Live working - Phase comparators - Part 2: Resistive type to be used for voltages from 1kV to 36 kV a.c.

IEC 61481-2:2014 is applicable to portable phase comparators of resistive type to be used on electrical systems for voltages from 1 kV a.c. to 36 kV a.c. and frequencies of 50 Hz and/or 60 Hz. This standard is applicable to phase comparators of resistive type used in contact with the bare conductive parts to be compared as a complete device including its insulating element or as a separate device, adaptable to an insulating stick which, as a separate tool, is not covered by this standard. A device that is designed to provide other functions than phase comparison is a different device and is not covered by this standard. For example a device designed to be also used as a voltage detector is not covered by this standard. This first edition, together with the first edition of IEC 61481-1, cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC 61481 published in 2001, Amendment 1:2002 and Amendment 2:2004. This edition constitutes a technical revision which includes the following major changes:
- split of the standard in two parts;
- review of the requirements for indication;
- elimination of class C (+/- 110°);
- introduction of a requirement for a new marking "LU" for limited use;
- increase of the specified range of voltage fluctuation in a network for clear indication;
- and revision of the existing annexes.

Travaux sous tension - Comparateurs de phase - Partie 2: Type résistif pour usage sur des tensions alternatives de 1 kV à 36 kV

L'IEC 61481-2:2014 est applicable aux comparateurs de phase portatifs de type résistif pour une utilisation sur des installations électriques à des tensions alternatives de 1 kV à 36 kV et à des fréquences de 50 Hz et/ou 60 Hz. La présente norme est applicable aux comparateurs de phase de type résistif utilisés au contact avec les parties nues conductrices à comparer à un dispositif complet incluant son élément isolant ou à un dispositif séparé adaptable sur une perche isolante qui, en tant qu'outil séparé, n'est pas couverte par la présente norme. Un dispositif conçu pour réaliser d'autres fonctions que la comparaison de phase est un dispositif différent et n'est pas couvert par la présente norme. Par exemple, un dispositif conçu pour être aussi utilisé comme détecteur de tension n'est pas couvert par la présente norme. Cette première édition, avec la première édition de l'IEC 61481-1, annule et remplace la première édition de l'IEC 61481 parue en 2001, l'Amendement 1:2002 et l'Amendement 2:2004. Cette édition constitue une révision technique qui inclut les modifications majeures suivantes:
- la division de la norme en deux parties;
- la révision des exigences relatives à l'indication;
- la suppression de la classe C (+/- 110°);
- l'introduction d'une exigence relative à un nouveau marquage "LU" pour une utilisation limitée;
- et la révision des annexes existantes.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
23-Oct-2014
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
24-Oct-2014
Completion Date
24-Oct-2014
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Standard
IEC 61481-2:2014 - Live working - Phase comparators - Part 2: Resistive type to be used for voltages from 1kV to 36 kV a.c.
English and French language
160 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

IEC 61481-2
Edition 1.0 2014-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Live working – Phase comparators –
Part 2: Resistive type to be used for voltages from 1 kV to 36 kV a.c.
Travaux sous tension – Comparateurs de phase –
Partie 2: Type résistif pour usage sur des tensions alternatives de 1 kV à 36 kV
IEC 61481-2:2014-10(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2014 IEC, Geneva, Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

either IEC or IEC's member National Committee in the country of the requester. If you have any questions about IEC

copyright or have an enquiry about obtaining additional rights to this publication, please contact the address below or

your local IEC member National Committee for further information.

Droits de reproduction réservés. Sauf indication contraire, aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite

ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie

et les microfilms, sans l'accord écrit de l'IEC ou du Comité national de l'IEC du pays du demandeur. Si vous avez des

questions sur le copyright de l'IEC ou si vous désirez obtenir des droits supplémentaires sur cette publication, utilisez

les coordonnées ci-après ou contactez le Comité national de l'IEC de votre pays de résidence.

IEC Central Office Tel.: +41 22 919 02 11
3, rue de Varembé Fax: +41 22 919 03 00
CH-1211 Geneva 20 info@iec.ch
Switzerland www.iec.ch
About the IEC

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes

International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.
About IEC publications

The technical content of IEC publications is kept under constant review by the IEC. Please make sure that you have the

latest edition, a corrigenda or an amendment might have been published.
IEC Catalogue - webstore.iec.ch/catalogue Electropedia - www.electropedia.org

The stand-alone application for consulting the entire The world's leading online dictionary of electronic and

bibliographical information on IEC International Standards, electrical terms containing more than 30 000 terms and

Technical Specifications, Technical Reports and other definitions in English and French, with equivalent terms in 14

documents. Available for PC, Mac OS, Android Tablets and additional languages. Also known as the International

iPad. Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) online.

IEC publications search - www.iec.ch/searchpub IEC Glossary - std.iec.ch/glossary

The advanced search enables to find IEC publications by a More than 55 000 electrotechnical terminology entries in

variety of criteria (reference number, text, technical English and French extracted from the Terms and Definitions

committee,…). It also gives information on projects, replaced clause of IEC publications issued since 2002. Some entries

and withdrawn publications. have been collected from earlier publications of IEC TC 37,

77, 86 and CISPR.
IEC Just Published - webstore.iec.ch/justpublished

Stay up to date on all new IEC publications. Just Published IEC Customer Service Centre - webstore.iec.ch/csc

details all new publications released. Available online and If you wish to give us your feedback on this publication or

also once a month by email. need further assistance, please contact the Customer Service

Centre: csc@iec.ch.
A propos de l'IEC

La Commission Electrotechnique Internationale (IEC) est la première organisation mondiale qui élabore et publie des

Normes internationales pour tout ce qui a trait à l'électricité, à l'électronique et aux technologies apparentées.

A propos des publications IEC

Le contenu technique des publications IEC est constamment revu. Veuillez vous assurer que vous possédez l’édition la

plus récente, un corrigendum ou amendement peut avoir été publié.
Catalogue IEC - webstore.iec.ch/catalogue Electropedia - www.electropedia.org
Application autonome pour consulter tous les renseignements
Le premier dictionnaire en ligne de termes électroniques et
bibliographiques sur les Normes internationales,
électriques. Il contient plus de 30 000 termes et définitions en
Spécifications techniques, Rapports techniques et autres
anglais et en français, ainsi que les termes équivalents dans
documents de l'IEC. Disponible pour PC, Mac OS, tablettes
14 langues additionnelles. Egalement appelé Vocabulaire
Android et iPad.
Electrotechnique International (IEV) en ligne.
Recherche de publications IEC - www.iec.ch/searchpub
Glossaire IEC - std.iec.ch/glossary
Plus de 55 000 entrées terminologiques électrotechniques, en
La recherche avancée permet de trouver des publications IEC

en utilisant différents critères (numéro de référence, texte, anglais et en français, extraites des articles Termes et

comité d’études,…). Elle donne aussi des informations sur les Définitions des publications IEC parues depuis 2002. Plus

projets et les publications remplacées ou retirées. certaines entrées antérieures extraites des publications des

CE 37, 77, 86 et CISPR de l'IEC.
IEC Just Published - webstore.iec.ch/justpublished
Service Clients - webstore.iec.ch/csc
Restez informé sur les nouvelles publications IEC. Just

Published détaille les nouvelles publications parues. Si vous désirez nous donner des commentaires sur cette

Disponible en ligne et aussi une fois par mois par email. publication ou si vous avez des questions contactez-nous:

csc@iec.ch.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 61481-2
Edition 1.0 2014-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Live working – Phase comparators –
Part 2: Resistive type to be used for voltages from 1 kV to 36 kV a.c.
Travaux sous tension – Comparateurs de phase –
Partie 2: Type résistif pour usage sur des tensions alternatives de 1 kV à 36 kV
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX XC
ICS 13.260; 29.240.20; 29.260.99 ISBN 978-2-8322-1878-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 61481-2:2014 © IEC 2014
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 6

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 8

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 9

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 9

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 10

4 Requirements ................................................................................................................ 14

4.1 Indication .............................................................................................................. 14

4.2 Functional requirements........................................................................................ 14

4.2.1 Clear indication ............................................................................................. 14

4.2.2 Clear perceptibility ......................................................................................... 16

4.2.3 Temperature and humidity dependence of the indication................................ 16

4.2.4 Frequency dependence ................................................................................. 16

4.2.5 Response time ............................................................................................... 17

4.2.6 Power source dependability ........................................................................... 17

4.2.7 Testing element ............................................................................................. 17

4.2.8 Time rating .................................................................................................... 17

4.3 Electrical requirements ......................................................................................... 17

4.3.1 Insulating material ......................................................................................... 17

4.3.2 Protection against bridging ............................................................................ 17

4.3.3 Resistance against sparking .......................................................................... 17

4.3.4 Resistive element .......................................................................................... 18

4.3.5 Insulating element of phase comparator as a complete device ....................... 18

4.3.6 Circuit current ................................................................................................ 18

4.3.7 Indicator casing ............................................................................................. 18

4.3.8 Insulation of the connecting lead ................................................................... 18

4.4 Mechanical requirements ...................................................................................... 18

4.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 18

4.4.2 Design ........................................................................................................... 18

4.4.3 Dimensions, construction ............................................................................... 20

4.4.4 Grip force and deflection ............................................................................... 21

4.4.5 Vibration resistance ....................................................................................... 22

4.4.6 Drop resistance ............................................................................................. 22

4.4.7 Shock resistance ........................................................................................... 22

4.5 Marking ................................................................................................................. 22

4.6 Instructions for use ............................................................................................... 22

4.7 Requirements in the case of reasonably foreseeable misuse during live

working ................................................................................................................. 23

4.7.1 Voltage selection ........................................................................................... 23

4.7.2 Frequency selection ...................................................................................... 23

5 Tests ............................................................................................................................. 23

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 23

5.1.1 Testing provisions ......................................................................................... 23

5.1.2 Atmospheric conditions .................................................................................. 23

5.1.3 Tests under wet conditions ............................................................................ 23

5.1.4 Type test ....................................................................................................... 24

5.1.5 Test methods ................................................................................................. 25

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 61481-2:2014 © IEC 2014 – 3 –

5.2 Function tests ....................................................................................................... 25

5.2.1 Description of the test set-up and general pass criteria .................................. 25

5.2.2 Clear indication ............................................................................................. 31

5.2.3 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) ............................................................. 33

5.2.4 Influence of electric interference fields........................................................... 33

5.2.5 Clear perceptibility ......................................................................................... 36

5.2.6 Frequency dependence ................................................................................. 40

5.2.7 Response time ............................................................................................... 40

5.2.8 Power source dependability ........................................................................... 40

5.2.9 Check of testing element ............................................................................... 41

5.2.10 Time rating .................................................................................................... 41

5.3 Dielectric tests ...................................................................................................... 42

5.3.1 Insulating material for tubes and rods ............................................................ 42

5.3.2 Protection against bridging for indoor/outdoor type phase comparator ........... 42

5.3.3 Protection against bridging for outdoor type phase comparator ...................... 47

5.3.4 Spark resistance ............................................................................................ 48

5.3.5 Leakage current for phase comparator as a complete device ......................... 49

5.3.6 Dielectric strength of connecting lead ............................................................ 52

5.3.7 Maximum current in case of misuse ............................................................... 53

5.4 Mechanical tests ................................................................................................... 53

5.4.1 Visual and dimensional inspection ................................................................. 53

5.4.2 Grip force and deflection for phase comparator as a complete device ............ 54

5.4.3 Robustness of connecting lead and connections ............................................ 54

5.4.4 Vibration resistance ....................................................................................... 56

5.4.5 Drop resistance ............................................................................................. 56

5.4.6 Shock resistance ........................................................................................... 57

5.4.7 Climatic resistance ........................................................................................ 58

5.4.8 Durability of markings .................................................................................... 59

5.5 Test for reasonably foreseeable misuse during live working .................................. 59

5.5.1 Voltage selection (where relevant) ................................................................. 59

5.5.2 Frequency selection (where relevant) ............................................................ 59

6 Conformity assessment of phase comparators having completed the production

phase ............................................................................................................................ 60

7 Modifications ................................................................................................................. 60

Annex A (normative) Instructions for use ............................................................................. 61

Annex B (normative) Suitable for live working; double triangle (IEC 60417 – 5216

(2002-10)) ............................................................................................................................. 63

Annex C (normative) Chronology of type tests ..................................................................... 64

Annex D (normative) Classification of defects and tests to be allocated ............................... 66

Annex E (informative) Information and guidelines on the use of the limit mark and of a

contact electrode extension .................................................................................................. 68

E.1 General ................................................................................................................. 68

E.2 Situation when using a phase comparator as a complete device ........................... 68

E.3 Situation when using a phase comparator as a separate device ............................ 71

Annex F (informative) Rationale for the classification of defects........................................... 74

Annex G (informative) In-service care .................................................................................. 76

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 77

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 61481-2:2014 © IEC 2014

Figure 1 – Illustration of different elements of a phase comparator ....................................... 20

Figure 2 – Location of allowed conductive parts within the minimum length of the

insulating element of a pole of a phase comparator as a complete device ............................. 21

Figure 3 – Test set-up for clear indication with the ball electrode in front of its ring

electrode .............................................................................................................................. 27

Figure 4 – Test set-up for clear indication with the ball electrode behind its ring

electrode .............................................................................................................................. 28

Figure 5 – Example of positioning of a pole of the phase comparator in relation to a

ball and ring test arrangement .............................................................................................. 30

Figure 6 – Examples of suitable means for ensuring appropriate contact between a

contact electrode and the ball electrode ................................................................................ 30

Figure 7 – Test set-up for clear perceptibility of visual indication .......................................... 37

Figure 8 – Test set-up for clear perceptibility of audible indication ........................................ 39

Figure 9 – Test arrangements and dimensions of the bars for protection against

bridging ................................................................................................................................ 43

Figure 10 – Electrical connection of the bars ........................................................................ 44

Figure 11 – Surface stress test ............................................................................................. 44

Figure 12 – Radial and surface stress test ............................................................................ 45

Figure 13 – Bridging test on the connecting lead ................................................................... 46

Figure 14 – Test arrangement for testing bridging protection of outdoor type phase

comparator ........................................................................................................................... 48

Figure 15 – Arrangement for leakage current test under dry conditions for phase

comparator as a complete device .......................................................................................... 50

Figure 16 – Arrangement for leakage current tests under wet conditions for phase

comparator as a complete device .......................................................................................... 51

Figure 17 – Test set up for pressure load application ............................................................ 52

Figure 18 – Test for grip force ............................................................................................... 54

Figure 19 – Test set-up for the robustness of connecting lead and connections .................... 55

Figure 20 – Drop resistance test – Diagonal position ............................................................ 57

Figure 21 – Curve of test cycle for climatic resistance ........................................................... 58

Figure E.1 – Insulation element of a pole of a phase comparator as a complete device ....... 68

Figure E.2 – Example of positioning of a pole of a phase comparator in contact with a

live part without obstacles from other live parts ..................................................................... 69

Figure E.3 – Example of incorrect positioning of a pole of a phase comparator with the

limit mark between two live parts .......................................................................................... 70

Figure E.4 – Usual ways of managing the selection or the use of the phase comparator

for maintaining the insulation distance between the limit mark and the hand guard ............... 71

Figure E.5 – Usual ways of managing the use of the phase comparator as a separate

device for assuring the appropriate insulation for the worker ................................................. 73

Table 1 – Climatic condition ranges ...................................................................................... 16

Table 2 – Minimum length of the insulating element (L ) of a phase comparator as a

complete device .................................................................................................................... 20

Table 3 – Dimensioning of the ball and ring test set-up ......................................................... 29

Table 4 – Test series and conditions for clear indication ....................................................... 32

Table 5 – Test series and conditions for influence of electric interference fields .................... 35

Table 6 – Distance d for the bridging test set-up ................................................................. 43

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 61481-2:2014 © IEC 2014 – 5 –

Table 7 – Dimensions for the concentric rings and band electrodes ...................................... 47

Table C.1 – Sequential order for performing type tests ........................................................ 64

Table C.2 – Type tests out of sequence ................................................................................ 65

Table D.1 – Classification of defects and associated requirements and tests ........................ 66

Table E.1 – Recommended minimum lengths from the limit mark to the contact

electrode (A ) ........................................................................................................................ 71

Table F.1 – Rationale for the classification of defects ........................................................... 74

Table G.1 – In-service testing ............................................................................................... 76

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 61481-2:2014 © IEC 2014
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
LIVE WORKING –
PHASE COMPARATORS –
Part 2: Resistive type to be used for voltages from 1 kV to 36 kV a.c.
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 61481-2 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 78: Live

working.

This first edition, together with the first edition of IEC 61481-1, cancels and replaces the first

edition of IEC 61481 published in 2001, Amendment 1:2002 and Amendment 2:2004. This

edition constitutes a technical revision.
The major changes are:
• split of the standard in two parts;
• review of the requirements for indication;
• elimination of class C (±110°);
• introduction of a requirement for a new marking “LU” for limited use;

• increase of the specified range of voltage fluctuation in a network for clear indication;

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 61481-2:2014 © IEC 2014 – 7 –

• clarification of the design requirements by specifying a resistive element in each pole of

the device;

• clarification of the test procedures in the case of additional contact electrodes,

accessories and combination of accessories, as well as in the case of family of phase

comparators;
• addition of requirements and tests for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC);
• clarification of the test provisions for the function tests;

• clarification of the test procedure for clear perceptibility of audible indication;

• preparation of the elements of evaluation of defects, and general application of

IEC 61318:2007;
• revision of existing annexes;
• change of existing normative Annex C in two new Annexes D and F giving the

classification of defects (normative) and the rationale for the classification of defects

(informative);

• deletion of existing Annex D, not needed anymore following the specification of

IEC 60068-2-75;
• deletion of existing Annex F, not applicable according to IEC 61318:2007;

• addition of a new informative Annex E giving additional information on the use of the limit

mark and of a contact electrode extension.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
78/1052/FDIS 78/1088/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

In this standard terms defined in Clause 3 appear in italics.

A list of all parts of the IEC 61481 series, published under the general title Live working –

...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.