pollen à l'aide de

colonies d'abeilles
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TS 16817-2:2015
ICS:
13.040.20 Kakovost okoljskega zraka Ambient atmospheres
SIST-TS CEN/TS 16817-2:2016 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 16817-2:2016
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 16817-2:2016
CEN/TS 16817-2
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
October 2015
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
ICS 07.080; 13.020.99
English Version
Ambient air - Monitoring the effects of genetically
modified organisms (GMO) - Pollen monitoring - Part 2:
Biological pollen sampling using bee colonies

Air ambiant - Surveillance des effets d'organismes Außenluft - Monitoring der Wirkungen von

génétiquement modifiés (OGM) - Surveillance du gentechnisch veränderten Organismen (GVO) -

pollen - Partie 2 : Échantillonnage biologique du pollen Pollenmonitoring - Teil 2: Biologische Pollensammlung

à l'aide de colonies d'abeilles mit Bienenvölkern

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 16 May 2015 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to

submit their comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS

available promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in

parallel to the CEN/TS) until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2015 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TS 16817-2:2015 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

4 Basic principle of the procedure ............................................................................................................... 8

5 Sample matrices .............................................................................................................................................. 8

5.1 Honey ................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Pollen load ......................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.3 Bee-bread ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

6 Sampling procedure ....................................................................................................................................... 9

6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

6.2 Bee colony and hive ........................................................................................................................................ 9

6.3 Sample site ......................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.4 Preparation and assembly ........................................................................................................................ 10

6.5 Exposure time ................................................................................................................................................ 10

6.6 Sampling dates .............................................................................................................................................. 10

6.7 Extraction, transport and storage .......................................................................................................... 10

7 Palynology ...................................................................................................................................................... 11

7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11

7.2 From sample preparation to embedded slide preparation .......................................................... 11

7.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11

7.2.2 Honey ................................................................................................................................................................ 11

7.2.3 Pollen load ...................................................................................................................................................... 11

7.2.4 Bee bread ........................................................................................................................................................ 11

7.3 Microscopic analysis ................................................................................................................................... 12

7.4 Pollen diversity ............................................................................................................................................. 12

8 Molecular-biological analysis .................................................................................................................. 13

8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 13

8.2 Sample preparation ..................................................................................................................................... 13

8.2.1 Honey ................................................................................................................................................................ 13

8.2.2 Pollen loads .................................................................................................................................................... 13

8.2.3 Bee bread ........................................................................................................................................................ 14

9 Determination of the target parameters for GMO monitoring and representation of

the results ....................................................................................................................................................... 14

9.1 Microscopic pollen analysis ..................................................................................................................... 14

9.1.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 14

9.1.2 Concentration in counts per gram of sample mass .......................................................................... 14

9.1.3 Total number of pollen collected per exposure time and season............................................... 15

9.1.4 Relative frequency ....................................................................................................................................... 15

9.2 Molecular-biological analysis .................................................................................................................. 16

10 Performance characteristics of the methods ..................................................................................... 16

10.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 16

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10.2 Bee colony ....................................................................................................................................................... 16

10.3 Foraging distance ......................................................................................................................................... 17

10.4 Honey samples, bee-bread samples and pollen load samples ..................................................... 17

10.5 Microscopic pollen analysis ...................................................................................................................... 17

10.6 Molecular-biological analysis................................................................................................................... 17

11 Quality assurance and quality control .................................................................................................. 18

11.1 General measurement strategy and task of pollen monitoring with biological

samplers ........................................................................................................................................................... 18

11.2 Site protocol .................................................................................................................................................... 18

11.3 Accompanying documentation for samples ........................................................................................ 19

11.4 Parallel measurements............................................................................................................................... 19

11.5 Quality assurance and reference materials ........................................................................................ 19

Annex A (normative) Maize-specific requirements ...................................................................................... 20

A.1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................. 20

A.2 Basic principles ............................................................................................................................................. 20

A.3 Sampling .......................................................................................................................................................... 21

A.4 Sample preparation ..................................................................................................................................... 22

A.5 Molecular-biological analysis of maize DNA using PCR .................................................................. 23

A.5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 23

A.5.2 DNA extraction ............................................................................................................................................... 23

A.5.3 Real-time PCR analysis ............................................................................................................................... 24

A.6 Determination of the target parameters for GMO monitoring and assessment of the

results ............................................................................................................................................................... 24

Annex B (normative) Rapeseed specific requirements ............................................................................... 25

B.1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................. 25

B.2 Basic principles ............................................................................................................................................. 25

B.3 Sampling .......................................................................................................................................................... 26

B.4 Sample preparation ..................................................................................................................................... 27

B.5 Molecular-biological analysis of rapeseed DNA using PCR for GMO detection ...................... 28

B.5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 28

B.5.2 DNA extraction ............................................................................................................................................... 28

B.5.3 Real-time PCR analysis ............................................................................................................................... 29

B.6 Determination of the target parameters for GMO monitoring and assessment of the

results ............................................................................................................................................................... 29

Annex C (informative) Good beekeeping practice ......................................................................................... 30

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 31

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European foreword

This document (CEN/TS 16817-2:2015) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 264 “Air

quality”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.

CEN/TS 16817, Ambient air — Monitoring the effects of genetically modified organisms (GMO) — Pollen

monitoring, is composed of the following parts:

— Part 1: Technical pollen sampling using pollen mass filter (PMF) and Sigma-2-sampler;

— Part 2: Biological pollen sampling using bee colonies [the present document].

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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Introduction

The European Parliament and the European Council require an environmental risk assessment and a

post-marketing monitoring for any GMO released to the environment [6; 7]. This had to be implied in

national law in any member state of the EC by date.

Pollen dispersal plays a significant role in the dissemination of genetically modified organisms (GMO).

Hence, a monitoring procedure that involves recording and documentation of input and distribution of

GMO via pollen in a monitoring network mirroring the natural environment is required. For this,

technical (CEN/TS 16817-1) and biological sampling of pollen as well as PCR-screening (polymerase

chain reaction) procedures are employed to provide evidence of GMO-exposure. The biological

sampling system using honey bee colonies is described in the present Technical Specification.

VDI/Guideline 4330 Part 1 [3] presents the necessary fundamentals for the understanding of this

Technical Specification. The sampling of pollen in the sample matrices honey, pollen load and bee-bread

[5] needs to be viewed in conjunction with the technical sampling for the GMO-monitoring [4].

The use of the biological, actively foraging honeybee and the technical passive samplers complement

each other in a manifold and positive way for pollen monitoring of GMO. Therefore it is reasonable to

use both. The technical sampling (CEN/TS 16817-1) is based on stationary point-samplers [1]. They

give a record of pollen exposure in the air at the sample site that correlates with the prevailing wind

direction and relative position to the surrounding pollen sources. The biological sampling using honey

bee colonies serves as indicator for GMO exposure in an area and for exposure to roaming insects. Bees

display a spatially averaging sampling activity, which represents a cross section of the established,

blossoming plants in the area according to the bees collection activities. A wide spectrum of pollen

species is recorded using both sampling methods with the procedures complementing each other

across the vegetation period [21].
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1 Scope

This Technical Specification describes a procedure through which pollen – in particular pollen of

genetically modified organisms (GMO) – can be sampled by means of bee colonies.

Bee colonies, especially the foraging bees, actively roam an area and are therefore area related

samplers. Pollen sampling depends on the collection activity of the bees and the availability of pollen

sources within the spatial zone according to the bees' preferences (supply of melliferous plants). A

colony of bees normally forages over an area of up to 5 km radius (median 1,6 km, mean 2,2 km), in rare

cases some bees may also forage in greater distances up to 10 km and more [26].

Foragers fix the gathered pollen on the outside of their hind legs (pollen loads, also known as pollen

pellets). Inside the hive they place these pollen loads into comb cells close to the brood nest (bee

bread). Furthermore, foragers gather nectar and honeydew. Nectar contains pollen which fell from the

anthers of the blossom into the nectar drop, or pollen which was dispersed by the wind and sticks in the

nectar of other blossoms or adheres to the sticky honeydew of plants. Nectar and honeydew are

converted to honey and stored by the bees in the beehive.

Honey, pollen load and bee-bread may be used as sample matrices for the subsequent analysis of pollen

as it is possible to concentrate sufficient amounts of pollen for microscopic and molecular biological

diagnostics.

Microscopic analysis is used to identify the various pollen types and to quantify the exposure to the

target pollen types in question. GMO exposure is analysed by molecular-biological methods: For

analysis of pollen DNA quantitative PCR methods are used and described here in this Technical

Specification. The analysis of GMO specific proteins and toxins in pollen is possible, too, using ELISA, but

to this date the method has not been evaluated enough in pollen matrices for standardization in this

Technical Specification.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

DIN 10760, Analysis of honey — Determination of the relative frequency of pollen
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
bee bread
pollen load stored in comb cells close to the brood nest
3.2
bee colony
colony of the honeybee species Apis mellifera
3.3
beehive
hive
container in which honeybees are kept by beekeepers
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CEN/TS 16817-2:2015 (E)
3.4
event

unique DNA recombination event that took place in one plant cell, which was then used to

generate entire transgenic plants
3.5
flying bee
foraging bee
forager
worker bee of a colony which is active outside the hive
3.6
genetically modified organism
GMO

organism in which the genetic material has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by

mating and/or natural recombination

[SOURCE: Directive 2001/18/EC [6], modified — The content of the definition was changed.]

3.7
honey
product generated by bees from the raw materials nectar and honey dew
3.8
honeydew
sugar containing secretion of aphids and cicadas sucking on plants
3.9
melliferous plant

plant from which nectar, honey dew and/or pollen is offered as sources of food for bees

3.10
monitoring
environmental monitoring

characterizing the state and quality of the environment and its changes by measurements/observations

in regard to defined objectives
3.11
nectar
sugar containing secretion of the nectar glands in or from blossoms
3.12
pollen
male gametophyte of the flowering plant
3.13
pollen and honey flow
food supply within the environment (foraging area) of a bee colony
3.14
pollen load
pollen pellets

pollen brought into the bee colony by the pollen foraging bees at their hind legs

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CEN/TS 16817-2:2015 (E)
3.15
pollen type
pollen species

class of pollen being distinguished by microscopic means on species, family or other order level

3.16
sampling
pollen sampling
collection of particles, here pollen by technical or biological means
4 Basic principle of the procedure

The bee colony serves as biological active sampler of pollen. The bee colonies are positioned within the

area under investigation i.e. relocated bee colonies are used or bee colonies which are already present,

i.e. permanent apiaries by local beekeepers.

Flying bees forage for food sources (supply of melliferous plants) and if successful, bring in the raw

materials nectar, honey dew and pollen. By gathering nectar, honeydew and pollen, bees collect a

fraction of the pollen present at the time in the area. These pollen are stored in wax combs as honey and

bee-bread and are available for future analyses. Further on, the collected pollen load of the bees may be

used directly as sample matrix gained by pollen traps at the hive entrance. Advantages and

disadvantages of the different matrices are given in Clause 5.

Depending on the supply from melliferous plants, if there is a shortage bees also gather pollen from

anemophilous plants. Bees also require water which they collect from numerous sources (dew, open

bodies of water, etc.). Pollen is produced in the anthers of the flowers. Anthers burst apart after

reaching maturity, making pollen available. Pollen, released from the anthers of the same flower, also

stick to the nectar of this flower. Anemophilous pollen is distributed by wind and can stick to honeydew

or nectar. So anemophilous pollen can be collected indirectly by the bees as well as by flying through

the air.

The area used by the bees depends on various factors (weather, availability of melliferous plants,

utilization of landscape and landscape structure, etc.). The main foraging distances are [26]: modal

distance from hive to forage site 0-0,7 km, median distance 1,6 km, mean distance 2,2 km, maximum

10 km.

Exposure time may be flexibly specified from a minimum of five days up to several weeks. For exposure

times of more than a week, sampling in intervals is also possible.

The pollen samples are analysed using light microscopy (palynology) and by molecular biological

analysis (e.g. PCR).
5 Sample matrices
5.1 Honey

Honey is produced by bees from the gathered raw materials nectar or honeydew and is stored in special

combs (honeycombs). Both raw materials contain pollen among other things. Centrifuges extract honey

from the honeycombs.

Honey yield is more reliable than bee-bread or pollen load and is thus clearly preferable. The available

amount of pollen load and beebread depends a lot more on the supply of plants and the consumption by

the bees. The matrix honey is significantly better suited for light microscopic and molecular biological

analyses [10; 25; 32]. But the amount of anemophilous pollen grains in honey is small.

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For comparative studies, extracted honeys are preferable to the other matrices (pollen load and bee

bread) as a strong homogenization occurs from the type of extraction. Extracted honey possesses a

better spatial and time representation. Basically, two sampling dates per bee site may be assumed for

each region (spring and summer honey). Summer honey is not collected by all bee-keepers regularly.

5.2 Pollen load

Pollen load is the pollen brought in separately by the foraging bees. Pollen load can be taken off the hind

legs of homecoming bees using special pollen traps. Pollen traps are devices which can be attached to

the front of the hive (front pollen trap) or inside between bottom and first hive body (inside pollen

trap). These traps have a hole pattern. Passing through these holes incoming pollen foragers will lose

their pollen load. The removed pollen loads will drop in a collection vessel. Using pollen traps negative

effects on foraging behaviour can occur. These effects are less when using inside pollen traps than front

pollen traps.

Pollen load has advantages over honey under specific circumstances: differentiations of flowering and

foraging time, foraging of nectarless melliferous and anemophilous plants. However, to implement

these advantages, many more sampling dates and efforts are necessary. Molecular-biological analysis of

the matrix pollen load needs more preparatory steps than the matrix honey. Advantage: greater

amounts of pollen.
5.3 Bee-bread

Bee-bread is the pollen brought in separately by the bees which is stored in special areas of the combs.

Bee-bread may be extracted by cutting out corresponding areas of the combs.

Bee bread has advantages over honey under specific circumstances: differentiations of flowering and

foraging time, foraging of nectarless melliferous and anemophilous plants. To implement these

advantages, many more sampling dates and efforts are necessary though. PCR analysis of the matrix bee

bread is much more complicated than of the matrix honey. In addition, bee bread is sometimes not

available due to consumption by nurse bees.
6 Sampling procedure
6.1 General

For the sampling procedure including site conditions, placing the colonies and sampling the pollen

matrices the “Good Beekeeping Practice” shall be regarded (see Annex C). Some general aspects and

specific requirements in the scope of this TS for GMO-monitoring are stated here.

6.2 Bee colony and hive

The bee colony includes the hive (box in the broader sense as housing for the bees), frames with wax

combs, a queen, 10 000 to 40 000 worker bees as well as several hundreds of drones in certain months.

It is managed by the beekeeper according to good beekeeping practice (see Annex C).

Modern hives are multiple-storey hives (one or up to five storeys or bodies) made of wood or

Polystyrene (PS) foam with wooden frames and mostly wax foundation. These types of hives are

predominant. Within the frames honeybees build their
...

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