Vehicle security barriers

IWA 14-1:2013 specifies the essential impact performance requirement for a vehicle security barrier (VSB) and a test method for rating its performance when subjected to a single impact by a test vehicle not driven by a human being.

Barrières de sécurité de véhicule

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Nov-2013
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
26-Jul-2013
Completion Date
15-Nov-2013
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INTERNATIONAL IWA
WORKSHOP 14-1
AGREEMENT
First edition
2013-11-15
Corrected version
2014-01-15
Vehicle security barriers —
Part 1:
Performance requirement, vehicle
impact test method and performance
rating
Barrières de sécurité de véhicule —
Partie 1: Exigence de performance, méthode d’essai d’impact du
véhicule et taux de performance
Reference number
IWA 14-1:2013(E)
ISO 2013
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IWA 14-1:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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IWA 14-1:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.1 vehicle security barrier (VSB).................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 foundation ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 vehicle ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

3.4 datum line ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

3.5 impact ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

3.6 performance data ................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

3.7 miscellaneous ........................................................................................................................................................................................11

4 Performance requirement ......................................................................................................................................................................11

5 VSB documentation ........................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.2 Conformity between VSB and documentation .........................................................................................................13

6 Test method ............................................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.1 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.2 Test site .......................................................................................................................................................................................................20

6.3 Target impact point, initial contact point and impact angle .........................................................................21

6.4 VSB preparation ..................................................................................................................................................................................22

6.5 Test vehicle preparation ..............................................................................................................................................................24

6.6 Impact speed ..........................................................................................................................................................................................25

6.7 Test procedure ......................................................................................................................................................................................26

6.8 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................34

7 Performance rating .........................................................................................................................................................................................36

8 Product information ......................................................................................................................................................................................37

Annex A (normative) Test vehicle specification measurements ..........................................................................................38

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................46

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
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IWA 14-1:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

International Workshop Agreement IWA 14 was sponsored by UK Government’s Centre for the Protection

of National Infrastructure (CPNI) on behalf of the international community. The development of this

IWA was facilitated by BSI Standards Limited. It came into effect on 15 November 2013.

IWA 14 consists of the following parts, under the general title Vehicle security barriers:

— Part 1: Performance requirement, vehicle impact test method and performance rating

— Part 2: Application
This corrected version of IWA 14-1:2013 incorporates editorial modifications.
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IWA 14-1:2013(E)
Introduction
0.1 Workshop contributors

Acknowledgement is given to the following organizations that were involved in the development of this

International Workshop Agreement:
— Allen Total Perimeter Security Limited
— APT Security Systems
— ATG Access Ltd
— BRE Global Limited
— Bristorm, Hill and Smith Ltd
— Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI)
— DELTA BLOC International GmbH
— GME Springs/Safetyflex Barriers
— Heald Limited
— HMS Nelson, Portsmouth Naval base
— Kirchdorfer Fertigteilholding GmbH
— L.I.E.R.
— Marshalls
— MFD International Limited

— Ministry of Commerce and Industry - Director General for Standards and Metrology (DGSM)

(Sultanate of Oman)
— MIRA Ltd
— Norwegian Defence Estates Agency
— Perimeter Protection Group
— Perimeter Security Suppliers Association
— Rhino Engineering Ltd
— Royal Military Academy - Civil and Materials Engineering Department
— RSSI Barriers
— Sälzer GmbH
— Scorpion Arresting Systems LTD
— Ministry of Home Affairs (Singapore)
— Sudanese Standard and Metrology Organization (SSMO)
— Syrian Arab Organization for Standardization and Metrology (SASMO)
— Tallwang KVI PTY Ltd t/a AVS-elli
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IWA 14-1:2013(E)
— Technical and Test Institute for Construction Prague
— Texas A&M Transportation Institute
— Transport Research Laboratory (TRL)
— US. Department of State
— US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
— US. Army Corps of Engineers - Protective Design Center
0.2 Relationship with other publications

The following documents have been used to inform the development of this International Workshop

Agreement:
— ASTM F 2656
— CWA 16221
— PAS 68
— PAS 69
0.3 Information about this document
Product testing

Users of this part of IWA 14 are advised to consider the desirability of third-party testing of product

conformity with this IWA. Users seeking assistance in identifying appropriate conformity assessment

bodies or schemes may ask BSI or any National Standards Body to forward their enquiries to the relevant

association.
vi © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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International Workshop Agreement IWA 14-1:2013(E)
Vehicle security barriers —
Part 1:
Performance requirement, vehicle impact test method and
performance rating
1 Scope

This part of IWA 14 specifies the essential impact performance requirement for a vehicle security barrier

(VSB) and a test method for rating its performance when subjected to a single impact by a test vehicle

not driven by a human being.

It also includes the following optional assessments that can be carried out as part of the vehicle impact

test method:
a) pedestrian intruder access;
b) occupant injury.

It does not cover the performance of a VSB or its control apparatus when subjected to:

— blast explosion;
— ballistic impact;
— manual attack, with the aid of tools (excluding vehicles); or
— electrical manipulation/attack of the access control system.

NOTE 1 For manual attack, a variety of test methods exist. For assessing intruder resistance of building

components see Bibliography.

NOTE 2 The VSB is designed and tested on the basis of its application, including:

a) vehicle type, mass and speed of the assessed vehicle-borne threat;
b) its geographical application (e.g. climate conditions);
c) intended site conditions (e.g. rigid or non-rigid soil).

It does not cover guidance on design, the operational suitability of a VSB or other impact test methods.

NOTE 3 Guidance on the selection and specification of a VSB by type and operational suitability is covered in

IWA 14–2.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ASTM C39 / C39M 10, Standard test method for compressive strength of cylindrical concrete specimens

EN 12390-2, Testing hardened concrete — Part 2: Making and curing specimens for strength tests

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IWA 14-1:2013(E)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1 vehicle security barrier (VSB)
3.1.1
vehicle security barrier
VSB

barrier used to prevent potentially hostile vehicular access to a site, which depending on its type might

include as part of its design a foundation and/or operating equipment
Note 1 to entry: Types of VSB and their application are discussed in IWA 14–2.
3.1.2
linear VSB
VSB of variable length with no physical break in profile

Note 1 to entry: Examples of linear VSBs include structural walls, bunds/berms and wire rope systems.

Note 2 to entry: A linear VSB can have a change in profile, e.g. height and/or width.

3.1.3
passive VSB
VSB that after installation and deployment is static

Note 1 to entry: Examples of passive VSBs include structural walls, passive bollards and planters.

3.1.4
active VSB

VSB that after installation can be operated either by personnel or powered equipment to change its

position and/or deployed state

Note 1 to entry: Examples of active VSBs include manual rising arm barriers and retractable bollards.

3.2 foundation

Note 1 to entry Examples of installations in and on a variety of foundation configurations are illustrated in

Figure 1.
3.2.1
VSB foundation
foundation into which the VSB is installed and tested
3.2.2
generic VSB foundation

VSB foundation that can be used for testing a VSB (usually a passive bollard) which is not specifically

designed with a proprietary foundation
3.2.3
integral VSB foundation
VSB foundation that is a structural component of the VSB
3.2.4
proprietary VSB foundation
bespoke VSB foundation designed and sized solely for use with a specific VSB
3.2.5
test site ground

surrounding land, in which the VSB foundation is situated or on which the VSB is installed for testing

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IWA 14-1:2013(E)

a) VSB in the test site ground b) VSB in its foundation, installed into test site

ground

c) VSB on test site ground (surface mounted) d) VSB anchored/pinned/bolted to test site

ground
Key
1 test site ground 3 VSB foundation
2 VSB 4 anchor/pin/bolt

NOTE VSBs have a variety of foundation configurations, e.g. a) and b), where others are installed directly on

the ground, e.g. c) and d).

Figure 1 — Examples of installations in and on a variety of foundation configurations — Section

view
3.3 vehicle
3.3.1
test vehicle

commercially available vehicle and load bed (for N1, N2 and N3 vehicles), the vehicle having an unmodified

chassis and unmodified frontal structure, used in an impact test to evaluate the performance of a VSB

Note 1 to entry: Modifications that are permissible include the addition of a load bed (in accordance with the

vehicle manufacturer’s instructions) and methods to restrain movement of ballast.

3.3.2
A-pillar

structural member forming the forward corner of the driver compartment of a vehicle (M1, N1G and N1)

or day cab (N2 and N3) of a vehicle
3.3.3
ballast
mass added to the test vehicle to bring the test vehicle mass within tolerance

Note 1 to entry: Table 1 specifies the permissible quantities of secured and unsecured ballast.

3.3.4
crew cab
four door compartment of N1G vehicle for driver and passengers
3.3.5
day cab

driver compartment of N1, N2 or N3 vehicle that does not include overnight facilities

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IWA 14-1:2013(E)
3.3.6
unladen mass

mass of test vehicle, excluding ballast but with manufacturer’s equipment, quantities of engine oil and

coolant, and minimum amount of fuel

Note 1 to entry: A minimum amount of fuel is required to ensure engine operation during the test which in turn

facilitates power steering and braking systems.
3.4 datum line
3.4.1
vehicle datum point

for car (M1) or 4x4 crew cab pick-up (N1G) vehicle [see Figure 2a) and Figure 2b)]:reference line passing

through the centre of the A-pillars, at the lowest point of the windscreen; for N1, N2 or N3 day cab

vehicles [see Figure 2c) and Figure 2d)]:reference line intersecting the load bed and the headboard

a) Car (M1) b) 4x4 crew cab pick-up (N1G)
c) Day cab vehicle (N1) d) Day cab vehicle (N2A, N3C, N3D and N3F)
e) Day cab vehicle (N2B and N3E)
Key
1 vehicle datum point
Figure 2 — Vehicle datum point — Side view
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IWA 14-1:2013(E)
3.4.2
VSB datum line

vertical line taken pre-impact, from the ground to the furthest protrusion of the front face of the VSB

structure designed to withstand the impact

Note 1 to entry: The VSB front face could be flat and perpendicular to the ground. In this case, the whole VSB front

face is in line with the VSB datum line. In the case of a blocker, it is the furthest protrusion of the VSB structure

designed to withstand the impact [see Figure 3c)].

Note 2 to entry: The front face of the VSB is not the same as the front face of the VSB foundation or any supporting

structure. In the case of a ditch, it is the point where the front face of the ditch meets the ground level.

Note 3 to entry: The VSB datum line is illustrated in Figure 3.
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IWA 14-1:2013(E)
a) Bollard b) Planter, wall, balustrade
c) Blocker d) Gate barrier, rising/swing arm barrier
e) Bund/berm f) Ditch
Key
1 direction of impact 3 VSB datum line
2 VSB 4 ground level
NOTE 1 IWA 14-2 provides information on the different types of VSB available.
NOTE 2 For c), refer to Note 1 to 3.4.2
Figure 3 — VSB datum line — Isometric and side view
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IWA 14-1:2013(E)
3.5 impact
3.5.1
impact speed

speed of the freely moving test vehicle before reaching the initial contact point

3.5.2
impact angle

angle >0° and ≤90° in the horizontal plane between the VSB datum line and the vehicle approach path

into the VSB
Note 1 to entry: The impact angle is illustrated for clarity in Figure 4.
3.5.3
target impact point

intersection between the longitudinal centre line of the test vehicle and the lateral position on the VSB

impact face

Note 1 to entry: The target impact point is illustrated for clarity in Figure 4 and is used to determine test vehicle

to VSB alignment for impact angles > 45°. For an impact test with a 90° impact angle, the target impact point and

the initial contact point are the same.
3.5.4
initial contact point

point at which the test vehicle and the VSB impact face first touch during the impact test

Note 1 to entry: The initial contact point is illustrated for clarity in Figure 4 and is used to determine test vehicle

to VSB alignment for impact angles ≤ 45°.
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IWA 14-1:2013(E)
a) Impact angle = 90°
b) Impact angle = 45°
Key
1 centre line of the test vehicle 6 VSB datum line (impact face)
2 test vehicle, pre-impact 7 VSB
3 vehicle approach path 8 initial contact point
4 test vehicle at impact 9 target impact point
5 VSB foundation For an impact test with a 90° impact angle, the
target impact point and initial contact point are the
same.

Figure 4 — Impact angle, target impact point and initial contact point — Aerial view

3.6 performance data
3.6.1
vehicle penetration distance

maximum perpendicular distance between the VSB datum line and either: a) where there is <90° yaw

and/or pitch of the test vehicle, the vehicle datum point; or b) where there is ≥90° yaw and/or pitch of

the test vehicle, the furthest part of the load bed (for N1, N2 and N3 vehicles) or furthest part of the

vehicle (M1 and N1G vehicles), achieved either dynamically (during impact) or statically (post-impact),

whichever is the greater

Note 1 to entry: Vehicle penetration distance is illustrated in Figure 5a) (aerial view) and Figure 6 (side views)

with < 90° yaw and/or pitch of the test vehicle.
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IWA 14-1:2013(E)

Note 2 to entry: Vehicle penetration distance is illustrated in Figure 5b) (aerial view) with ≥ 90° yaw and/or pitch

of the test vehicle.

a) Impact at 90° to the VSB datum line, with <90° yaw and/or pitch of the test vehicle

b) Impact at 90° to the VSB datum line, into a VSB with an angled impact face, with ≥90° yaw

and/or pitch of the test vehicle (i.e. test vehicle facing towards the VSB post-impact)

Key
1 direction of impact 6 test vehicle, post-impact
2 VSB foundation 7 vehicle datum point
3 VSB 8 vehicle penetration distance

4 VSB datum line 9 VSB datum line to vehicle datum point (informative observation when

vehicle has ≥ 90° yaw and/or pitch)
5 distance marks at ground level
NOTE See Note 2 to 6.2.5.
Figure 5 — Vehicle penetration distance — Aerial view
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IWA 14-1:2013(E)
a) Pre-impact b) Post-impact
Key
1 VSB (e.g. bollard) 4 vehicle penetration distance
2 VSB datum line 5 major debris
3 vehicle datum point 6 major debris distance
Figure 6 — Vehicle penetration distance and major debris distance – Side view
3.6.2
major debris

piece of VSB, vehicle or ballast with a mass of ≥25 kg that becomes totally detached during the vehicle-

VSB impact
3.6.3
major debris distance

dimension measured from and perpendicular to the VSB datum line, to the furthest edge of the outermost

piece of major debris
Note 1 to entry: Major debris distance is illustrated for clarity in Figure 6.
3.6.4
major debris co-ordinates

position of major debris measured in the x- and y-axes from either the target impact point where the

impact angle is >45°, or from the initial contact point where the impact angle is ≤45°

Note 1 to entry: Major debris coordinates are illustrated for clarity in Figure 7.

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IWA 14-1:2013(E)
5,0
(5,0 : 4,0)
4,0
2,0
6,0 (6,0 : 2,0)
6,0
5,0
2,0
4,0
Key
A aerial view 2 VSB foundation
B side view – y is going into page (symbol +) 3 VSB
C end view – x is coming out of page (symbol •) 4 VSB datum line
1 direction of impact (three examples) 5, 6 major debris and its coordinates
Figure 7 — Major debris coordinates system — Aerial, side and end views
3.7 miscellaneous
3.7.1
client

person(s) or organization commissioning the test house to undertake an impact test

Note 1 to entry: The client could be the manufacturer, government agency, distributor, designer, prospective

purchaser or installer of the VSB to be tested.
3.7.2
test house
person(s) or organization carrying out the vehicle impact test
4 Performance requirement
When tested in accordance with the test method in Clause 6, the VSB shall:

a) resist/restrain/deflect the test vehicle from advancing beyond the VSB; and/or

b) immobilize the test vehicle by trapping it; and/or

c) immobilize the test vehicle by preventing it progressing using its own engine power after the impact.

NOTE 1 If a test vehicle is immobilized, it is prevented from continuing on its course. This can be through the

VSB blocking its route [see b)] or through damage to the test vehicle preventing it from operating [see c)].

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IWA 14-1:2013(E)

NOTE 2 Test data recorded with respect to these requirements are used to form the performance rating (see

Clause 7).
5 VSB documentation
5.1 General

The following information and documentation shall be requested before the vehicle impact test:

NOTE 1 This information sets the technical basis for the test activity.
a) VSB manufacturer details;
b) client details (where different to the VSB manufacturer);
c) whether the VSB is a prototype or is in production;
d) VSB product name (type and model);
e) the test parameters against which the VSB is to be tested, including:
1) test vehicle (see 6.1.1);
2) target impact point and impact angle (see 6.3);
3) impact speed (see 6.6);
f) whether the following optional assessments are to be included in the test:
1) pedestrian intruder access;
2) occupant injury;

g) which face of the VSB is the front face (i.e. the face designed to resist impact) and how this is marked

on the VSB;

h) general arrangement and detailed drawings, installation drawings and installation instructions;

NOTE 2 Drawings should state they are to be used for the installation of the VSB being tested and be

labelled with the VSB product name (type and model) [see 5.1d)] and version number that is being tested.

i) parts list (if available);
j) certificates confirming material specifications;
k) foundation specification:
1) foundation type: none, generic, proprietary, integral;
2) reinforcement detail and bar bending schedule;

3) soil grade, compaction, moisture content and bearing capacity (where soil is part of the

foundation or installation) (see 6.4.4);
l) operating manual/instructions;

m) for bollards, the bollard array and its foundation (e.g. single or multiple arrangement);

NOTE 3 This includes, for example, use of a foundation with a capacity of three bollards but to be tested

with only one bollard installed.
n) for linear VSBs, the length of the VSB to be tested;
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IWA 14-1:2013(E)

NOTE 4 From experience, the length of a linear VSB chosen for impact testing should be considered as the

performance could depend on it.

o) whether the VSB is a passive or active VSB and whether it is to be tested as passive or active;

p) for an active VSB, the means by which it is to be operated for the test (e.g. powered or manual);

q) whether the VSB has been previously tested including a reference to the previous test (e.g. test

house, test reference number, test report number).

NOTE 5 The test house may obtain other relevant information (e.g. information for disposal and/or

recycling of the VSB, details of toxic or dangerous materials in the VSB and safety issues).

All documents supplied to a test house shall be considered proprietary and shall be retained, handled

and stored by the test house accordingly, unless instructed otherwise by the client.

5.2 Conformity between VSB and documentation

The VSB shall conform to its accompanying documentation (see 5.1). Any non-conformance identified

at any stage of testing shall be logged and reported to the client. The resolution of the non-conformance

shall be recorded through the provision of revised drawings prior to completion of the test report or a

modified VSB prior to continuation of the test programme.

A set of modified drawings identified by an updated issue number shall be provided together with a list

of dated amendments.
6 Test method

NOTE Documented procedures for ensuring the safety of observers during testing should be developed

based on a site specific risk assessment for the test site and should be implemented.

6.1 Apparatus

6.1.1 Test vehicle, a production model representative of the current vehicle fleet, having characteris-

tics and dimensions within the vehicle specifications given in Table 1.

NOTE 1 The test vehicle should be selected on the basis of the VSB’s application, including its geographical

application, where known.

NOTE 2 If using a vehicle with a rigid box, consideration should be given to how ballast movement could be

filmed during the impact [see 6.1.8c)].

NOTE 3 Graphical representations of typical vehicles corresponding to requirements are given in Figure 8.

The test vehicle shall be not more than 10 years old for vehicle types M1, N1G, N1, N2A, N2B, N3C and

N3D, and not more than 15 years for vehicle type N3E and N3F.
NOTE 4 For transparency of impartiality, the test house should alway
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