Water quality - Gross alpha and gross beta activity - Test method using thin source deposit (ISO 10704:2019)

This document specifies a method for the determination of gross alpha and gross beta activity concentration for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurement is not intended to give an absolute determination of the activity concentration of all alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in a test sample, but is a screening analysis to ensure particular reference levels of specific alpha and beta emitters have not been exceeded. This type of determination is also known as gross alpha and gross beta index. Gross alpha and gross beta analysis is not expected to be as accurate nor as precise as specific radionuclide analysis after radiochemical separations.
Maximum beta energies of approximately 0,1 MeV or higher are well measured. It is possible that low energy beta emitters can not detected (e.g. 3H, 55Fe, 241Pu) or can only be partially detected (e.g. 14C, 35S, 63Ni, 210Pb, 228Ra).
The method covers non-volatile radionuclides, since some gaseous or volatile radionuclides (e.g. radon and radioiodine) can be lost during the source preparation.
The method is applicable to test samples of drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground water as well as cooling water, industrial water, domestic and industrial wastewater after proper sampling, sample handling, and test sample preparation (filtration when necessary and taking into account the amount of dissolved material in the water).
The method described in this document is applicable in the event of an emergency situation, because the results can be obtained in less than 1 h. Detection limits reached for gross alpha and gross beta are less than 10 Bq/l and 20 Bq/l respectively. The evaporation of 10 ml sample is carried out in 20 min followed by 10 min counting with window-proportional counters.
It is the laboratory's responsibility to ensure the suitability of this test method for the water samples tested.

Wasserbeschaffenheit - Gesamt-Alpha- und Gesamt-Beta-Aktivität - Dünnschichtverfahren (ISO 10704:2019)

Dieses Dokument legt ein Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Gesamt-Alpha  und Gesamt-Beta-Aktivität durch alpha  und beta-emittierende Radionuklide fest. Bei der Bestimmung der Gesamt-Alpha  und Gesamt-Beta-Aktivität handelt es sich nicht um eine absolute Bestimmung des Alpha  bzw. Beta-Strahlungsgehalts der Probe, sondern um eine relative Bestimmung, um sicherzustellen, dass besondere Referenzwerte von spezifischen Alpha  und Beta-Strahlern nicht überschritten wurden. Diese Art der Bestimmung wird auch als Bestimmung des Gesamt-Alpha  und Gesamt-Beta-Index bezeichnet. Von der Bestimmung der Gesamt-Alpha  und Gesamt-Beta-Aktivität ist weder die gleiche Genauigkeit noch die gleiche Präzision zu erwarten wie von der spezifischen Radionuklidanalyse nach radiochemischer Trennung.
Maximale Beta-Energien von etwa 0,1 MeV oder mehr werden gut gemessen. Beta Strahler mit geringer Energie können möglicherweise nicht bestimmt (z. B. 3H, 55Fe, 241Pu) oder nur teilweise bestimmt (z. B. 14C, 35S, 63Ni, 210Pb, 228Ra) werden.
Das Verfahren deckt nicht-flüchtige Radionuklide ab, da einige gasförmige oder flüchtige Radionuklide (z. B. Radon und Radioiod) bei der Aufbereitung der Quelle verloren gehen können.
Das Verfahren ist auf Proben von Trinkwasser, Regenwasser, Oberflächen  und Grundwasser sowie Kühlwasser, Prozesswasser, häusliches und gewerbliches Abwasser nach geeigneter Probenahme, Probenbehandlung und Aufbereitung der Untersuchungsprobe (Filtration, falls erforderlich, und Berücksichtigung der im Wasser gelösten Bestandteile) anwendbar.
Das in diesem Dokument beschriebene Verfahren ist im Falle einer Notsituation anwendbar, da die Ergebnisse in weniger als 1 h erhalten werden können. Die Nachweisgrenzen liegen bei unter 10 Bq/l für Gesamt Alpha und bei unter 20 Bq/l für Gesamt Beta. Die Verdampfung von 10 ml Probe erfolgt in 20 min, gefolgt von 10 min Zählung mit Fensterproportionalzählern.
Es liegt in der Verantwortung des Labors, die Eignung dieses Prüfverfahrens für die zu prüfenden Wasserproben sicherzustellen.

Qualité de l'eau - Activités alpha globale et bêta globale - Méthode d'essai par dépôt d'une source fine (ISO 10704:2019)

Le présent document spécifie une méthode pour la détermination des activités volumiques alpha globale et bêta globale pour des radionucléides émetteurs alpha et bêta. Le mesurage des activités alpha globale et bêta globale n'est pas destiné à déterminer de façon absolue l'activité volumique de tous les radionucléides émetteurs alpha et bêta dans un échantillon pour essai, mais à s'assurer, par dépistage, que les niveaux de référence particuliers des émetteurs spécifiques alpha et bêta n'ont pas été dépassés. Ce type de détermination est également connu en tant qu'indice alpha et bêta global. On ne s'attend pas à ce que l'analyse alpha et bêta globale soit aussi précise que l'analyse de radionucléides spécifiques après séparations radiochimiques.
Des énergies bêta maximales sont correctement mesurées à partir d'environ 0,1 MeV ou plus. Les émetteurs bêta de faible énergie peuvent ne pas être détectés (par exemple 3H, 55Fe, 241Pu) ou peuvent être seulement partiellement détectés (par exemple 14C, 35S, 63Ni, 210Pb, 228Ra).
La méthode couvre les radionucléides non volatils, car certains radionucléides gazeux ou volatils (par exemple le radon et l'iode radioactif) peuvent être perdus au cours de la préparation de la source.
La méthode d'essai est applicable à des échantillons pour essai d'eau potable, d'eau de pluie, d'eau de surface et d'eau souterraine ainsi que d'eau de refroidissement, d'eau industrielle, d'eaux usées domestiques et industrielles après échantillonnage approprié, manipulation de l'échantillon et préparation de l'échantillon pour essai (filtration si nécessaire et en tenant compte de la quantité de matières dissoutes dans l'eau).
La méthode décrite dans le présent document est applicable dans le cas d'une situation d'urgence car les résultats peuvent être obtenus en moins d'1 h. Les limites de détection atteintes pour l'activité alpha globale et l'activité bêta globale sont inférieures à 10 Bq/L et 20 Bq/L, respectivement. L'évaporation d'un échantillon de 10 mL s'effectue en 20 min et est suivie d'un comptage de 10 min à l'aide de compteurs proportionnels à fenêtre.
Il incombe au laboratoire de s'assurer de l'aptitude à l'emploi de cette méthode d'essai pour les échantillons d'eau soumis à essai.

Kakovost vode - Skupna alfa in skupna beta aktivnost - Preskusna metoda z odlaganjem v tankem sloju (ISO 10704:2019)

Ta dokument določa metodo za določevanje koncentracije skupne alfa in skupne beta aktivnosti za alfa in beta oddajne radionuklide. Meritev skupne alfa in skupne beta aktivnosti ni namenjena absolutni določitvi koncentracije aktivnosti vseh alfa in beta oddajnih radionuklidov v preskusnem vzorcu, temveč je presejalna analiza, s katero se zagotovi, da določene referenčne ravni specifičnih alfa in beta oddajnikov niso bile presežene. Ta vrsta določevanja se imenuje tudi skupni alfa in skupni beta indeks. Ne pričakuje se, da bo skupna alfa in skupna beta analiza enako točna in natančna kot specifična radionuklidna analiza po radiokemičnih separacijah.
Največje beta energije približno 0,1 MeV ali višje se z lahkoto izmerijo. Beta oddajnikov z zelo nizko energijo morda ni mogoče zaznati (npr. 3H, 55Fe, 241Pu) oziroma jih je mogoče le delno zaznati (npr. 14C, 35S, 63Ni, 210Pb, 228Ra).
Metoda zajema nehlapne radionuklide, saj se lahko nekateri radionuklidi v plinastem stanju oziroma hlapni radionuklidi (npr. radon in radioaktivni jod) med pripravo virov izgubijo.
Metoda se uporablja za preskusne vzorce pitne vode, deževnice, površinske in podtalne vode ter vode za hlajenje, industrijske vode, gospodinjske in industrijske odpadne vode po ustreznem vzorčenju, ravnanju z vzorci in pripravi preskusnih vzorcev (filtracija, kadar je to potrebno, in upoštevanje količine raztopljenih snovi v vodi).
Metoda, opisana v tem dokumentu, se uporablja v izrednih razmerah, saj
je mogoče rezultate pridobiti v manj kot eni uri. Dosežene mejne vrednosti zaznavanja za skupno alfa in skupno beta aktivnost so manj kot 10 Bq/l oziroma 20 Bq/l. Izhlapevanje 10 ml vzorca se izvede v 20 minutah, čemur sledi 10-minutno štetje s proporcionalnimi števci.
Laboratorij mora zagotoviti primernost te preskusne metode za vzorce
vode, ki se preskušajo.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
26-Mar-2019
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
27-Mar-2019
Completion Date
27-Mar-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 10704:2019
01-maj-2019
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 10704:2015
SIST ISO 10704:2013
Kakovost vode - Skupna alfa in skupna beta aktivnost - Preskusna metoda z
odlaganjem v tankem sloju (ISO 10704:2019)

Water quality - Gross alpha and gross beta activity - Test method using thin source

deposit (ISO 10704:2019)

Wasserbeschaffenheit - Bestimmung der Gesamt-Alpha- und der Gesamt-Beta-Aktivität

in nicht-salzhaltigem Wasser - Dünnschichtverfahren (ISO 10704:2019)

Qualité de l'eau - Activités alpha globale et bêta globale - Méthode d'essai par dépôt

d'une source fine (ISO 10704:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 10704:2019
ICS:
13.060.60 Preiskava fizikalnih lastnosti Examination of physical
vode properties of water
13.280 Varstvo pred sevanjem Radiation protection
SIST EN ISO 10704:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 10704:2019
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SIST EN ISO 10704:2019
EN ISO 10704
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
March 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.060.60; 13.280 Supersedes EN ISO 10704:2015
English Version
Water quality - Gross alpha and gross beta activity - Test
method using thin source deposit (ISO 10704:2019)

Qualité de l'eau - Activités alpha globale et bêta globale Wasserbeschaffenheit - Bestimmung der Gesamt-

- Méthode d'essai par dépôt d'une source fine (ISO Alpha- und der Gesamt-Beta-Aktivität in nicht-

10704:2019) salzhaltigem Wasser - Dünnschichtverfahren (ISO
10704:2019)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 16 February 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 10704:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 10704:2019
EN ISO 10704:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 10704:2019
EN ISO 10704:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 10704:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 147 "Water

quality" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 230 “Water analysis” the secretariat of

which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2019, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2019.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 10704:2015.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 10704:2019 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 10704:2019 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 10704:2019
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SIST EN ISO 10704:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 10704
Second edition
2019-02
Water quality — Gross alpha and gross
beta activity — Test method using thin
source deposit
Qualité de l'eau — Activités alpha globale et bêta globale — Méthode
d'essai par dépôt d'une source fine
Reference number
ISO 10704:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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SIST EN ISO 10704:2019
ISO 10704:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 10704:2019
ISO 10704:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and symbols ............................................................................................................................................................ 2

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 Chemical reagents and equipment .................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Reagents........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.2 Standard solutions ......................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.3 Wetting or surfactant agents ................................................................................................................................. 4

5.1.4 Volatile organic solvents ........................................................................................................................................... . 4

5.1.5 Water .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1.6 Specific reagents for alpha-emitting radionuclides co-precipitation ................................. 4

5.2 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.1 Laboratory equipment for direct evaporation ....................................................................................... 4

5.2.2 General equipment ........................................................................................................................................... .............. 4

5.2.3 Special equipment for alpha-emitting radionuclide co-precipitation ............................... 5

5.2.4 Measurement equipment ......................................................................................................................................... 5

6 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

7 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.1 Preliminary ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

7.2 Source preparation .............................................................................................................................................................................. 5

7.2.1 Preparation of planchet ............................................................................................................................................. 5

7.2.2 Evaporation .......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.2.3 Co-precipitation ................................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.3 Counting stage ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.4 Background and blank determination ................................................................................................................................ 7

7.5 Preparation of counting standard for calibration ..................................................................................................... 7

7.6 Preparation of calibration source for self-absorption determination .................................................... 8

7.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.6.2 Spiking one of two test portions ........................................................................................................................ 8

7.6.3 Self-absorption curve ........................................................................................................................................... ........ 8

8 Expression of results ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2 Alpha activity concentration ....................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.3 Beta activity concentration .......................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.4 Standard uncertainty of the alpha activity concentration ..............................................................................10

8.5 Standard uncertainty of the beta activity concentration .................................................................................10

8.6 Decision threshold ............................................................................................................................................................................12

8.6.1 Decision threshold of the alpha activity concentration...............................................................12

8.6.2 Decision threshold of the beta activity concentration .................................................................12

8.7 Detection limit ......................................................................................................................................................................................12

8.7.1 Detection limit of the alpha activity concentration ........................................................................12

8.7.2 Detection limit of the beta activity concentration ...........................................................................13

8.8 Confidence limits................................................................................................................................................................................13

9 Control of interferences .............................................................................................................................................................................13

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

9.2 Relative humidity ...............................................................................................................................................................................14

9.3 Geometry of the deposit ...............................................................................................................................................................14

9.4 Crosstalk ....................................................................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 10704:2019
ISO 10704:2019(E)

9.5 Gamma emitters ..................................................................................................................................................................................15

9.6 Low beta energy..................................................................................................................................................................................15

9.7 Chlorides ...................................................................................................................................................................................................15

9.8 Organic matter .....................................................................................................................................................................................15

9.9 Contamination ......................................................................................................................................................................................15

9.10 Losses of activity ................................................................................................................................................................................15

9.11 Contribution of the natural radionuclides ...................................................................................................................15

9.12 Losses of activity ................................................................................................................................................................................16

10 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

Annex A (informative) Numerical applications ......................................................................................................................................18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 10704:2019
ISO 10704:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 147, Water quality, Subcommittee SC 3,

Radioactivity measurements.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 10704:2009), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— Introduction: an introduction has been added;

— Clause 1: the scope has been modified to specify applicability to emergency situations and

applicability of waste water as a test sample; information about the exclusion of low energy beta

emitters has also been added;
— Clause 4: the filtration has been specified to be carried out at 0,45 µ;
137
— 5.1.2.2: Cs has been introduced as a standard that can be used;
— 5.2.4: the recommended thickness has been increased to up to 400 µg/cm ;

— 7.6.3.1: in order to evaluate self-absorption phenomena, spiking method has been recommended to

mimic the nature of the salt;
— Clause 8:

— a new Formula (9) has been introduced to obtain the beta activity concentration when systematic

correction is not required;
— the subsequent Formulae have been renumbered;
— Clause 9: several limitations and interferences have been given;
— 9.1: the natural radionuclides contributions have been given.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 10704:2019
ISO 10704:2019(E)
Introduction

Radioactivity from several naturally-occurring and anthropogenic sources is present throughout

the environment. Thus, water bodies (e.g. surface waters, ground waters, sea waters) can contain

radionuclides of natural, human-made, or both origins:
40 3 14

— natural radionuclides, including K, H, C, and those originating from the thorium and uranium

226 228 234 238 210 210
decay series, in particular Ra, Ra, U, U, Po and Pb can be found in water for

natural reasons (e.g. desorption from the soil and washoff by rain water) or can be released from

technological processes involving naturally occurring radioactive materials (e.g. the mining and

processing of mineral sands or phosphate fertilizers production and use);

— human-made radionuclides such as transuranium elements (americium, plutonium, neptunium,

3 14 90

curium), H, C, Sr, and gamma emitting radionuclides can also be found in natural waters.

Small quantities of these radionuclides are discharged from nuclear fuel cycle facilities into the

environment as a result of authorized routine releases. Some of these radionuclides used for

medical and industrial applications are also released into the environment after use. Anthropogenic

radionuclides are also found in waters as a result of past fallout contaminations resulting from

the explosion in the atmosphere of nuclear devices and accidents such as those that occurred in

Chernobyl and Fukushima.

Radionuclide activity concentration in water bodies can vary according to local geological

characteristics and climatic conditions and can be locally and temporally enhanced by releases from

[1]

nuclear installation during planned, existing, and emergency exposure situations . Drinking-water

can thus contain radionuclides at activity concentrations which could present a risk to human health.

The radionuclides present in liquid effluents are usually controlled before being discharged into

[2]

the environment and water bodies. Drinking waters are monitored for their radioactivity as

[3]

recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) so that proper actions can be taken to ensure

that there is no adverse health effect to the public. Following these international recommendations,

national regulations usually specify radionuclide authorized concentration limits for liquid effluent

discharged to the environment and radionuclide guidance levels for waterbodies and drinking waters

for planned, existing, and emergency exposure situations. Compliance with these limits can be assessed

using measurement results with their associated uncertainties as specified by ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 and

[4]
ISO 5667-20 .

Depending on the exposure situation, there are different limits and guidance levels that would result

in an action to reduce health risk. As an example, during a planned or existing situation, the WHO

guidelines for guidance level in drinking water is 0,5 Bq/l for gross alpha activity and 1 Bq/l for gross

beta activity.

NOTE The guidance level is the activity concentration with an intake of 2 l/d of drinking water for one year

that results in an effective dose of 0,1 mSv/a for members of the public. This is an effective dose that represents a

[3]

very low level of risk and which is not expected to give rise to any detectable adverse health effects .

Thus, the test method can be adapted so that the characteristic limits, decision threshold, detection

limit and uncertainties ensure that the radionuclide activity concentrations test results can be verified

to be below the guidance levels required by a national authority for either planned/existing situations

[5][6][7]
or for an emergency situation .

Usually, the test methods can be adjusted to measure the activity concentration of the radionuclide(s)

in either wastewaters before storage or in liquid effluents before being discharged to the environment.

The test results will enable the plant/installation operator to verify that, before their discharge,

wastewaters/liquid effluent radioactive activity concentrations do not exceed authorized limits.

The test method(s) described in this document can be used during planned, existing and emergency

exposure situations as well as for wastewaters and liquid effluents with specific modifications that

could increase the overall uncertainty, detection limit, and threshold.
vi © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 10704:2019
ISO 10704:2019(E)

The test method(s) can be used for water samples after proper sampling, sample handling, and test

sample preparation (see the relevant part of the ISO 5667 series).

An International Standard on a test method of gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations in

water samples is justified for test laboratories carrying out these measurements, required sometimes

by national authorities, as laboratories might have to obtain a specific accreditation for radionuclide

measurement in drinking water samples.

This document is one of a set of International Standards on test methods dealing with the measurement

of the activity concentration of radionuclides in water samples.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved vii
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SIST EN ISO 10704:2019
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SIST EN ISO 10704:2019
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 10704:2019(E)
Water quality — Gross alpha and gross beta activity — Test
method using thin source deposit

WARNING — Persons using this document should be familiar with normal laboratory practice.

This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its

use. It is the responsibility of the user to establish appropriate safety and health practices.

IMPORTANT — It is absolutely essential that tests conducted according to this document be

carried out by suitably trained staff.
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for the determination of gross alpha and gross beta activity

concentration for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides. Gross alpha and gross beta activity

measurement is not intended to give an absolute determination of the activity concentration of all

alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in a test sample, but is a screening analysis to ensure particular

reference levels of specific alpha and beta emitters have not been exceeded. This type of determination

is also known as gross alpha and gross beta index. Gross alpha and gross beta analysis is not expected

to be as accurate nor as precise as specific radionuclide analysis after radiochemical separations.

Maximum beta energies of approximately 0,1 MeV or higher are well measured. It is possible that low

3 55 241 14

energy beta emitters can not detected (e.g. H, Fe, Pu) or can only be partially detected (e.g. C,

35 63 210 228
S, Ni, Pb, Ra).

The method covers non-volatile radionuclides, since some gaseous or volatile radionuclides (e.g. radon

and radioiodine) can be lost during the source preparation.

The method is applicable to test samples of drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground water as well

as cooling water, industrial water, domestic and industrial wastewater after proper sampling, sample

handling, and test sample preparation (filtration when necessary and taking into account the amount of

dissolved material in the water).

The method described in this document is applicable in the event of an emergency situation, because

the results can be obtained in less than 1 h. Detection limits reached for gross alpha and gross beta are

less than 10 Bq/l and 20 Bq/l respectively. The evaporation of 10 ml sample is carried out in 20 min

followed by 10 min counting with window-proportional counters.

It is the laboratory’s responsibility to ensure the suitability of this test method for the water

samples tested.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) a

...

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