Soil quality — Sampling — Part 102: Selection and application of sampling techniques

ISO 18400-102:2017 gives guidelines for techniques for taking samples so that these can subsequently be examined for the purpose of providing information on soil quality. It gives information on equipment that is typically applicable in particular sampling situations to enable correct sampling procedures to be carried out and representative samples to be collected. Guidance is given on the selection of the equipment and the techniques to use to enable both disturbed and undisturbed samples to be correctly taken at different depths. ISO 18400-102:2017 does not cover: - investigations for geotechnical purposes, though where redevelopment of a site is envisaged, the soil quality investigation and the geotechnical investigation may sometimes be beneficially combined; - sampling of hard strata such as bedrock; - methods for the collection of information on soil quality without taking samples such as geophysical methods; - collection of water samples (these are to be collected in accordance with appropriate International Standards on ground or surface water sampling; for further information, see the ISO 5667 series); - investigations of soil gas about which guidance is provided in ISO 18400‑204; - investigation of radioactively contaminated sites. NOTE 1 "Sampling technique" is defined in ISO 11074. NOTE 2 Guidance on the investigation and assessment of radioactivity in soils is provided in the ISO 18589 series.

Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage — Partie 102: Choix et application des techniques d'échantillonnage

ISO 18400-102:2017fournit des lignes directrices concernant les techniques de prélèvement d'échantillons de sorte que ceux-ci puissent être examinés dans le but de fournir des informations sur la qualité des sols. Elle donne des informations sur le matériel habituellement utilisé dans des situations particulières d'échantillonnage pour exécuter correctement des procédures d'échantillonnage et de prélever des échantillons représentatifs. Des lignes directrices sont données pour le choix du matériel et des techniques à employer pour permettre d'échantillonner correctement à différentes profondeurs, des échantillons remaniés et des échantillons non remaniés. ISO 18400-102:2017 ne couvre pas: - les investigations pour des problématiques géotechniques, même si, lorsque le réaménagement d'un site est envisagé, l'évaluation de la qualité du sol et la reconnaissance géotechnique peuvent être parfois avantageusement combinées; - l'échantillonnage de couches dures telles que la roche mère; - les méthodes de collecte d'informations sur la qualité du sol sans prélèvement d'échantillons, telles que les méthodes géophysiques; - le prélèvement d'échantillons d'eau (ces échantillons d'eau doivent être prélevés conformément à des normes internationales appropriées traitant de l'échantillonnage des eaux souterraines et de l'eau de surface; pour plus d'informations, voir la série de l'ISO 5667); - l'échantillonnage des gaz du sol à propos desquels des lignes directrices sont fournies dans l'ISO 18400‑204; - l'étude des sites potentiellement contaminés par des substances radioactives. NOTE 1 Le terme «Technique d'échantillonnage» est défini dans l'ISO 11074. NOTE 2 Des lignes directrices pour l'étude et l'évaluation de la radioactivité dans les sols sont fournies dans la série de l'ISO 18589.

Kakovost tal - Vzorčenje - 102. del: Izbira in uporaba tehnik vzorčenja

Ta dokument podaja smernice za tehnike vzorčenja, ki so namenjene naknadnemu pregledovanju vzorcev za zagotavljanje informacij o kakovosti prsti. Podaja tudi informacije o opremi, ki se običajno uporablja v določenih okoliščinah vzorčenja in omogoča pravilno izvajanje postopkov vzorčenja in zbiranje reprezentativnih vzorcev. Podana so tudi navodila za izbiranje opreme in uporabo tehnik z namenom zagotavljanja pravilnega odvzema porušenih in neporušenih vzorcev na različnih globinah.
Ta standard ne zajema:
– preiskav za geotehnične namene, vendar pa je v primeru načrtovane preureditve območja včasih koristno, če se preiskave kakovosti prsti uporabljajo v kombinaciji z geotehničnimi preiskavami;
– vzorčenja trdih plasti, kot je skalna podlaga;
– metod za zbiranje informacij o kakovosti prsti brez odvzema vzorcev, kot so geofizikalne metode;
– zbiranja vzorcev vode (slednje je treba zbrati v skladu z ustreznimi mednarodnimi standardi s področja vzorčenja podtalnice in površinske vode; za dodatne informacije glejte skupino standardov ISO 5667);
– preiskovanja plinov v prsti, za kar so smernice podane v standardu ISO 18400-204;
– preiskovanja radioaktivno onesnaženih območij.
OPOMBA 1: »tehnika vzorčenja« je opredeljena v standardu ISO 11074.
OPOMBA 2: smernice za preiskovanje in ocenjevanje radioaktivnosti prsti so podane v skupini standardov ISO 18589.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
24-Jan-2017
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Completion Date
17-Oct-2022

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18400-102
First edition
2017-01
Soil quality — Sampling —
Part 102:
Selection and application of sampling
techniques
Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage —
Partie 102: Choix et application des techniques d’échantillonnage
Reference number
ISO 18400-102:2017(E)
ISO 2017
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 18400-102:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 18400-102:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 General aspects ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Health and safety ................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Preliminary information ................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.3 Sample types ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.4 Sample size ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.5 Available techniques .......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6 Selection of sampling techniques ....................................................................................................................................................20

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................20

6.2 Drilling rigs and ancillary equipment ..............................................................................................................................22

7 General aspects of application ............................................................................................................................................................22

7.1 General aspects of field work ..................................................................................................................................................22

7.2 Environmental considerations ...............................................................................................................................................23

7.3 Cross-contamination .......................................................................................................................................................................25

7.4 Preparing to sample ........................................................................................................................................................................26

7.5 Breaking out ...........................................................................................................................................................................................26

7.6 Collection of samples ......................................................................................................................................................................27

7.7 Transport, storage, and preservation of samples...................................................................................................27

7.8 Backfilling of exploratory holes .............................................................................................................................................27

7.9 Disposal of waste materials ......................................................................................................................................................28

7.10 Personnel ..................................................................................................................................................................................................28

8 Taking samples of top-soil and other near surface materials ............................................................................28

8.1 Undisturbed samples ......................................................................................................................................................................28

8.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................28

8.1.2 Procedure for use of sampling cylinders..................................................................................................29

8.2 Disturbed samples ............................................................................................................................................................................29

8.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................29

8.2.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................30

9 Sampling at greater depths ....................................................................................................................................................................30

9.1 Undisturbed samples ......................................................................................................................................................................30

9.1.1 Sampling from trial pits ..........................................................................................................................................30

9.1.2 Other sampling methods........................................................................................................................................31

9.2 Disturbed samples ............................................................................................................................................................................31

9.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................31

9.2.2 Agricultural sites, etc. ...............................................................................................................................................31

9.2.3 Contaminated sites .....................................................................................................................................................31

10 Sampling stockpiles ........................................................................................................................................................................................32

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................32

10.2 Sampling equipment .......................................................................................................................................................................32

Annex A (informative) Application of particular techniques ...................................................................................................34

Annex B (informative) Manually and power-operated sampling equipment .........................................................40

Annex C (informative) Illustration of some selected drilling and sampling equipment .............................47

Annex D (informative) Sampling equipment for stockpiles ......................................................................................................64

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 18400-102:2017(E)

Annex E (informative) Examples of large samplers ...........................................................................................................................66

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................69

iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18400-102:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,

as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the

Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: www . i so .org/ iso/ foreword .html

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190, Soil quality, Subcommittee SC 2,

Sampling.

This first edition of ISO 18400-102, together with ISO 18400-104, ISO 18400-105 and ISO 18400-206,

cancels and replaces ISO 10381-2:2002 and ISO 10381-6:2009, which have been technically and

structurally revised. The new ISO 18400 series is based on a modular structure and cannot be compared

to ISO 10381-2 and ISO 10381-6 clause by clause.
A list of all parts in the ISO 18400 series can be found on the ISO website.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 18400-102:2017(E)
Introduction

This document is one of a group of International Standards intended to be used in conjunction with each

other where necessary. It deals with various aspects of sampling for the purposes of soil investigation

including agricultural, forestry, and contamination investigations, but is not applicable to investigations

for geotechnical purposes. These are dealt with in the ISO 22475 series.

ISO 22475-1 specifies the technical principles for the execution of sampling and groundwater

measurements for geotechnical purposes. It describes and provides guidance on the application of many

of the sampling techniques included in this document albeit in a different context. Many contractors

engaged to carry out work in connection with environmental studies will be familiar with its often

prescriptive requirements. It includes detailed design information for some equipment. It is to be

noted that the nomenclature used in this document may differ in places from that used in ISO 22475-1

because of the different contexts and traditions in the fields of geotechnical and geo-environmental

investigation.

General principles to be applied in the design of sampling programmes for the purpose of

characterization of soil and identification of sources and effects of contamination of soil and related

material are given in ISO 18400-104 . ISO 18400-104 provides information about where to sample,

the tests to be conducted, the type of sample, the depth of sampling and the required representativeness

of the sampling system for sampling in respect of specific purposes.

This document is part of a series on sampling standards for soil. The role/position of the International

Standards within the total investigation programme is shown in Figure 1.
1) Under preparation.
vi © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18400-102:2017(E)
Figure 1 — Links between the essential elements of an investigation programme

NOTE 1 The numbers in circles in Figure 1 define the key elements (1 to 7) of the investigation programme.

NOTE 2 Figure 1 displays a generic process which can be amended when necessary.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved vii
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18400-102:2017(E)
Soil quality — Sampling —
Part 102:
Selection and application of sampling techniques
1 Scope

This document gives guidelines for techniques for taking samples so that these can subsequently be

examined for the purpose of providing information on soil quality. It gives information on equipment

that is typically applicable in particular sampling situations to enable correct sampling procedures to

be carried out and representative samples to be collected. Guidance is given on the selection of the

equipment and the techniques to use to enable both disturbed and undisturbed samples to be correctly

taken at different depths.
This document does not cover:

— investigations for geotechnical purposes, though where redevelopment of a site is envisaged, the soil

quality investigation and the geotechnical investigation may sometimes be beneficially combined;

— sampling of hard strata such as bedrock;

— methods for the collection of information on soil quality without taking samples such as geophysical

methods;

— collection of water samples (these are to be collected in accordance with appropriate International

Standards on ground or surface water sampling; for further information, see the ISO 5667 series);

— investigations of soil gas about which guidance is provided in ISO 18400-204;
— investigation of radioactively contaminated sites.
NOTE 1 “Sampling technique” is defined in ISO 11074.

NOTE 2 Guidance on the investigation and assessment of radioactivity in soils is provided in the ISO 18589

series.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3551-1, Rotary core diamond drilling equipment — System A — Part 1: Metric units

ISO 3552-1, Rotary core diamond drilling equipment — System B — Part 1: Metric units

ISO 10097-1, Wireline diamond core drilling equipment — System A — Part 1: Metric units

ISO 11074, Soil quality — Vocabulary

ISO 18400-101, Soil quality — Sampling — Part 101: Framework for the preparation and application of a

sampling plan
ISO 18400-103, Soil quality — Sampling — Part 103: Safety
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 18400-102:2017(E)

ISO 18400-104 , Soil quality — Sampling — Part 104: Strategies and statistical evaluations

ISO 18400-105, Soil quality — Sampling — Part 105: Packaging, transport, storage and preservation

of samples

ISO 18400-201, Soil quality — Sampling — Part 201: Physical pretreatment in the field

ISO 18400-202 , Soil quality — Sampling — Part 202: Preliminary investigations
ISO 25177, Soil quality — Field soil description
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11074 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
3.1
cluster sample

composite sample for which the increments are taken over a small area around a predefined

sampling point
2 2
Note 1 to entry: Sampled area is typically about 0,5 m to 1,0 m .

Note 2 to entry: Material sampled is taken from within the same stratum or from material with the same

characteristics.
3.2
cutting cylinder

cylindrical device with removable top and base forced into the surface of exposed soil to obtain an

undisturbed sample (3.7)
3.3
disturbed sample

sample obtained from the ground without any attempt to preserve the soil structure

EXAMPLE Sample obtained by using a hand auger.
[SOURCE: ISO 11074:2015, 4.4.8, modified — changed to read: …from the ground…]
3.4
Kubiëna tin

metal box with removable top and base which can be forced into the surface of exposed soil to obtain an

undisturbed sample (3.7)

Note 1 to entry: Usually made to desired size from aluminium, galvanized steel, or stainless steel sheet. Size

varies, but a typical example might have an area of about 55 mm × 75 mm with a depth of 40 mm. The sample,

once obtained, can be used to determine bulk density or may be impregnated with resin prior to the production

of thin sections for microscopic examination.
2) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DIS 18400-104:2016.
3) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DIS 18400-202:2016.
2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18400-102:2017(E)
3.5
spatial sample

composite sample formed from evenly spaced increments of the same size taken over a predetermined

area which are then bulked together

Note 1 to entry: The increments may be located according to a regular grid, random, or other pattern. In

agricultural/horticultural land investigations, “N”, “S”, “W”, and “X” sampling patterns are commonly used.

Note 2 to entry: The general premise is that the distribution of soil constituents is relatively homogeneous. Along

the outline of such a pattern, a number of samples or increments are taken which are bulked and mixed to provide

one (composite) sample for analysis.
3.6
spot sample
sample from a discrete location made up of one or more contiguous increments
Note 1 to entry: May be a disturbed (3.3) or undisturbed sample (3.7).
3.7
undisturbed sample

sample obtained from the ground with soil structure unaltered during sampling procedure

Note 1 to entry: Special sampling equipment is used so that the soil particles and voids cannot change from

the distribution which exists in the ground before sampling (these can provide volume-proportional or mass-

proportional results).
4 Principle

Sampling technique should be chosen taking into account all the needs of the investigation including

planned distribution of sampling locations, the depth(s) from which samples are to be taken, the size

and type of sample(s) required, the nature of any potential contaminants, and the nature of the site

including any problems the site poses to carrying out the investigation.
The sampling technique(s) should be selected to enable:

— the collection of samples of soil and soil materials that can be presented to the laboratory for

examination or analysis to establish basic information on the pedology and distribution of naturally

occurring or man-made soils, their chemical, mineralogical and biological composition, and their

physical properties at selected locations, as appropriate, to meet the objectives of the investigation;

— examination and recording of in situ materials exposed by the investigation.

NOTE 1 Detailed guidance on general aspects of sampling relevant to the selection and application of sampling

techniques are given in 5.1 to 5.4 and about available techniques in 5.5. Detailed guidance on the selection of

sampling techniques is provided in Clause 6 and on their application in Clause 7.

Among the decisions to be made is whether to use manual methods or machinery. Sampling may be

required at or near the ground surface at some depth below the ground surface, or from locations deep

below the ground surface. Methods of achieving the desired depth for sampling include formation of

excavations (e.g. trial pits), by driven probes, or by drilling (e.g. boreholes).

Depending on the purpose for which sampling is being carried out, either disturbed or undisturbed,

samples may be taken (5.3). Undisturbed samples could be required, for example, for soil physical

testing or for determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

NOTE 2 What constitutes a sufficiently undisturbed sample depends on the purpose for which the sample is

required and can be a matter of judgement. For example, some compression of the sample might be acceptable

when VOCs are to be determined, but would not be acceptable when the bulk density is to be determined. The

ISO 22475 series defines classes of sample suitable for geotechnical testing.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 18400-102:2017(E)
Soil sampling techniques usually consists of the following two steps:

a) gaining access to the point of sampling (avoiding services, as well as removing any hard cover, etc.,

digging, or drilling a hole to reach the desired depth of sampling);
b) taking the soil sample.

These steps are interdependent and should both meet the requirements of the sampling principles.

NOTE 3 A distinction can also be made between:
— sampling by drilling (continuous sampling);

— sampling using samplers (sampling devices) to obtain disturbed or undisturbed samples as required once a

borehole or excavation has been formed;
— block sampling (in which a large undisturbed sample is obtained).

Combinations of these sampling methods are possible and sometimes required due to the geological

conditions and the purpose of the investigation.
5 General aspects
5.1 Health and safety

All necessary measures shall be taken when selecting and applying sampling techniques to protect the

health and safety of those carrying out the work, anyone entering the site (with or without permission),

and the general public (e.g. the occupants of neighbouring properties) and to avoid harm to the

environment.
The guidance in ISO 18400-103 shall be followed.

ISO 18400-103 should be read in conjunction with relevant national and international legislation and

regulations regarding health and safety at work and associated guidance produced by statutory bodies

and trade associations.
5.2 Preliminary information

A preliminary investigation comprising a desk study and site reconnaissance (walk-over survey, site

inspection) should be carried out as specified in ISO 18400-202 prior to undertaking any sampling.

The selection of the sampling technique, the sampling equipment to be used, and the method of taking

soil samples depend upon the objectives of the sampling, the strata to be sampled, the nature of possible

contamination, and the examination or analysis to be carried out on the samples.
Information should be compiled and assessed about the following:
a) the objectives of the sampling;
b) required accuracy of measurements;
c) planned locations for boreholes and excavations;

d) the anticipated depths from which samples are to be taken taking into consideration the future use

of the site including depth of excavations or foundations (see ISO 18400-104);
e) potential risks to the health and safety of the site personnel;

f) potential risks to the environment from the investigation including the potential to pollute

groundwater and to spread infective agents;
g) emergency arrangements;
4 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18400-102:2017(E)
h) the size and topography of the area to be sampled;

i) accessibility for different types and sizes of equipment and factors such as the likely bearing

capacity of the ground, see Reference [1];
j) the nature of the ground to be sampled;
k) possible lateral and vertical variations of soil type or strata;
l) the geology of the site and surrounding area;
m) the assumed depth to groundwater;
n) previous usage or treatment of the site;

o) the presence of buildings and obstructions such as foundations, buried tanks, and underground

services (e.g. electricity, sewers, mains, cables, gas);
p) the presence of concrete or tarmac pathways, roadways, or hard-standings;
q) the growth of vegetation leading to extensive root development;
r) the presence of unexpected surface-water pools or water-saturated ground;

s) the presence of fences, walls, or earthworks designed to prevent access to the site;

t) the presence of tipped material above the general level of the site or material from the demolition

of buildings;
u) the presence of artefacts of archaeological or heritage value;
v) possible presence of unexploded ordinance, see Reference [2];

w) the presence of protected species, ecosystems, and other features of scientific value;

x) the presence of invasive or noxious plant species (e.g. Japanese Knotweed – Fallopia japonica, Giant

Hogweed – Heracleum mantegazzianum) or infective agents (these may affect humans, animals, or

plants) (see also 7.2, last paragraph);

y) location of water bodies at risk from contamination including surface and ground water;

z) the planned flow of information.

NOTE For guidance on accessibility for light percussion drilling rigs, see Reference [1].

5.3 Sample types

The samples taken should be of appropriate type(s) to enable the objectives of the investigation to be

achieved in accordance with the guidance provided in ISO 18400-104. Special consideration is required

regarding the following:
— whether to take disturbed or undisturbed samples;

— whether to take spot samples or cluster samples or to employ a form of spatial composite sampling

(see Table 1);

— how to comply with any statutory or authoritative guidance relating to judging whether guideline

values (assessment criteria) have been exceeded;
— whether statistical analysis of the data obtained will be required;
— the expected distribution of contaminants or other substances of interest;
— how to reduce uncertainty in the results of the investigation.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 18400-102:2017(E)

Composite samples should not be used when soil characteristics that may suffer changes during the

composition process, such as concentrations of volatile compounds, are to be determined. They also

should not be used if peak concentrations of any substance or variations of soil characteristics are to be

determined.

The use of cluster samples can reduce sampling uncertainties. This method of sampling is particularly

appropriate when using trial pits when surface samples (e.g. 0,0 mbgl to 0,10 mbgl) are being taken and

when carrying out validation sampling of imported topsoil.
Where composite sampling is used to determine the chara
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 18400-102:2018
01-julij-2018
1DGRPHãþD
SIST ISO 10381-2:2006
SIST ISO 10381-6:2011
.DNRYRVWWDO9]RUþHQMHGHO,]ELUDLQXSRUDEDWHKQLNY]RUþHQMD

Soil quality - Sampling - Part 102: Selection and application of sampling techniques

Qualité du sol - Échantillonnage - Partie 102: Choix et application des techniques

d'échantillonnage
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 18400-102:2017
ICS:
13.080.05 Preiskava tal na splošno Examination of soils in
general
SIST ISO 18400-102:2018 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-102:2018
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-102:2018
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18400-102
First edition
2017-01
Soil quality — Sampling —
Part 102:
Selection and application of sampling
techniques
Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage —
Partie 102: Choix et application des techniques d’échantillonnage
Reference number
ISO 18400-102:2017(E)
ISO 2017
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-102:2018
ISO 18400-102:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18400-102:2018
ISO 18400-102:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 General aspects ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Health and safety ................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Preliminary information ................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.3 Sample types ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.4 Sample size ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.5 Available techniques .......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6 Selection of sampling techniques ....................................................................................................................................................20

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................20

6.2 Drilling rigs and ancillary equipment ..............................................................................................................................22

7 General aspects of application ............................................................................................................................................................22

7.1 General aspects of field work ..................................................................................................................................................22

7.2 Environmental considerations ...............................................................................................................................................23

7.3 Cross-contamination .......................................................................................................................................................................25

7.4 Preparing to sample ........................................................................................................................................................................26

7.5 Breaking out ...........................................................................................................................................................................................26

7.6 Collection of samples ......................................................................................................................................................................27

7.7 Transport, storage, and preservation of samples...................................................................................................27

7.8 Backfilling of exploratory holes .............................................................................................................................................27

7.9 Disposal of waste materials ......................................................................................................................................................28

7.10 Personnel ..................................................................................................................................................................................................28

8 Taking samples of top-soil and other near surface materials ............................................................................28

8.1 Undisturbed samples ......................................................................................................................................................................28

8.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................28

8.1.2 Procedure for use of sampling cylinders..................................................................................................29

8.2 Disturbed samples ............................................................................................................................................................................29

8.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................29

8.2.2 Procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................30

9 Sampling at greater depths ....................................................................................................................................................................30

9.1 Undisturbed samples ......................................................................................................................................................................30

9.1.1 Sampling from trial pits ..........................................................................................................................................30

9.1.2 Other sampling methods........................................................................................................................................31

9.2 Disturbed samples ............................................................................................................................................................................31

9.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................31

9.2.2 Agricultural sites, etc. ...............................................................................................................................................31

9.2.3 Contaminated sites .....................................................................................................................................................31

10 Sampling stockpiles ........................................................................................................................................................................................32

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................32

10.2 Sampling equipment .......................................................................................................................................................................32

Annex A (informative) Application of particular techniques ...................................................................................................34

Annex B (informative) Manually and power-operated sampling equipment .........................................................40

Annex C (informative) Illustration of some selected drilling and sampling equipment .............................47

Annex D (informative) Sampling equipment for stockpiles ......................................................................................................64

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Annex E (informative) Examples of large samplers ...........................................................................................................................66

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................69

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,

as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the

Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: www . i so .org/ iso/ foreword .html

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190, Soil quality, Subcommittee SC 2,

Sampling.

This first edition of ISO 18400-102, together with ISO 18400-104, ISO 18400-105 and ISO 18400-206,

cancels and replaces ISO 10381-2:2002 and ISO 10381-6:2009, which have been technically and

structurally revised. The new ISO 18400 series is based on a modular structure and cannot be compared

to ISO 10381-2 and ISO 10381-6 clause by clause.
A list of all parts in the ISO 18400 series can be found on the ISO website.
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Introduction

This document is one of a group of International Standards intended to be used in conjunction with each

other where necessary. It deals with various aspects of sampling for the purposes of soil investigation

including agricultural, forestry, and contamination investigations, but is not applicable to investigations

for geotechnical purposes. These are dealt with in the ISO 22475 series.

ISO 22475-1 specifies the technical principles for the execution of sampling and groundwater

measurements for geotechnical purposes. It describes and provides guidance on the application of many

of the sampling techniques included in this document albeit in a different context. Many contractors

engaged to carry out work in connection with environmental studies will be familiar with its often

prescriptive requirements. It includes detailed design information for some equipment. It is to be

noted that the nomenclature used in this document may differ in places from that used in ISO 22475-1

because of the different contexts and traditions in the fields of geotechnical and geo-environmental

investigation.

General principles to be applied in the design of sampling programmes for the purpose of

characterization of soil and identification of sources and effects of contamination of soil and related

material are given in ISO 18400-104 . ISO 18400-104 provides information about where to sample,

the tests to be conducted, the type of sample, the depth of sampling and the required representativeness

of the sampling system for sampling in respect of specific purposes.

This document is part of a series on sampling standards for soil. The role/position of the International

Standards within the total investigation programme is shown in Figure 1.
1) Under preparation.
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Figure 1 — Links between the essential elements of an investigation programme

NOTE 1 The numbers in circles in Figure 1 define the key elements (1 to 7) of the investigation programme.

NOTE 2 Figure 1 displays a generic process which can be amended when necessary.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18400-102:2017(E)
Soil quality — Sampling —
Part 102:
Selection and application of sampling techniques
1 Scope

This document gives guidelines for techniques for taking samples so that these can subsequently be

examined for the purpose of providing information on soil quality. It gives information on equipment

that is typically applicable in particular sampling situations to enable correct sampling procedures to

be carried out and representative samples to be collected. Guidance is given on the selection of the

equipment and the techniques to use to enable both disturbed and undisturbed samples to be correctly

taken at different depths.
This document does not cover:

— investigations for geotechnical purposes, though where redevelopment of a site is envisaged, the soil

quality investigation and the geotechnical investigation may sometimes be beneficially combined;

— sampling of hard strata such as bedrock;

— methods for the collection of information on soil quality without taking samples such as geophysical

methods;

— collection of water samples (these are to be collected in accordance with appropriate International

Standards on ground or surface water sampling; for further information, see the ISO 5667 series);

— investigations of soil gas about which guidance is provided in ISO 18400-204;
— investigation of radioactively contaminated sites.
NOTE 1 “Sampling technique” is defined in ISO 11074.

NOTE 2 Guidance on the investigation and assessment of radioactivity in soils is provided in the ISO 18589

series.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3551-1, Rotary core diamond drilling equipment — System A — Part 1: Metric units

ISO 3552-1, Rotary core diamond drilling equipment — System B — Part 1: Metric units

ISO 10097-1, Wireline diamond core drilling equipment — System A — Part 1: Metric units

ISO 11074, Soil quality — Vocabulary

ISO 18400-101, Soil quality — Sampling — Part 101: Framework for the preparation and application of a

sampling plan
ISO 18400-103, Soil quality — Sampling — Part 103: Safety
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ISO 18400-104 , Soil quality — Sampling — Part 104: Strategies and statistical evaluations

ISO 18400-105, Soil quality — Sampling — Part 105: Packaging, transport, storage and preservation

of samples

ISO 18400-201, Soil quality — Sampling — Part 201: Physical pretreatment in the field

ISO 18400-202 , Soil quality — Sampling — Part 202: Preliminary investigations
ISO 25177, Soil quality — Field soil description
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11074 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
3.1
cluster sample

composite sample for which the increments are taken over a small area around a predefined

sampling point
2 2
Note 1 to entry: Sampled area is typically about 0,5 m to 1,0 m .

Note 2 to entry: Material sampled is taken from within the same stratum or from material with the same

characteristics.
3.2
cutting cylinder

cylindrical device with removable top and base forced into the surface of exposed soil to obtain an

undisturbed sample (3.7)
3.3
disturbed sample

sample obtained from the ground without any attempt to preserve the soil structure

EXAMPLE Sample obtained by using a hand auger.
[SOURCE: ISO 11074:2015, 4.4.8, modified — changed to read: …from the ground…]
3.4
Kubiëna tin

metal box with removable top and base which can be forced into the surface of exposed soil to obtain an

undisturbed sample (3.7)

Note 1 to entry: Usually made to desired size from aluminium, galvanized steel, or stainless steel sheet. Size

varies, but a typical example might have an area of about 55 mm × 75 mm with a depth of 40 mm. The sample,

once obtained, can be used to determine bulk density or may be impregnated with resin prior to the production

of thin sections for microscopic examination.
2) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DIS 18400-104:2016.
3) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DIS 18400-202:2016.
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3.5
spatial sample

composite sample formed from evenly spaced increments of the same size taken over a predetermined

area which are then bulked together

Note 1 to entry: The increments may be located according to a regular grid, random, or other pattern. In

agricultural/horticultural land investigations, “N”, “S”, “W”, and “X” sampling patterns are commonly used.

Note 2 to entry: The general premise is that the distribution of soil constituents is relatively homogeneous. Along

the outline of such a pattern, a number of samples or increments are taken which are bulked and mixed to provide

one (composite) sample for analysis.
3.6
spot sample
sample from a discrete location made up of one or more contiguous increments
Note 1 to entry: May be a disturbed (3.3) or undisturbed sample (3.7).
3.7
undisturbed sample

sample obtained from the ground with soil structure unaltered during sampling procedure

Note 1 to entry: Special sampling equipment is used so that the soil particles and voids cannot change from

the distribution which exists in the ground before sampling (these can provide volume-proportional or mass-

proportional results).
4 Principle

Sampling technique should be chosen taking into account all the needs of the investigation including

planned distribution of sampling locations, the depth(s) from which samples are to be taken, the size

and type of sample(s) required, the nature of any potential contaminants, and the nature of the site

including any problems the site poses to carrying out the investigation.
The sampling technique(s) should be selected to enable:

— the collection of samples of soil and soil materials that can be presented to the laboratory for

examination or analysis to establish basic information on the pedology and distribution of naturally

occurring or man-made soils, their chemical, mineralogical and biological composition, and their

physical properties at selected locations, as appropriate, to meet the objectives of the investigation;

— examination and recording of in situ materials exposed by the investigation.

NOTE 1 Detailed guidance on general aspects of sampling relevant to the selection and application of sampling

techniques are given in 5.1 to 5.4 and about available techniques in 5.5. Detailed guidance on the selection of

sampling techniques is provided in Clause 6 and on their application in Clause 7.

Among the decisions to be made is whether to use manual methods or machinery. Sampling may be

required at or near the ground surface at some depth below the ground surface, or from locations deep

below the ground surface. Methods of achieving the desired depth for sampling include formation of

excavations (e.g. trial pits), by driven probes, or by drilling (e.g. boreholes).

Depending on the purpose for which sampling is being carried out, either disturbed or undisturbed,

samples may be taken (5.3). Undisturbed samples could be required, for example, for soil physical

testing or for determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

NOTE 2 What constitutes a sufficiently undisturbed sample depends on the purpose for which the sample is

required and can be a matter of judgement. For example, some compression of the sample might be acceptable

when VOCs are to be determined, but would not be acceptable when the bulk density is to be determined. The

ISO 22475 series defines classes of sample suitable for geotechnical testing.
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Soil sampling techniques usually consists of the following two steps:

a) gaining access to the point of sampling (avoiding services, as well as removing any hard cover, etc.,

digging, or drilling a hole to reach the desired depth of sampling);
b) taking the soil sample.

These steps are interdependent and should both meet the requirements of the sampling principles.

NOTE 3 A distinction can also be made between:
— sampling by drilling (continuous sampling);

— sampling using samplers (sampling devices) to obtain disturbed or undisturbed samples as required once a

borehole or excavation has been formed;
— block sampling (in which a large undisturbed sample is obtained).

Combinations of these sampling methods are possible and sometimes required due to the geological

conditions and the purpose of the investigation.
5 General aspects
5.1 Health and safety

All necessary measures shall be taken when selecting and applying sampling techniques to protect the

health and safety of those carrying out the work, anyone entering the site (with or without permission),

and the general public (e.g. the occupants of neighbouring properties) and to avoid harm to the

environment.
The guidance in ISO 18400-103 shall be followed.

ISO 18400-103 should be read in conjunction with relevant national and international legislation and

regulations regarding health and safety at work and associated guidance produced by statutory bodies

and trade associations.
5.2 Preliminary information

A preliminary investigation comprising a desk study and site reconnaissance (walk-over survey, site

inspection) should be carried out as specified in ISO 18400-202 prior to undertaking any sampling.

The selection of the sampling technique, the sampling equipment to be used, and the method of taking

soil samples depend upon the objectives of the sampling, the strata to be sampled, the nature of possible

contamination, and the examination or analysis to be carried out on the samples.
Information should be compiled and assessed about the following:
a) the objectives of the sampling;
b) required accuracy of measurements;
c) planned locations for boreholes and excavations;

d) the anticipated depths from which samples are to be taken taking into consideration the future use

of the site including depth of excavations or foundations (see ISO 18400-104);
e) potential risks to the health and safety of the site personnel;

f) potential risks to the environment from the investigation including the potential to pollute

groundwater and to spread infective agents;
g) emergency arrangements;
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h) the size and topography of the area to be sampled;

i) accessibility for different types and sizes of equipment and factors such as the likely bearing

capacity of the ground, see Reference [1];
j) the nature of the ground to be sampled;
k) possible lateral and vertical variations of soil type or strata;
l) the geology of the site and surrounding area;
m) the assumed depth to groundwater;
n) previous usage or treatment of the site;

o) the presence of buildings and obstructions such as foundations, buried tanks, and underground

services (e.g. electricity, sewers, mains, cables, gas);
p) the presence of concrete or tarmac pathways, roadways, or hard-standings;
q) the growth of vegetation leading to extensive root development;
r) the presence of unexpected surface-water pools or water-saturated ground;

s) the presence of fences, walls, or earthworks designed to prevent access to the site;

t) the presence of tipped material above the general level of the site or material from the demolition

of buildings;
u) the presence of artefacts of archaeological or heritage value;
v) possible presence of unexploded ordinance, see Reference [2];

w) the presence of protected species, ecosystems, and other features of scientific value;

x) the presence of invasive or noxious plant species (e.g. Japanese Knotweed – Fallopia japonica, Giant

Hogweed – Heracleum mantegazzianum) or infective agents (these may affect humans, animals, or

plants) (see also 7.2, last paragraph);

y) location of water bodies at risk from contamination including surface and ground water;

z) the planned flow of information.

NOTE For guidance on accessibility for light percussion drilling rigs, see Reference [1].

5.3 Sample types

The samples taken should be of appropriate type(s) to enable the objectives of the investigation to be

achieved in accordance with the guidance provided in ISO 18400-104. Special consideration is required

regarding the following:
— whether to take disturbed or undisturbed samples;
— whether to take spot samples or cluster samples or to empl
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 18400-102
Première édition
2017-01
Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage —
Partie 102:
Choix et application des techniques
d’échantillonnage
Soil quality — Sampling —
Part 102: Selection and application of sampling techniques
Numéro de référence
ISO 18400-102:2017(F)
ISO 2017
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ISO 18400-102:2017(F)
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© ISO 2017, Publié en Suisse

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ISO 18400-102:2017(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Principe .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Aspects généraux ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.1 Santé et sécurité ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Informations préliminaires .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3 Types d’échantillons ........................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.4 Taille des échantillons....................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.5 Techniques disponibles ................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6 Choix des techniques d’échantillonnage ..................................................................................................................................18

6.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.2 Machines de forage et équipements auxiliaires ......................................................................................................20

7 Aspects généraux ..............................................................................................................................................................................................20

7.1 Aspects généraux du travail de terrain ...........................................................................................................................20

7.2 Considérations environnementales ...................................................................................................................................21

7.3 Contamination croisée ..................................................................................................................................................................23

7.4 Préparation pour l’échantillonnage ...................................................................................................................................25

7.5 Démolition des revêtements superficiels......................................................................................................................25

7.6 Prélèvement d’échantillons .......................................................................................................................................................26

7.7 Transport, stockage et conservation des échantillons.......................................................................................26

7.8 Remblayage des sondages d’exploration .......................................................................................................................26

7.9 Élimination des déchets ...............................................................................................................................................................27

7.10 Personnel ..................................................................................................................................................................................................28

8 Prélèvement d’échantillons de matériaux de l’horizon superficiel et d’autres

matériaux à faible profondeur ............................................................................................................................................................28

8.1 Échantillons non remaniés ........................................................................................................................................................28

8.1.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................28

8.1.2 Mode opératoire pour l’utilisation des cylindres d’échantillonnage ...............................28

8.2 Échantillons remaniés ...................................................................................................................................................................29

8.2.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................29

8.2.2 Mode opératoire ............................................................................................................................................................29

9 Échantillonnage à de plus grandes profondeurs .............................................................................................................30

9.1 Échantillons non remaniés ........................................................................................................................................................30

9.1.1 Échantillonnage dans des tranchées de reconnaissance ...........................................................30

9.1.2 Autres méthodes d’échantillonnage.............................................................................................................31

9.2 Échantillons remaniés ...................................................................................................................................................................31

9.2.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................31

9.2.2 Sites agricoles, etc ........................................................................................................................................................31

9.2.3 Sites pollués ......................................................................................................................................................................31

10 Échantillonnage de matériaux en tas ...........................................................................................................................................32

10.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................32

10.2 Matériel d’échantillonnage ........................................................................................................................................................32

Annexe A (informative) Application de techniques particulières .......................................................................................34

Annexe B (informative) Matériel d’échantillonnage manuel ou mécanisé................................................................40

Annexe C (informative) Illustration de quelques matériels de forage et

d’échantillonnage choisis .........................................................................................................................................................................48

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Annexe D (informative) Matériel d’échantillonnage pour les matériaux en tas ..................................................65

Annexe E (informative) Exemples de carottiers de grande dimension .........................................................................67

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................70

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ISO 18400-102:2017(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/ directives).

L’attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l’élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l’ISO (voir www .iso .org/ brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l’ISO liés à l’évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l’adhésion

de l’ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien suivant: w w w . i s o .org/ avant -propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 190, Qualité du sol, sous-comité SC 2,

Échantillonnage.

Cette première édition de l’ISO 18400-102, conjointement avec l’ISO 18400-104, l’ISO 18400-105 et

l’ISO 18400-206, annule et remplace l’ISO 10381-2:2002 et l’ISO 10381-6:2009, qui ont fait l’objet

d’une révision technique et structurelle. La nouvelle série de l’ISO 18400 est fondée sur une structure

modulaire et ne peut pas être comparée, article par article, à l’ISO 10381-2 et à l’ISO 10381-6.

Une liste de toutes les parties de la série ISO 18400 se trouve sur le site Web de l’ISO.

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ISO 18400-102:2017(F)
Introduction

Le présent document fait partie d’une série de normes internationales destinées à être utilisées

conjointement suivant les besoins. Elle traite de divers aspects de l’échantillonnage en vue d’une

investigation du sol, y compris des investigations agricoles, forestières et de pollution, mais elle ne

s’applique pas aux investigations liées à des problématiques géotechniques. Celles-ci sont traitées dans

la série de l’ISO 22475.

L’ISO 22475-1 spécifie les principes techniques des travaux d’échantillonnage et de mesures

piézométriques pour les projets géotechniques. Elle fournit une description et des lignes directrices

pour l’application de nombreuses techniques d’échantillonnage comprises dans le présent document,

même dans un contexte différent. De nombreuses entreprises chargées d’exécuter des travaux

en relation avec des études environnementales connaissent bien ses exigences qui sont souvent

prescriptives. Elle comprend des informations détaillées sur la conception de certains équipements.

Il est à noter que la nomenclature utilisée dans le présent document peut différer selon les endroits,

par rapport à celle utilisée dans l’ISO 22475-1, en raison des différents contextes et traditions dans les

domaines de la reconnaissance géotechnique et géo-environnementale.

Les principes généraux, à appliquer dans la conception des programmes d’échantillonnage pour la

caractérisation des sols et l’identification des sources et des effets de la pollution des sols et des matériaux

de sol associés, sont donnés dans l’ISO 18400-104 . L’ISO 18400-104 fournit des informations sur les

emplacements où les prélèvements doivent être effectués, les essais à effectuer, le type d’échantillon,

la profondeur d’échantillonnage et la représentativité exigée du système d’échantillonnage pour des

prélèvements à des fins spécifiques.

Le présent document fait partie d’une série de normes d’échantillonnage des sols. Le rôle/la fonction

des Normes internationales au sein du programme d’investigation global est illustré(e) à la Figure 1.

1) En cours d’élaboration.
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ISO 18400-102:2017(F)
Figure 1 — Liens entre les éléments essentiels d’un programme d’investigation

NOTE 1 Les chiffres figurant dans les cercles de la Figure 1 définissent les éléments clés (1 à 7) du programme

d’investigation.

NOTE 2 La Figure 1 présente un processus générique qui peut être modifié si nécessaire.

© ISO 2017 – Tous droits réservés vii
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 18400-102:2017(F)
Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage —
Partie 102:
Choix et application des techniques d’échantillonnage
1 Domaine d’application

Le présent document fournit des lignes directrices concernant les techniques de prélèvement

d’échantillons de sorte que ceux-ci puissent être examinés dans le but de fournir des informations sur la

qualité des sols. Elle donne des informations sur le matériel habituellement utilisé dans des situations

particulières d’échantillonnage pour exécuter correctement des procédures d’échantillonnage et de

prélever des échantillons représentatifs. Des lignes directrices sont données pour le choix du matériel

et des techniques à employer pour permettre d’échantillonner correctement à différentes profondeurs,

des échantillons remaniés et des échantillons non remaniés.
Le présent document ne couvre pas:

— les investigations pour des problématiques géotechniques, même si, lorsque le réaménagement d’un

site est envisagé, l’évaluation de la qualité du sol et la reconnaissance géotechnique peuvent être

parfois avantageusement combinées;
— l’échantillonnage de couches dures telles que la roche mère;

— les méthodes de collecte d’informations sur la qualité du sol sans prélèvement d’échantillons, telles

que les méthodes géophysiques;

— le prélèvement d’échantillons d’eau (ces échantillons d’eau doivent être prélevés conformément à

des normes internationales appropriées traitant de l’échantillonnage des eaux souterraines et de

l’eau de surface; pour plus d’informations, voir la série de l’ISO 5667);

— l’échantillonnage des gaz du sol à propos desquels des lignes directrices sont fournies dans

l’ISO 18400-204;
— l’étude des sites potentiellement contaminés par des substances radioactives.
NOTE 1 Le terme «Technique d’échantillonnage» est défini dans l’ISO 11074.

NOTE 2 Des lignes directrices pour l’étude et l’évaluation de la radioactivité dans les sols sont fournies dans la

série de l’ISO 18589.
2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants cités dans le texte constituent, pour tout ou partie de leur contenu, des

exigences du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique. Pour les

références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s’applique (y compris les éventuels

amendements).

ISO 3551-1, Matériel de forage rotatif au diamant avec carottage — Système A — Partie 1: Unités métriques

ISO 3552-1, Matériel de forage rotatif au diamant avec carottage — Système B — Partie 1: Unités métriques

ISO 10097-1, Équipement de forage au diamant à ligne à câble avec carottage — Système A — Partie 1:

Unités métriques
ISO 11074, Qualité du sol — Vocabulaire
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ISO 18400-102:2017(F)

ISO 18400-101, Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage — Partie 101: Cadre pour la préparation et l’application

d’un plan d’échantillonnage
ISO 18400-103, Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage — Partie 103: Sécurité
ISO 18400-104 , Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage — Partie 104: Stratégies

ISO 18400-105, Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage — Partie 105: Emballage, transport, stockage et

conservation des échantillons

ISO 18400-201, Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage — Partie 201: Prétraitement physique sur le terrain

ISO 18400-202 , Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage — Partie 202: Enquêtes préliminaires

ISO 25177, Qualité du sol — Description du sol sur le terrain
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions donnés dans l’ISO 11074 ainsi que les

suivants s’appliquent.

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:
— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse http:// www .electropedia .org/ .

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse http:// www .iso .org/ obp.

3.1
échantillon de zone

échantillon composite pour lequel les prélèvements élémentaires sont effectués dans une petite zone

autour d’un point d’échantillonnage prédéfini
2 2
Note 1 à l’article: La zone échantillonnée varie en général de 0,5 m à 1,0 m .

Note 2 à l’article: Le matériau est prélevé dans la même couche ou dans un matériau présentant les mêmes

caractéristiques.
3.2
cylindre coupant

dispositif cylindrique à couvercle et fond amovibles, introduit en force dans la surface du sol exposé

pour obtenir un échantillon non remanié (3.7)
3.3
échantillon remanié
échantillon de sol obtenu sans souci de préserver la structure du sol
EXEMPLE Échantillon obtenu en utilisant une tarière manuelle.
[SOURCE: ISO 11074:2015, 4.4.8, modifiée pour lire: … de sol…]

2) En cours d’élaboration. Stade à la date de publication: ISO/DIS 18400-104:2016.

3) En cours d’élaboration. Stade à la date de publication: ISO/DIS 18400-202:2016.

2 © ISO 2017 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 18400-102:2017(F)
3.4
boîte de Kubiëna

boîte métallique à couvercle et fond amovibles, pouvant être introduite en force dans la surface du sol

exposé pour obtenir un échantillon non remanié (3.7)

Note 1 à l’article: Habituellement fabriquée aux dimensions souhaitées à partir de tôle d’aluminium, d’acier

galvanisé ou d’acier inoxydable. Les dimensions sont variables mais un exemple type peut avoir une surface

d’environ 55 mm × 75 mm avec une profondeur de 40 mm. Une fois obtenu, l’échantillon peut être utilisé pour

déterminer la masse volumique apparente ou il peut être imprégné de résine avant la production de lames minces

pour examen microscopique.
3.5
échantillon spatial

échantillon composite constitué à partir de prélèvements élémentaires de même taille, également

répartis, recueillis dans une zone prédéfinie puis homogénéisés

Note 1 à l’article: Les prélèvements élémentaires peuvent être localisés selon un maillage régulier, de façon

aléatoire ou selon un autre schéma. Dans le cadre d’études de terrains agricoles/horticoles, les grilles

d’échantillonnage «N», «S», «W» et «X» sont couramment utilisées.

Note 2 à l’article: On part du principe général selon lequel la répartition des constituants du sol est relativement

homogène. Le long du contour d’une grille de ce type, un certain nombre d’échantillons ou de prélèvements

élémentaires sont prélevés, puis sont homogénéisés et mélangés afin d’obtenir un seul échantillon (composite) à

des fins d’analyse.
3.6
échantillon ponctuel

échantillon prélevé en un emplacement discret, constitué d’un ou de plusieurs prélèvements

élémentaires contigus

Note 1 à l’article: Il peut s’agir d’un échantillon remanié (3.3) ou non remanié (3.7).

3.7
échantillon non remanié

échantillon de sol obtenu sans perturber la structure du sol pendant la procédure d’échantillonnage

Note 1 à l’article: Un matériel d’échantillonnage particulier est utilisé afin que les particules et les pores du sol ne

puissent pas varier par rapport à la répartition effective dans le sol avant l’échantillonnage (les résultats obtenus

sont proportionnels au volume ou proportionnels à la masse).
4 Principe

Il convient que la technique d’échantillonnage soit choisie en tenant compte de tous les besoins de

l’étude, y compris la distribution planifiée des prélèvements, les profondeurs auxquelles les échantillons

doivent être prélevés, la taille et le type de(s) échantillon(s) requis, la nature des polluants potentiels et

la nature du site ainsi que les problèmes posés par le site pour la réalisation de l’étude.

Il convient que la (les) techniques d’échantillonnage soit (soient) choisie(s) de manière à permettre:

— le prélèvement d’échantillons de sol et de matériaux de sol pouvant être présentés au laboratoire

pour examen ou analyse afin d’obtenir des informations de base concernant la pédologie et la

répartition de sols d’origine naturelle ou anthropique, leur composition chimique, minéralogique

et biologique, ainsi que leurs propriétés physiques à des endroits choisis, selon le cas, pour la

réalisation des objectifs de l’étude;

— l’examen et la traçabilité de matériaux in situ exposés pour les besoins de l’étude.

NOTE 1 Des lignes directrices détaillées concernant les aspects généraux de l’échantillonnage, sont données en

5.1 à 5.4 pour le choix et l’application des techniques d’échantillonnage et en 5.5 pour les techniques disponibles.

Des lignes directrices détaillées sont données à l’Article 6 pour le choix des techniques d’échantillonnage et à

l’Article 7 pour l’application de ces techniques.
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ISO 18400-102:2017(F)

L’utilisation de méthodes manuelles ou de méthodes mécanisées figurent parmi les décisions à

prendre. Un échantillonnage peut être requis au niveau ou près de la surface du sol, à une certaine

profondeur au-dessous de la surface du sol, ou en des endroits profonds. Les méthodes utilisées pour

atteindre la profondeur souhaitée pour l’échantillonnage comprennent les procédés tel que l’excavation

(par exemple des tranchées de reconnaissance), l’utilisation de sondes contrôlées, ou par forage (par

exemple trous de forage).

En fonction de l’objectif pour lequel l’échantillonnage est effectué, il est possible de prélever des

échantillons non remaniés ou des échantillons remaniés (5.3). Il est possible que des échantillons non

remaniés soient requis, par exemple, pour des essais physiques ou pour la détermination de composés

organiques volatils (COV).

NOTE 2 La constitution d’un échantillon suffisamment non remanié dépend de l’objectif pour lequel

l’échantillonnage est requis et peut être une affaire d’appréciation. Par exemple, une certaine compression

de l’échantillon peut être admise pour la détermination des COV, mais pas pour la détermination de la masse

volumique apparente. La série de normes ISO 22475 définit les classes d’échantillons appropriés pour les essais

géotechniques.

Les techniques d’échantillonnage du sol comprennent habituellement les deux étapes suivantes:

a) l’accès au point d’échantillonnage (en évitant les branchements aux services ainsi que l’élimination

de toute couverture rigide, etc., l’excavation ou le forage d’un trou pour atteindre la profondeur

souhaitée pour l’échantillonnage);
b) l’échantillonnage du sol.

Ces étapes sont interdépendantes et il convient qu’elles répondent aux exigences des principes

d’échantillonnage.
NOTE 3 Il est également possible de faire une distinction entre:
— l’échantillonnage par forage (carottage continu);

— l’échantillonnage par carottiers (dispositifs d’échantillonnage) pour obtenir les échantillons remaniés ou non

après la réalisation d’un trou de forage ou d’une excavation;

— l’échantillonnage de blocs (permettant d’obtenir un grand nombre d’échantillons non remaniés).

Il est possible de combiner ces méthodes d’échantillonnage et il est parfois nécessaire de le faire en

raison des conditions géologiques et des objectifs de l’étude.
5 Aspects généraux
5.1 Santé et sécurité

Lors du choix et de l’application des techniques d’échantillonnage, toutes les mesures nécessaires

doivent être prises pour protéger la santé et assurer la sécurité des personnes exécutant les travaux, de

toute personne pénétrant sur le site (avec ou sans autorisation) et du public de manière générale (par

exemple les occupants de sites voisins) et pour éviter de nuire à l’environnement.

Les lignes directrices de l’ISO 18400-103 doivent être suivies.

Il convient que l’ISO 18400-103 soit lue conjointement avec les lois et les réglementations nationales

et internationales applicables en matière de santé et de sécurité au travail et aux directives associées

émanant d’organismes réglementaires et d’associations professionnelles.
5.2 Informations préliminaires

Il convient qu’un diagnostic préliminaire, comprenant une étude sur documents et une reconnaissance

du site (levé de surface, inspection du site), tel que spécifié dans l’ISO 18400-202, soit effectué avant

d’entreprendre toute opération d’échantillonnage.
4 © ISO 2017 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 18400-102:2017(F)

Le choix de la technique d’échantillonnage, du matériel d’échantillonnage à utiliser et de la méthode de

prélèvement d’échantillons de sol dépend des objectifs de l’échantillonnage, des couches de sol à prélever,

de la nature la pollution potentielle et de l’examen ou de l’analyse à effectuer sur les échantillons.

Il convient de compiler et d’évaluer les informations concernant:
a) les objectifs de l’échantillonnage;
b) l’exactitude requise des mesures;
c) les emplacements prévus pour les trous de forage et les excavations;

d) les profondeurs auxquelles il a été prévu de prélever des échantillons, en tenant compte de l’usage

futur du site, y compris la profondeur des excavations ou des fondations (voir l’ISO 18400-104);

e) les risques potentiels pour la santé et la sécurité du personnel sur le site;

f) les risques potentiels pour l’environnement liés à l’investigation, y compris le risque de pollution

des eaux souterraines et de dispersion d’agents infectieux;
g) les dispositions en cas d’urgence;
h) les dimensions et la topographie de la zone à échantillonner;

i) l’accessibilité pour les différents types et tailles d’équipements et facteurs tels que la capacité

portante probable du sol, voir Référence [1];
j) la nature du sol à échantillonner;
k) les possibles variations latérales et verticales du type de sol ou des couc
...

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