Lighting of work places

ISO 8995-2:2005 specifies lighting requirements for outdoor work places, which meet the needs for visual comfort and performance. All usual visual tasks are considered. ISO 8995-2:2005 does not specify lighting requirements with respect to the safety and health of workers at work, although the lighting requirements, as specified in this standard, usually fulfil safety needs. ISO 8995-2:2005 neither provides specific solutions, nor restricts the designer.s freedom from exploring new techniques nor restricts the use of innovative equipment.

Éclairage des lieux de travail

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Current Stage
5020 - FDIS ballot initiated: 2 months. Proof sent to secretariat
Start Date
14-Sep-2005
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FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 8995-2
CIE S 015/E
CIE
Lighting of work places —
Voting begins on:
2005-09-15
Part 2:
Voting terminates on:
Outdoor
2006-02-15
Éclairage des lieux de travail —
Partie 2: Extérieur
Please see the administrative notes on page iii
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
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ING DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 8995-2:2005(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON CIE S 015/E:2005
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2005
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ISO 8995-2:2005(E)
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ISO 8995-2:2005(E)
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING

The CEN Secretary-General has advised the ISO Secretary-General that this final draft International

Standard covers a subject of interest to European standardization. Consultation on the ISO/DIS had the

same effect for CEN members as a CEN enquiry on a draft European Standard. In accordance with the

ISO-lead mode of collaboration as defined in the Vienna Agreement, this final draft, established on the

basis of comments received, is hereby submitted to a parallel two-month FDIS vote in ISO and formal vote

in CEN.
Positive votes shall not be accompanied by comments.
Negative votes shall be accompanied by the relevant technical reasons.

This document is submitted to all ISO member bodies for voting within 5 months, as a standard prepared by

an international standardizing body. The proposer, the International Commission on Illumination (CIE), has

been recognized by the ISO Council as an international standardizing body for the purposes of Council

Resolution 42/1999.

Votes are required to be explicit: positive, negative or abstention. Amy request or proposal to change the

text will be regarded as a negative vote.

In accordance with the provisions of Council Resolution 15/1993, this document is circulated in the

English language only.
© CIE 2005 — All rights reserved
© ISO 2005 — All rights reserved iii
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ISO 8995-2:2005(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

ISO 8995-2 was prepared as Standard CIE S 015 by the International Commission on Illumination, which has

been recognized by the ISO Council as an international standardizing body. It was adopted by ISO under a

special procedure which requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodes casting a vote, and is

published as a joint ISO/CIE edition.

The International Commission on Illumination (abbreviated as CIE from its French title) is an organization

devoted to international cooperation and exchange of information among its member countries on all matters

relating to the science and art of lighting.

ISO 8995-2 was prepared jointly by Division 5 of the CIE and CEN/TC 169, Light and lighting.

© CIE 2005 — All rights reserved
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ISO 8995-2:2005(E)
CIE S 015/E:2005
CIE S 015/E:2005
Standard
Lighting of Outdoor Work Places
Eclairage des lieux de travail extérieurs
Beleuchtung von Arbeitsplätzen im Freien

CIE Standards are copyrighted and shall not be reproduced in any form, entirely or partly, without the

explicit agreement of the CIE.
CIE Central Bureau, Vienna CIE S 015/E:2005
Kegelgasse 27, A-1030 Vienna, Austria
UDC: 628.971.9 Descriptor: Lighting for outdoor work
© CIE 2005 — All rights reserved
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ISO 8995-2:2005(E)
CIE S 015/E:2005
CIE S 015/E:2005
© CIE 2005

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced

or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and

microfilm, without permission in writing from CIE Central Bureau at the address below.

CIE Central Bureau
Kegelgasse 27
A-1030 Vienna
Austria
Tel.: +43 1 714 3187 0
Fax: +43 1 714 3187 18
e-mail: ciecb@ping.at
Web: www.cie.co.at/
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ISO 8995-2:2005(E)
CIE S 015/E:2005
CIE S 015/E:2005
FOREWORD

Standards produced by the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) are a concise

documentation of data defining aspects of light and lighting, for which international harmony

requires such unique definition. CIE Standards are therefore a primary source of

internationally accepted and agreed data, which can be taken, essentially unaltered, into

universal standard systems.

This document CIE S 015/E:2005 has been prepared by a joint Technical Committee of

the CIE Division 5 and CEN/TC 169 “Light and lighting”, the secretariat of which was held by

DIN, and has been approved by the National Committees of the CIE.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD ............................................................................................................................ III

INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 1

1. SCOPE ........................................................................................................................... 1

2. NORMATIVE REFERENCES......................................................................................... 1

3. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS........................................................................................... 1

4. LIGHTING DESIGN CRITERIA ...................................................................................... 3

4.1 Luminous environment................................................................................................ 3

4.2 Luminance distribution ................................................................................................ 3

4.3 Illuminance .................................................................................................................. 3

4.3.1 Illuminance on the task area................................................................................ 3

4.3.2 Illuminance of surroundings................................................................................. 4

4.3.3 Illuminance grid.................................................................................................... 4

4.3.4 Uniformity and diversity........................................................................................ 5

4.4 Glare............................................................................................................................ 5

4.4.1 Glare rating .......................................................................................................... 5

4.4.2 Veiling reflections and reflected glare.................................................................. 6

4.5 Obtrusive light ............................................................................................................. 6

4.6 Directional lighting....................................................................................................... 7

4.6.1 Modelling.............................................................................................................. 7

4.6.2 Directional lighting of visual tasks........................................................................ 7

4.7 Colour aspects ............................................................................................................ 8

4.7.1 Colour appearance .............................................................................................. 8

4.7.2 Colour rendering .................................................................................................. 8

4.8 Flicker and stroboscopic effects.................................................................................. 8

4.9 Maintenance factor (MF)............................................................................................. 8

4.10 Energy considerations ................................................................................................ 9

4.11 Sustainability............................................................................................................... 9

4.12 Emergency lighting ..................................................................................................... 9

5. SCHEDULE OF LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS.............................................................. 9

5.1 Composition of the tables............................................................................................ 9

5.2 The schedule of areas, tasks and activities .............................................................. 10

5.3 Lighting requirements for areas, tasks and activities................................................ 10

6. VERIFICATION PROCEDURES .................................................................................. 17

6.1 Illuminance ................................................................................................................ 17

6.2 Glare Rating .............................................................................................................. 18

6.3 Colour Rendering Index ............................................................................................ 18

6.4 Obtrusive light ........................................................................................................... 18

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ISO 8995-2:2005(E)
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Annex A (informative) .............................................................................................................. 19

BIBLIOGRAPHY...................................................................................................................... 21

INDEX OF AREAS, TASKS AND ACTIVITIES ....................................................................... 21

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ISO 8995-2:2005(E)
CIE S 015/E:2005
CIE S 015/E:2005
INTRODUCTION

To enable people to perform visual tasks efficiently and accurately, especially during the

night, adequate and appropriate lighting has to be provided.

The degree of visibility and comfort required in a wide range of outdoor work places is

governed by the type and duration of activity.

This standard specifies requirements for lighting of tasks in most outdoor work places

and their associated areas in terms of quantity and quality of illumination. In addition

recommendations are given for good lighting practice.

It is important that all clauses of the standard are followed although the specific

requirements are tabulated in the schedule of lighting requirements (see clause 5).

1. SCOPE

This standard specifies lighting requirements for outdoor work places, which meet the needs

for visual comfort and performance. All usual visual tasks are considered.

This standard does not specify lighting requirements with respect to the safety and

health of workers at work, although the lighting requirements, as specified in this standard,

usually fulfil safety needs.

This standard neither provides specific solutions, nor restricts the designer’s freedom

from exploring new techniques nor restricts the use of innovative equipment.
2. NORMATIVE REFERENCES

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document.

For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition

of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

CIE 112-1994. Glare evaluation system for use within outdoor sports and area lighting.

CIE 115-1995. Recommendations for the lighting of roads for motor and pedestrian traffic.

CIE 140-2000. Road lighting calculations.

CIE 150:2003. Guide on the limitation of the effects of obtrusive light from outdoor lighting

installations.
CIE 154:2003. The maintenance of outdoor lighting systems.
3. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

For the purposes of this standard, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60050-845/CIE

[1]
17.4 and the following apply.

NOTE This clause defines terms and quantities that are in use and important to this

[2]
standard and which may not be given in EN 12665 and other national documents.
3.1 curfew

time during which stricter requirements (for the control of obtrusive light) will apply; often a

condition of use of lighting applied by a government controlling authority, usually the local

government
3.2 diversity (U )

ratio of minimum illuminance (luminance) to maximum illuminance (luminance) on (of) a

surface
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3.3 glare rating limit (GR )
upper limit of glare by the CIE Glare Rating system
3.4 maintained average illuminance (Ē )

value below which the average illuminance on the specified surface is not allowed to fall

NOTE It is the average illuminance at the time maintenance should be carried out.

3.5 obtrusive light

spill light which because of quantitative, directional or spectral attributes in a given context,

gives rise to annoyance, discomfort, distraction or a reduction in the ability to see essential

information
3.6 spill light (stray light)

light emitted by a lighting installation which falls outside the boundaries of the property for

which the lighting installation is designed
3.7 surrounding area
a strip surrounding the task area within the field of vision
NOTE This strip should have a width of at least 2 m.
3.8 task area

partial area in the work place in which the visual task is carried out. For places where the size

and/or location of the task area are unknown, the area where the task may occur is the task area

3.9 illuminance uniformity (U )

ratio of minimum illuminance (luminance) to average illuminance (luminance) on (of) a surface

[1]

NOTE See also IEC 60050-845/ CIE 17.4 ; 845-09-58 uniformity ratio of illuminance.

3.10 upward light ratio (ULR)

proportion of the flux of the luminaire(s) that is emitted above the horizontal, when the

luminaire(s) is (are) mounted in its (their) installed position and attitude
3.11 visual task
visual elements of the work being done

NOTE The main visual elements are the size of the structure, its luminance, its contrast

against the background and its duration.
3.12 work place
place intended to house work stations on the premises of the undertaking and/or

establishment and any other place within the area of undertaking and/or establishment to

which the worker has access in the course of his employment
3.13 work station
combination and spatial arrangement of work equipment, surrounded by the work
environment under the conditions imposed by the work tasks
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ISO 8995-2:2005(E)
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4. LIGHTING DESIGN CRITERIA
4.1 Luminous environment

For good lighting practice it is essential that in addition to the required illuminance, other

qualitative and quantitative needs are satisfied.

Lighting requirements are determined by the satisfaction of three basic human needs:

- visual comfort, where the workers have a feeling of well-being; in an indirect way

also contributing to a high productivity level,

- visual performance, where the workers are able to perform their visual tasks, even

under difficult circumstances and during longer periods,
- safety.
Main parameters determining the luminous environment are:
- luminance distribution,
- illuminance,
- glare,
- directionality of light,
- colour rendering and colour appearance of the light,
- flicker.
Values for illuminance, glare rating and colour rendering are given in clause 5.
4.2 Luminance distribution

The luminance distribution in the field of view controls the adaptation level of the eyes, which

affects task visibility.
A well balanced luminance distribution is needed to increase:
- visual acuity (sharpness of vision),
- contrast sensitivity (discrimination of small relative luminance differences),

- efficiency of the ocular functions (such as accommodation, convergence, pupillary

contraction, eye movements etc.).

The luminance distribution in the field of view also affects visual comfort. Sudden

changes in luminance should be avoided.
4.3 Illuminance

The illuminance and its distribution on the task area and the surrounding area have a great

impact on how quickly, safely and comfortably a person perceives and carries out the visual

task.

All values of illuminances specified in this standard are maintained illuminances and

will provide for visual comfort, visual performance and safety needs.
4.3.1 Illuminance on the task area

The values given in clause 5 are maintained illuminances over the task area on the reference

surface, which may be horizontal, vertical or inclined. The average illuminance for each task

shall not fall below the value given in clause 5, regardless of the age and condition of the

installation.

NOTE The values are valid for normal visual conditions and take into account the following

factors:
- psycho-physiological aspects such as visual comfort and well-being,
- requirements for visual tasks,
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- visual ergonomics,
- practical experience,
- safety,
- economy.
The value of illuminance may be adjusted by at least one step in the scale of

illuminances (see below), if the visual conditions differ from the normal assumptions.

A factor of approximately 1,5 represents the smallest significant difference in subjective

effect of illuminance. The recommended scale of illuminance (in lx) is:

5 – 10 – 15 – 20 – 30 – 50 – 75 – 100 – 150 – 200 – 300 – 500 – 750 – 1 000 – 1 500 – 2 000

The required maintained illuminance should be increased, when:
- visual work is critical,
- visual task or worker is moving,
- errors are costly to rectify,
- accuracy or higher productivity is of great importance,
- the visual capacity of the worker is below normal,
- task details are of unusually small size or low contrast,
- the task is undertaken for an unusually long time.
The required maintained illuminance may be decreased when:
- task details are of an unusually large size or high contrast,
- the task is undertaken for an unusually short time or on only rare occasions.
4.3.2 Illuminance of surroundings

The maintained illuminance of surrounding areas shall be related to the maintained

illuminance of the task area and should provide a well-balanced luminance distribution in the

field of view.

Large spatial variations in illuminances around the task area may lead to visual stress

and discomfort.

The illuminance of the surrounding areas may be lower than the task illuminance but

shall be not less than the values given in Table 1.

Table 1. Relationship of maintained illuminances of surrounding areas to task area.

Task illuminance Illuminance of surrounding areas
lx lx
100
≥ 500
300
200 50
150
50 ≤ Ē ≤ 100
no specification
< 50

In addition to the task illuminance the lighting shall provide adequate adaptation

luminance in accordance with clause 4.2.
4.3.3 Illuminance grid

A grid system shall be created for the task and surrounding areas to indicate the points at

which the illuminance values are calculated and verified.
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ISO 8995-2:2005(E)
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CIE S 015/E:2005

Grids approximating a square are preferred, the ratio of length to width of a grid cell

[3]

shall be kept between 0,5 and 2 (see also CIE x005-1992 ). The maximum grid size shall be:

log d
p = 0,2 x 5 (1)
where:
p ≤ 10

d is the longer dimension of the area (m) if the ratio of the longer to the shorter side is

less than 2, otherwise d is the shorter dimension of the area, and
p is the maximum grid cell size (m).
4.3.4 Uniformity and diversity

The task area shall be illuminated as uniformly as possible. The illuminance uniformity of the

task area shall be not less than the values given in clause 5. The uniformity of the

surroundings shall not be less than 0,10.

In some cases e.g. railways, illuminance diversity is also an important quality criterion.

4.4 Glare

Glare is the sensation produced by bright areas within the field of view and may be

experienced either as discomfort glare or disability glare. Glare caused by reflections in

specular surfaces is usually known as veiling reflections or reflected glare.

It is important to limit the glare to the users to avoid errors, fatigue and accidents.

NOTE Special care is needed to avoid glare when the direction of view is above horizontal.

4.4.1 Glare rating

The glare directly from the luminaires of an outdoor lighting installation shall be determined

using the CIE Glare Rating (GR) method according to CIE 112-1994, based on the formula:

⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
GR = 27 + 24log (2)
0,9
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
where:

L is the total veiling luminance in cd·m caused by the lighting installation and is the

sum of the veiling luminances produced by each individual luminaire
(L = L + L +…..L ). The veiling luminance of the individual luminaires is
vl v1 v2 vn
calculated as L = 10·(E ·Θ ), in which E is the illuminance at the observer's
v eye eye

eye in a plane perpendicular to the line of sight (2° below horizontal, see Fig. 1)

and Θ is the angle between the observer’s line of sight and the direction of the
light incident from the individual luminaire.
L is the equivalent veiling luminance of the environment in cd·m . From the

assumption that the reflection of the environment is totally diffuse, the equivalent

veiling reflection from the environment may be calculated as L = 0,035·ρ ·E ·π ,
ve hav
in which ρ represents the average reflectance and E the average horizontal
hav
illuminance of the area.

NOTE GR should be computed at grid positions as defined in 4.3.3, at 45° intervals radially

about the grid points with 0° direction parallel to the long side of the task area.

All assumptions made in the determination of GR shall be stated in the scheme

documentation. The GR value of the lighting installation shall not exceed the GR -value given

in clause 5.
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line of sight
plane of E
eye

Figure 1. The angle between the observer’s line of sight and the direction of the light incident

from the individual luminaire.
4.4.2 Veiling reflections and reflected glare

High brightness reflections in the visual task may alter task visibility, usually detrimentally.

Veiling reflections and reflected glare may be prevented or reduced by the following measures:

- appropriate arrangement of luminaires and work places,
- surface finish (e.g. matt surfaces),
- luminance restriction of luminaires,
- increased luminous area of the luminaire.
4.5 Obtrusive light

To safeguard and enhance the night time environment it is necessary to control obtrusive light

(also known as light pollution), which can present physiological and ecological problems to

surroundings and people.

The limits of obtrusive light for exterior lighting installations, to minimise problems for

people, flora and fauna, are given in Table 2 and for road users in Table 3.
Table 2. Maximum obtrusive light permitted for exterior lighting installations.
Environmental Light on properties Luminaire intensity Upward Luminance
zone light
E I ULR L L
v b s
–2 –2
lx Kcd cd·m cd·m
Pre- Post-curfew Pre- Post- Building Signs
curfew curfew curfew facade
E1 2 0 2,5 0 0 0 50
E2 5 1 7,5 0,5 0,05 5 400
E3 10 2 10 1,0 0,15 10 800
E4 25 5 25 2,5 0,25 25 1 000

In case no curfew regulations are available, the higher values shall not be exceeded and

the lower values should be taken as preferable limits.

If the luminaire is for public (road) lighting, then this value may be up to 1 lx.

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ISO 8995-2:2005(E)
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where:

E1 represents intrinsically dark areas, such as national parks or protected sites;

E2 represents low district brightness areas, such as industrial or residential rural

areas;

E3 represents medium district brightness areas, such as industrial or residential

suburbs;

E4 represents high district brightness areas, such as town centres and commercial

areas.
and
E is the maximum value of vertical illuminance on properties in lx;

I is the light intensity of each source in the potentially obtrusive direction in kcd;

ULR is the proportion of the flux of the luminaire(s) that is emitted above the horizontal,

when the luminaire(s) is (are) mounted in its (their) installed position and attitude;

L is the maximum average luminance of the facade of a building in cd·m ;
L is the maximum average luminance of signs in cd·m .

Table 3. Maximum values of threshold increment from non-road lighting installations.

Light Road classification
technical
No road M5 M4 / M3 M2 / M1
parameter
lighting
Threshold 15% based on 15% based on 15% based on 15% based on
increment adaptation adaptation adaptation adaptation
b) c) d)
(TI) luminance of luminance of luminance of luminance of
-2 -2 -2 -2
0,1 cd·m 1 cd·m 2 cd·m 5 cd·m
Road lighting classification as given in CIE 115-1995.
TI-classification as given in CIE 140-2000.
Limits apply whe
...

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