Terminology work in support of multilingual communication

This document specifies requirements and recommendations related to fundamentals of translation-oriented terminography for producing sound bilingual or multilingual terminology collections. It deals with the main tasks, skills, processes and technologies for translation-oriented terminography practiced by terminology workers who do terminology work in low-complexity settings as part of non-terminological activities. It does not cover terminology management involving sophisticated workflows, a multitude of roles, or advanced terminological skills and competences.

Travail terminologique appuyant la communication multilingue

Le présent document spécifie les exigences et les recommandations relatives aux principes fondamentaux de la terminographie axée sur la traduction afin de produire de solides recueils terminologiques bilingues ou multilingues. Il traite des principales tâches et compétences, ainsi que des processus et technologies, pour la terminographie axée sur la traduction pratiquée par les travailleurs en terminologie qui effectuent un travail terminologique dans des configurations de faible complexité dans le cadre d’activités non terminologiques. Il ne couvre pas la gestion de la terminologie impliquant des flux de travail sophistiqués, une multitude de rôles ou des savoir-faire et compétences avancés.

Terminološko delo v podporo večjezičnemu komuniciranju - 1. del: Osnove prevodno usmerjene terminografije

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
01-Sep-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
15-Jul-2021
Completion Date
14-Jul-2021

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12616-1
First edition
2021-09
Terminology work in support of
multilingual communication —
Part 1:
Fundamentals of translation-oriented
terminography
Travail terminologique appuyant la communication multilingue —
Partie 1: Principes fondamentaux de la terminographie axée sur la
traduction
Reference number
ISO 12616-1:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 12616-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 12616-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Fundamentals of terminology management ........................................................................................................................... 6

4.1 Goals ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.2 Work environments ............................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.3 Translation vs. terminology work .......................................................................................................................................... 8

4.4 Working methods ................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

4.4.1 Conceptual analysis ....................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.4.2 Systematic vs. ad hoc terminology work ..................................................................................................... 9

4.4.3 Prescriptive vs. descriptive terminology work ...................................................................................... 9

4.4.4 Text corpora ......................................................................................................................................................................10

5 Process steps and activities ....................................................................................................................................................................11

5.1 Setting goals ...........................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2 Basic workflow.....................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.3 Setting up a terminology database .....................................................................................................................................11

5.4 Collecting terminological data and initial assessment ......................................................................................12

5.5 Researching .............................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.6 Processing and documenting terminological data ................................................................................................13

5.7 Using and exchanging terminological data ..................................................................................................................13

5.8 Maintenance ...........................................................................................................................................................................................13

6 Terminography ....................................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.1 Best practices for open data categories ..........................................................................................................................14

6.2 Term ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.3 Definition ..................................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.4 Concept description .........................................................................................................................................................................15

6.5 Context ........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.6 Note ................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.7 References and source identification ...............................................................................................................................15

6.8 Abbreviations for names of languages and countries ........................................................................................16

7 Text elements for the Term field .......................................................................................................................................................17

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

7.2 Designations ...........................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.2.1 Terms ......................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.2.2 Proper names ...................................................................................................................................................................18

7.2.3 Symbols .................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.2.4 Name-like designations...........................................................................................................................................19

7.3 Other text elements ..........................................................................................................................................................................20

7.3.1 Phrases ..................................................................................................................................................................................20

7.3.2 Standard texts..................................................................................................................................................................20

8 Data management ............................................................................................................................................................................................20

8.1 Data categories for terminological data collections ............................................................................................20

8.2 Principles of modelling concept entries .........................................................................................................................21

8.2.1 Guidance on designing terminological data collections .............................................................21

8.2.2 Concept orientation ........................................................................................................................................... .........21

8.2.3 Term autonomy ..............................................................................................................................................................22

8.2.4 Data elementarity ........................................................................................................................................................22

8.2.5 Data granularity .............................................................................................................................................................22

8.2.6 Repeatability ....................................................................................................................................................................22

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 12616-1:2021(E)

8.3 Open and closed data categories ..........................................................................................................................................23

8.4 Mandatory and optional data categories .......................................................................................................................23

8.5 Exchange and interoperability of terminological data ......................................................................................24

9 Tools ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

10 Skills and competences ...............................................................................................................................................................................25

10.1 Terminology tasks and the required skills ...................................................................................................................25

10.2 Basic terminology skills ...............................................................................................................................................................25

10.3 Information technology skills and competences ....................................................................................................26

10.4 Skills and competences related to term extraction ..............................................................................................26

10.5 Language skills .....................................................................................................................................................................................27

10.6 Subject-matter expertise .............................................................................................................................................................27

10.7 Research competence.....................................................................................................................................................................27

10.8 Social and cultural competences ..........................................................................................................................................27

Annex A (informative) Data categories for translation-oriented terminological data collections...29

Annex B (informative) Spreadsheet examples ........................................................................................................................................32

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................34

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 12616-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Language and terminology,

Subcommittee SC 2, Terminology workflow and language coding.

This document cancels and replaces the ISO 12616:2002, which has been technically revised.

The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— updates to focus on the broader environment in which terminology workers operate;

— deepening of the aspect of terminological data management and addition of processes, tools and

skills necessary for terminology tasks;

— updates to align with the technical state-of-art and the evolution of the profession.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 12616-1:2021(E)
Introduction

Terminology work is conducted by people with different backgrounds and for different purposes. This

document focuses on the fundamentals necessary to perform basic terminology work in translation

contexts. While some details are occasionally given, the document provides the minimum information

necessary to set up and work in the simplest form of a terminological data collection (TDC). The more

complex tasks and processes performed by terminologists with more sophisticated technologies and in

larger production environments will be covered in a future ISO 12616-2.

For clear communication, the title “terminology worker” has been chosen to represent anyone doing

terminology work as an ancillary function of their professional activities. A terminology worker might be

a translator, project manager or technical communicator, and might work as a single-person enterprise,

for a language service provider, or in-house at a company or other organization. Terminologists and

terminology workers share the same basic skill set covered in this document; however, terminologists

have broader knowledge and competences, which will be discussed further in a future ISO 12616-2.

One of the most common scenarios for a terminology worker in translation contexts is the following: a

client produces documentation in a particular subject field in a source language and asks a translator

to translate a variety of interrelated documents. Since no terminology was provided, the translator

recognizes that it would be beneficial to document the terminology found during translation

work to maintain consistency across documents in the target language. This document provides

terminographical best practices and data modelling principles to this end.

In this document’s examples, designations and other text elements are indicated by double quotation

marks, whereas objects, concepts, properties, characteristics, and types of characteristics are indicated

by single quotation marks. When referring to fields in a terminology database, the first letter of the

field name is capitalized and the field name is followed by the word “field” (e.g. Term field, Transfer

comment field). Data categories are indicated by slashes preceding and following the name of the

data category (e.g. /term/, /transfer comment/). This markup is intended to facilitate the distinction

between references to the three terminological levels and other text throughout this document.

vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12616-1:2021(E)
Terminology work in support of multilingual
communication —
Part 1:
Fundamentals of translation-oriented terminography
1 Scope

This document specifies requirements and recommendations related to fundamentals of translation-

oriented terminography for producing sound bilingual or multilingual terminology collections. It

deals with the main tasks, skills, processes and technologies for translation-oriented terminography

practiced by terminology workers who do terminology work in low-complexity settings as part of non-

terminological activities. It does not cover terminology management involving sophisticated workflows,

a multitude of roles, or advanced terminological skills and competences.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 704, Terminology work — Principles and methods

ISO 16642, Computer applications in terminology — Terminological markup framework

ISO 26162-1, Management of terminology resources — Terminology databases — Part 1: Design

ISO 30042, Management of terminology resources — TermBase eXchange (TBX)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
terminology

set of designations (3.7) and concepts (3.4) belonging to one subject field (3.2) or subject

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.1.11, modified — “domain” replaced with “subject field”, which is the

preferred term in this document.]
3.2
subject field
domain
field of special knowledge

Note 1 to entry: The borderlines and the granularity of a subject field are determined from a purpose-related

point of view. If a subject field is subdivided, the result is again a subject field.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 12616-1:2021(E)

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.1.4, modified — The preferred term in this document is “subject field”,

instead of “domain”.]
3.3
object
anything perceivable or conceivable

Note 1 to entry: Objects can be material (e.g. ‘engine’, ‘sheet of paper’, ‘diamond’), immaterial (e.g. ‘conversion

ratio’, ‘project plan’) or imagined (e.g. ‘unicorn’, ‘scientific hypothesis’).
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.1.1]
3.4
concept
unit of knowledge created by a unique combination of characteristics

Note 1 to entry: Concepts are not necessarily bound to particular natural languages. They are, however,

influenced by the social or cultural background which often leads to different categorizations.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.2.1 modified — Removed Note 2 to entry.]
3.5
individual concept
concept (3.4) that corresponds to a unique object (3.3)

EXAMPLE ‘Saturn’, ‘Eiffel Tower’, ‘Moon’, ‘serial number FRHR603928’, ‘2016 Nobel Prize in Physics’.

Note 1 to entry: Individual concepts are represented by proper names (3.10).
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.2.8]
3.6
general concept

concept (3.4) that corresponds to a potentially unlimited number of objects (3.3) which form a group by

reason of shared properties
EXAMPLE ‘planet’, ‘tower’, ‘moon’, ‘Nobel Prize in Physics’.

Note 1 to entry: For a general concept, it is essential that a number of corresponding objects greater than 1 can

be perceived or conceived of. For example, ‘spaceship’ has been a general concept before such a material object

existed, at the time when there existed only 1 such object, and later, when there existed several such objects.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.2.9]
3.7
designation

representation of a concept (3.4) by a sign which denotes it in a subject field (3.2) or subject

Note 1 to entry: A designation can be linguistic or non-linguistic. It can consist of various types of characters, but

also punctuation marks such as hyphens and parentheses, governed by domain-, subject-, or language-specific

conventions.

Note 2 to entry: A designation can be a term (3.8) including appellations (3.9), a proper name (3.10), or a symbol

(3.11).

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.1; modified — Removed “designator” as a synonym. In the definition,

“domain” replaced with “subject field”.]
3.8
term
designation (3.7) that represents a general concept (3.6) by linguistic means

EXAMPLE “laser printer”, “planet”, “pacemaker”, “chemical compound”, “¾ time”, “Influenza A virus”, “oil

painting”.
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12616-1:2021(E)
Note 1 to entry: Terms may be partly or wholly verbal.
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.2]
3.9
appellation

term (3.8) that is applied to a group of objects (3.3) whose relevant properties are identical

EXAMPLE “Nokia 7 Plus®” (mobile phone), “Adobe® Acrobat® X Pro” (software), “Road King®”

(motorcycle) .
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.3]
3.10
proper name
designation (3.7) that represents an individual concept (3.5)

EXAMPLE “International Organization for Standardization”, “IBM®” , “British Isles”, “United Nations”.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.4]
3.11
symbol
designation (3.7) that represents a concept (3.4) by non-linguistic means

Note 1 to entry: There are several types of symbols such as graphical symbols [ISO 3864 (all parts)] and letter

symbols [ISO 80000 (all parts)].
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.5]
3.12
terminology work
terminology management

work concerned with the collection, description, processing and presentation of concepts (3.4) and their

designations (3.7)

Note 1 to entry: Terminology work often aims at creating and maintaining terminological data collections (3.21).

Note 2 to entry: Terminology work often aims at terminology planning and can involve all of concept

harmonization, term harmonization, and term formation.

Note 3 to entry: Terminology work can be carried out in a systematic or an ad hoc fashion.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.5.1, modified — In the definition, removed “systematic”. In Note 1 to entry,

“terminology resources” replaced with “terminological data collections”. Added Note 3 to entry.]

3.13
prescriptive terminology work

terminology work (3.12) that aims at deciding on preferred usage of designations (3.7)

3.14
descriptive terminology work

terminology work (3.12) that aims at documenting designations (3.7) as they are used in contexts

without favouring preferred usage

1) Nokia 7 Plus® is a trademark of Nokia Corporation, Adobe® Acrobat® X Pro is a trademark of Adobe Systems,

Road King® is a trademark of Harley-Davidson. This information is given for the convenience of users of this

document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the products named.

2) IBM® is a trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. This information is given for the

convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the product named.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 12616-1:2021(E)
3.15
terminography

terminology work (3.12) aimed at creating and maintaining terminological data collections (3.21)

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.5.2, modified — “terminology resources” replaced with “terminological

data collections”.]
3.16
term extraction

terminology work (3.12) that involves the identification and excerption of terminological data (3.19) by

searching through a text corpus (3.17)

Note 1 to entry: Terminological data (3.19) of primary interest are typically designations (3.7), definitions and

contexts.
Note 2 to entry: Term extraction is often supported by dedicated software tools.
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.5.6]
3.17
text corpus
corpus
collection of natural language data

Note 1 to entry: Text corpora can be used for various activities such as text analysis or terminology work (3.12).

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.6.4]
3.18
candidate term

string of characters that has been collected by means of term extraction (3.16) but has not yet been

selected as a text element to be documented in the terminological data collection (3.21)

3.19
terminological data
data related to concepts (3.4) and their designations (3.7)

Note 1 to entry: Common terminological data include designations (3.7), definitions, contexts, notes to entry,

grammatical labels, subject labels, language identifiers, country identifiers, and source identifiers.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.6.1]
3.20
terminological entry
concept entry
collection of terminological data (3.19) related to only one concept (3.4)

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.6.2, modified — Added “concept entry” and “CE” as preferred and admitted

terms, respectively.]
3.21
terminological data collection
TDC
terminology resource

resource consisting of concept entries (3.20) with associated metadata and documentary information

[SOURCE: ISO 26162-1:2019, 3.2.4, modified — Added “terminology resource” from ISO 1087:2019,

3.7.1.]
4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 12616-1:2021(E)
3.22
data category

class of data items that are closely related from a formal or semantic point of view

EXAMPLE /part of speech/, /subject field/, /definition/.

Note 1 to entry: A data category can be viewed as a generalization of the notion of a field in a database.

Note 2 to entry: In running text, such as in this document, data category names are enclosed in forward slashes

(e.g. /part of speech/).
[SOURCE: ISO 26162-1:2019, 3.2.11]
3.23
terminology management system
TMS

software tool specifically designed with a metadata structure for collecting, maintaining, and accessing

terminological data (3.19)
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.6.13]
3.24
concept orientation
principle whereby a concept entry (3.20) describes a single concept (3.4)

Note 1 to entry: When two or more different concepts (3.4) are represented by the same designation (3.7) (in the

same language), this designation is considered a homograph. Such concepts (3.4) are documented in separate

concept entries (3.20).
[SOURCE: ISO 26162-1:2019, 3.2.13]
3.25
term autonomy

principle whereby all terms (3.8) in a concept entry (3.20) are considered independent sub-units and

can be described using the same set of data categories (3.22)
Note 1 to entry: By analogy, this principle applies to designations (3.7)
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 12616-1:2021
01-december-2021
Terminološko delo v podporo večjezičnemu komuniciranju - 1. del: Osnove
prevodno usmerjene terminografije

Terminology work in support of multilingual communication - Part 1: Fundamentals of

translation-oriented terminography

Travail terminologique appuyant la communication multilingue - Partie 1: Principes

fondamentaux de la terminographie axée sur la traduction
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 12616-1:2021
ICS:
01.020 Terminologija (načela in Terminology (principles and
koordinacija) coordination)
SIST ISO 12616-1:2021 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12616-1:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12616-1:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12616-1
First edition
2021-09
Terminology work in support of
multilingual communication —
Part 1:
Fundamentals of translation-oriented
terminography
Travail terminologique appuyant la communication multilingue —
Partie 1: Principes fondamentaux de la terminographie axée sur la
traduction
Reference number
ISO 12616-1:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12616-1:2021
ISO 12616-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12616-1:2021
ISO 12616-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Fundamentals of terminology management ........................................................................................................................... 6

4.1 Goals ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.2 Work environments ............................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.3 Translation vs. terminology work .......................................................................................................................................... 8

4.4 Working methods ................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

4.4.1 Conceptual analysis ....................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.4.2 Systematic vs. ad hoc terminology work ..................................................................................................... 9

4.4.3 Prescriptive vs. descriptive terminology work ...................................................................................... 9

4.4.4 Text corpora ......................................................................................................................................................................10

5 Process steps and activities ....................................................................................................................................................................11

5.1 Setting goals ...........................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2 Basic workflow.....................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.3 Setting up a terminology database .....................................................................................................................................11

5.4 Collecting terminological data and initial assessment ......................................................................................12

5.5 Researching .............................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.6 Processing and documenting terminological data ................................................................................................13

5.7 Using and exchanging terminological data ..................................................................................................................13

5.8 Maintenance ...........................................................................................................................................................................................13

6 Terminography ....................................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.1 Best practices for open data categories ..........................................................................................................................14

6.2 Term ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.3 Definition ..................................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.4 Concept description .........................................................................................................................................................................15

6.5 Context ........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.6 Note ................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.7 References and source identification ...............................................................................................................................15

6.8 Abbreviations for names of languages and countries ........................................................................................16

7 Text elements for the Term field .......................................................................................................................................................17

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

7.2 Designations ...........................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.2.1 Terms ......................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.2.2 Proper names ...................................................................................................................................................................18

7.2.3 Symbols .................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.2.4 Name-like designations...........................................................................................................................................19

7.3 Other text elements ..........................................................................................................................................................................20

7.3.1 Phrases ..................................................................................................................................................................................20

7.3.2 Standard texts..................................................................................................................................................................20

8 Data management ............................................................................................................................................................................................20

8.1 Data categories for terminological data collections ............................................................................................20

8.2 Principles of modelling concept entries .........................................................................................................................21

8.2.1 Guidance on designing terminological data collections .............................................................21

8.2.2 Concept orientation ........................................................................................................................................... .........21

8.2.3 Term autonomy ..............................................................................................................................................................22

8.2.4 Data elementarity ........................................................................................................................................................22

8.2.5 Data granularity .............................................................................................................................................................22

8.2.6 Repeatability ....................................................................................................................................................................22

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST ISO 12616-1:2021
ISO 12616-1:2021(E)

8.3 Open and closed data categories ..........................................................................................................................................23

8.4 Mandatory and optional data categories .......................................................................................................................23

8.5 Exchange and interoperability of terminological data ......................................................................................24

9 Tools ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

10 Skills and competences ...............................................................................................................................................................................25

10.1 Terminology tasks and the required skills ...................................................................................................................25

10.2 Basic terminology skills ...............................................................................................................................................................25

10.3 Information technology skills and competences ....................................................................................................26

10.4 Skills and competences related to term extraction ..............................................................................................26

10.5 Language skills .....................................................................................................................................................................................27

10.6 Subject-matter expertise .............................................................................................................................................................27

10.7 Research competence.....................................................................................................................................................................27

10.8 Social and cultural competences ..........................................................................................................................................27

Annex A (informative) Data categories for translation-oriented terminological data collections...29

Annex B (informative) Spreadsheet examples ........................................................................................................................................32

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................34

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 12616-1:2021
ISO 12616-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Language and terminology,

Subcommittee SC 2, Terminology workflow and language coding.

This document cancels and replaces the ISO 12616:2002, which has been technically revised.

The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— updates to focus on the broader environment in which terminology workers operate;

— deepening of the aspect of terminological data management and addition of processes, tools and

skills necessary for terminology tasks;

— updates to align with the technical state-of-art and the evolution of the profession.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
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SIST ISO 12616-1:2021
ISO 12616-1:2021(E)
Introduction

Terminology work is conducted by people with different backgrounds and for different purposes. This

document focuses on the fundamentals necessary to perform basic terminology work in translation

contexts. While some details are occasionally given, the document provides the minimum information

necessary to set up and work in the simplest form of a terminological data collection (TDC). The more

complex tasks and processes performed by terminologists with more sophisticated technologies and in

larger production environments will be covered in a future ISO 12616-2.

For clear communication, the title “terminology worker” has been chosen to represent anyone doing

terminology work as an ancillary function of their professional activities. A terminology worker might be

a translator, project manager or technical communicator, and might work as a single-person enterprise,

for a language service provider, or in-house at a company or other organization. Terminologists and

terminology workers share the same basic skill set covered in this document; however, terminologists

have broader knowledge and competences, which will be discussed further in a future ISO 12616-2.

One of the most common scenarios for a terminology worker in translation contexts is the following: a

client produces documentation in a particular subject field in a source language and asks a translator

to translate a variety of interrelated documents. Since no terminology was provided, the translator

recognizes that it would be beneficial to document the terminology found during translation

work to maintain consistency across documents in the target language. This document provides

terminographical best practices and data modelling principles to this end.

In this document’s examples, designations and other text elements are indicated by double quotation

marks, whereas objects, concepts, properties, characteristics, and types of characteristics are indicated

by single quotation marks. When referring to fields in a terminology database, the first letter of the

field name is capitalized and the field name is followed by the word “field” (e.g. Term field, Transfer

comment field). Data categories are indicated by slashes preceding and following the name of the

data category (e.g. /term/, /transfer comment/). This markup is intended to facilitate the distinction

between references to the three terminological levels and other text throughout this document.

vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 12616-1:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12616-1:2021(E)
Terminology work in support of multilingual
communication —
Part 1:
Fundamentals of translation-oriented terminography
1 Scope

This document specifies requirements and recommendations related to fundamentals of translation-

oriented terminography for producing sound bilingual or multilingual terminology collections. It

deals with the main tasks, skills, processes and technologies for translation-oriented terminography

practiced by terminology workers who do terminology work in low-complexity settings as part of non-

terminological activities. It does not cover terminology management involving sophisticated workflows,

a multitude of roles, or advanced terminological skills and competences.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 704, Terminology work — Principles and methods

ISO 16642, Computer applications in terminology — Terminological markup framework

ISO 26162-1, Management of terminology resources — Terminology databases — Part 1: Design

ISO 30042, Management of terminology resources — TermBase eXchange (TBX)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
terminology

set of designations (3.7) and concepts (3.4) belonging to one subject field (3.2) or subject

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.1.11, modified — “domain” replaced with “subject field”, which is the

preferred term in this document.]
3.2
subject field
domain
field of special knowledge

Note 1 to entry: The borderlines and the granularity of a subject field are determined from a purpose-related

point of view. If a subject field is subdivided, the result is again a subject field.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST ISO 12616-1:2021
ISO 12616-1:2021(E)

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.1.4, modified — The preferred term in this document is “subject field”,

instead of “domain”.]
3.3
object
anything perceivable or conceivable

Note 1 to entry: Objects can be material (e.g. ‘engine’, ‘sheet of paper’, ‘diamond’), immaterial (e.g. ‘conversion

ratio’, ‘project plan’) or imagined (e.g. ‘unicorn’, ‘scientific hypothesis’).
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.1.1]
3.4
concept
unit of knowledge created by a unique combination of characteristics

Note 1 to entry: Concepts are not necessarily bound to particular natural languages. They are, however,

influenced by the social or cultural background which often leads to different categorizations.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.2.1 modified — Removed Note 2 to entry.]
3.5
individual concept
concept (3.4) that corresponds to a unique object (3.3)

EXAMPLE ‘Saturn’, ‘Eiffel Tower’, ‘Moon’, ‘serial number FRHR603928’, ‘2016 Nobel Prize in Physics’.

Note 1 to entry: Individual concepts are represented by proper names (3.10).
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.2.8]
3.6
general concept

concept (3.4) that corresponds to a potentially unlimited number of objects (3.3) which form a group by

reason of shared properties
EXAMPLE ‘planet’, ‘tower’, ‘moon’, ‘Nobel Prize in Physics’.

Note 1 to entry: For a general concept, it is essential that a number of corresponding objects greater than 1 can

be perceived or conceived of. For example, ‘spaceship’ has been a general concept before such a material object

existed, at the time when there existed only 1 such object, and later, when there existed several such objects.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.2.9]
3.7
designation

representation of a concept (3.4) by a sign which denotes it in a subject field (3.2) or subject

Note 1 to entry: A designation can be linguistic or non-linguistic. It can consist of various types of characters, but

also punctuation marks such as hyphens and parentheses, governed by domain-, subject-, or language-specific

conventions.

Note 2 to entry: A designation can be a term (3.8) including appellations (3.9), a proper name (3.10), or a symbol

(3.11).

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.1; modified — Removed “designator” as a synonym. In the definition,

“domain” replaced with “subject field”.]
3.8
term
designation (3.7) that represents a general concept (3.6) by linguistic means

EXAMPLE “laser printer”, “planet”, “pacemaker”, “chemical compound”, “¾ time”, “Influenza A virus”, “oil

painting”.
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 12616-1:2021
ISO 12616-1:2021(E)
Note 1 to entry: Terms may be partly or wholly verbal.
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.2]
3.9
appellation

term (3.8) that is applied to a group of objects (3.3) whose relevant properties are identical

EXAMPLE “Nokia 7 Plus®” (mobile phone), “Adobe® Acrobat® X Pro” (software), “Road King®”

(motorcycle) .
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.3]
3.10
proper name
designation (3.7) that represents an individual concept (3.5)

EXAMPLE “International Organization for Standardization”, “IBM®” , “British Isles”, “United Nations”.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.4]
3.11
symbol
designation (3.7) that represents a concept (3.4) by non-linguistic means

Note 1 to entry: There are several types of symbols such as graphical symbols [ISO 3864 (all parts)] and letter

symbols [ISO 80000 (all parts)].
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.5]
3.12
terminology work
terminology management

work concerned with the collection, description, processing and presentation of concepts (3.4) and their

designations (3.7)

Note 1 to entry: Terminology work often aims at creating and maintaining terminological data collections (3.21).

Note 2 to entry: Terminology work often aims at terminology planning and can involve all of concept

harmonization, term harmonization, and term formation.

Note 3 to entry: Terminology work can be carried out in a systematic or an ad hoc fashion.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.5.1, modified — In the definition, removed “systematic”. In Note 1 to entry,

“terminology resources” replaced with “terminological data collections”. Added Note 3 to entry.]

3.13
prescriptive terminology work

terminology work (3.12) that aims at deciding on preferred usage of designations (3.7)

3.14
descriptive terminology work

terminology work (3.12) that aims at documenting designations (3.7) as they are used in contexts

without favouring preferred usage

1) Nokia 7 Plus® is a trademark of Nokia Corporation, Adobe® Acrobat® X Pro is a trademark of Adobe Systems,

Road King® is a trademark of Harley-Davidson. This information is given for the convenience of users of this

document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the products named.

2) IBM® is a trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. This information is given for the

convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the product named.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST ISO 12616-1:2021
ISO 12616-1:2021(E)
3.15
terminography

terminology work (3.12) aimed at creating and maintaining terminological data collections (3.21)

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.5.2, modified — “terminology resources” replaced with “terminological

data collections”.]
3.16
term extraction

terminology work (3.12) that involves the identification and excerption of terminological data (3.19) by

searching through a text corpus (3.17)

Note 1 to entry: Terminological data (3.19) of primary interest are typically designations (3.7), definitions and

contexts.
Note 2 to entry: Term extraction is often supported by dedicated software tools.
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.5.6]
3.17
text corpus
corpus
collection of natural language data

Note 1 to entry: Text corpora can be used for various activities such as text analysis or terminology work (3.12).

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.6.4]
3.18
candidate term

string of characters that has been collected by means of term extraction (3.16) but has not yet been

selected as a text element to be documented in the terminological data collection (3.21)

3.19
terminological data
data related to concepts (3.4) and their designations (3.7)

Note 1 to entry: Common terminological data include designations (3.7), definitions, contexts, notes to entry,

grammatical labels, subject labels, language identifiers, country identifiers, and source identifiers.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.6.1]
3.20
terminological entry
concept entry
collection of terminological data (3.19) related to only one concept (3.4)

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.6.2, modified — Added “concept entry” and “CE” as preferred and admitted

terms, respectively.]
3.21
terminological data collection
TDC
terminology resource

resource consisting of concept entries (3.20) with associated metadata and documentary information

[SOURCE: ISO 26162-1:2019, 3.2.4, modified — Added “terminology resource” from ISO 1087:2019,

3.7.1.]
4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 12616-1:2021
ISO 12616-1:2021(E)
3.22
data category

class of data items that are closely related from a formal or semantic point of view

EXAMPLE /part of speech/, /subject field/, /definition/.
Note 1 to entry: A data ca
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 12616-1
Première édition
2021-09
Travail terminologique appuyant la
communication multilingue —
Partie 1:
Principes fondamentaux de la
terminographie axée sur la traduction
Terminology work in support of multilingual communication —
Part 1: Fundamentals of translation-oriented terminography
Numéro de référence
ISO 12616-1:2021(F)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 12616-1:2021(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2021

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publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique,

y compris la photocopie, ou la diffusion sur l’internet ou sur un intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Une autorisation peut

être demandée à l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.

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Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 12616-1:2021(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principes fondamentaux de la gestion de la terminologie ....................................................................................... 7

4.1 Objectifs ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.2 Environnements de travail ........................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3 Traduction vs travail terminologique .................................................................................................................................. 8

4.4 Méthodes de travail ............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

4.4.1 Analyse conceptuelle .................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.4.2 Travail terminologique systématique vs ad hoc ................................................................................10

4.4.3 Travail terminologique prescriptif vs descriptif ................................................................................10

4.4.4 Corpus de textes ............................................................................................................................................................11

5 Étapes du processus et activités ........................................................................................................................................................11

5.1 Définition des objectifs .................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2 Flux de travail de base ...................................................................................................................................................................12

5.3 Configuration d’une base de données terminologiques ...................................................................................12

5.4 Collecte des données terminologiques et évaluation initiale ......................................................................13

5.5 Recherche .................................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.6 Traitement et documentation des données terminologiques .....................................................................14

5.7 Utilisation et échange de données terminologiques ...........................................................................................14

5.8 Mise à jour ................................................................................................................................................................................................15

6 Terminographie ..................................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.1 Bonnes pratiques relatives aux catégories de données ouvertes .............................................................15

6.2 Terme ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.3 Définition ..................................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.4 Description de concept .................................................................................................................................................................16

6.5 Contexte .....................................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.6 Note ................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.7 Références et identification des sources .......................................................................................................................17

6.8 Abréviations pour les noms de langues et de pays ...............................................................................................18

7 Éléments de texte pour le champ Terme ..................................................................................................................................18

7.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.2 Désignations ...........................................................................................................................................................................................20

7.2.1 Termes ...................................................................................................................................................................................20

7.2.2 Noms propres ..................................................................................................................................................................20

7.2.3 Symboles ..............................................................................................................................................................................20

7.2.4 Désignations de type nominatif .......................................................................................................................21

7.3 Autres éléments de texte .............................................................................................................................................................22

7.3.1 Syntagmes ...........................................................................................................................................................................22

7.3.2 Textes normalisés .................. .................................................... ...................................................................................22

8 Gestion des données ......................................................................................................................................................................................22

8.1 Catégories de données pour les recueils de données terminologiques ..............................................22

8.2 Principes de modélisation des articles conceptuels ............................................................................................23

8.2.1 Recommandations relatives à la conception des recueils de données

terminologiques ............................................................................................................................................................23

8.2.2 Orientation conceptuelle .......................................................................................................................................24

8.2.3 Autonomie des termes .............................................................................................................................................24

8.2.4 Élémentarité des données ....................................................................................................................................24

8.2.5 Granularité des données ........................................................................................................................................24

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ISO 12616-1:2021(F)

8.2.6 Répétabilité .......................................................................................................................................................................25

8.3 Catégories de données ouvertes et fermées ...............................................................................................................25

8.4 Catégories de données obligatoires et facultatives...............................................................................................26

8.5 Échange et interopérabilité des données terminologiques ...........................................................................26

9 Outils ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................26

10 Savoir-faire et compétences...................................................................................................................................................................27

10.1 Tâches terminologiques et compétences requises ...............................................................................................27

10.2 Compétences de base en terminologie ............................................................................................................................28

10.3 Savoir-faire et compétences en technologies de l’information ..................................................................28

10.4 Savoir-faire et compétences liés à l’extraction de termes ..............................................................................29

10.5 Compétences linguistiques ........................................................................................................................................................29

10.6 Expertise dans le domaine .........................................................................................................................................................30

10.7 Capacité de recherche ....................................................................................................................................................................30

10.8 Compétences sociales et culturelles ..................................................................................................................................30

Annexe A (informative) Catégories de données pour les recueils de données

terminologiques axés sur la traduction ....................................................................................................................................32

Annexe B (informative) Exemples de tableurs ........................................................................................................................................35

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................37

iv © ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 12616-1:2021(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/ directives).

L’attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l’élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l’ISO (voir www .iso .org/ brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l’ISO liés à l’évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l’adhésion

de l’ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien suivant: www .iso .org/ iso/ fr/ avant-propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le Comité technique ISO/TC 37, Langage et terminologie, sous-

comité SC 2, Flux des travaux terminologiques et codage des langues.

Le présent document annule et remplace l’ISO 12616:2002, qui a fait l’objet d’une révision technique.

Les principales modifications par rapport à l’édition précédente sont les suivantes:

— mises à jour en vue de mettre l’accent sur l’environnement élargi dans lequel les travailleurs en

terminologie exercent leur activité;

— approfondissement de l’aspect de la gestion des données terminologiques et ajout de processus,

d’outils et de compétences nécessaires aux tâches terminologiques;

— mises à jour en vue de s’aligner sur les avancées techniques et l’évolution de la profession.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www .iso .org/ fr/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés v
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ISO 12616-1:2021(F)
Introduction

Le travail terminologique est effectué par des personnes ayant des parcours différents et pour des

objectifs différents. Le présent document porte sur les principes fondamentaux nécessaires pour

effectuer un travail terminologique de base dans des contextes de traduction. Bien que quelques détails

soient parfois donnés, le document fournit les informations minimales nécessaires pour configurer

et exploiter la forme la plus simple d’un recueil de données terminologiques (RDT). Les tâches et les

processus plus complexes effectués par les terminologues avec des technologies plus sophistiquées et

dans des environnements de production plus importants seront couverts dans une future ISO 12616-2.

Pour une communication claire, l’intitulé de «travailleur en terminologie» a été choisi pour représenter

toute personne effectuant un travail terminologique en tant que fonction complémentaire de ses

activités professionnelles. Un travailleur en terminologie peut être un traducteur, un chef de projet ou

un rédacteur technique et peut travailler en qualité d’entreprise individuelle, pour un prestataire de

services linguistiques, ou en interne dans une entreprise ou un autre organisme. Les terminologues

et les travailleurs en terminologie partagent le même socle de compétences couvert dans le présent

document; cependant, les terminologues ont des connaissances et des compétences plus élargies qui

seront discutées plus en détail dans une future ISO 12616-2.

L’un des scénarios les plus courants pour un travailleur en terminologie dans des contextes de

traduction est le suivant: un client produit de la documentation dans un domaine particulier dans une

langue source et demande à un traducteur de traduire divers documents connexes. Comme aucune

terminologie n’a été fournie, le traducteur reconnaît qu’il serait judicieux de documenter la terminologie

identifiée pendant le travail de traduction afin de maintenir la cohérence entre les documents dans la

langue cible. Le présent document fournit des bonnes pratiques terminographiques et des principes de

modélisation des données à cet effet.

Dans les exemples du présent document, les désignations et autres éléments de texte sont indiqués

par des guillemets doubles, tandis que les objets, concepts, propriétés, caractéristiques et types de

caractéristiques sont indiqués par des guillemets simples. Lorsqu’il est fait référence à des domaines

dans une base de données terminologiques, la première lettre du nom de domaine prend une majuscule

et le nom de domaine est suivi du mot «domaine» (par exemple, Terme domaine, Commentaire de

transposition domaine). Les catégories de données sont indiquées par des barres obliques qui précèdent

et suivent le nom de la catégorie de données (par exemple, /terme/, /commentaire de transposition/).

Ce balisage a pour but de faciliter la distinction entre les références aux trois niveaux terminologiques

et les autres textes dans le présent document.
vi © ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 12616-1:2021(F)
Travail terminologique appuyant la communication
multilingue —
Partie 1:
Principes fondamentaux de la terminographie axée sur la
traduction
1 Domaine d’application

Le présent document spécifie les exigences et les recommandations relatives aux principes

fondamentaux de la terminographie axée sur la traduction afin de produire de solides recueils

terminologiques bilingues ou multilingues. Il traite des principales tâches et compétences, ainsi que des

processus et technologies, pour la terminographie axée sur la traduction pratiquée par les travailleurs

en terminologie qui effectuent un travail terminologique dans des configurations de faible complexité

dans le cadre d’activités non terminologiques. Il ne couvre pas la gestion de la terminologie impliquant

des flux de travail sophistiqués, une multitude de rôles ou des savoir-faire et compétences avancés.

2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants sont cités dans le texte de sorte qu’ils constituent, pour tout ou partie de leur

contenu, des exigences du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique.

Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s’applique (y compris les

éventuels amendements).
ISO 704, Travail terminologique — Principes et méthodes

ISO 16642, Applications informatiques en terminologie — Plate-forme pour le balisage de terminologies

informatisées

ISO 26162-1, Gestion des ressources terminologiques — Bases de données terminologiques — Partie 1:

Conception
ISO 30042, Gestion des ressources terminologiques — TermBase eXchange (TBX)
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions suivants s’appliquent.

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse https:// www .iso .org/ obp;

— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse https:// www .electropedia .org/ .
3.1
terminologie

ensemble des désignations (3.7) et des concepts (3.4) appartenant à un domaine (3.2) ou à un sujet

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.1.11, modifiée — Dans la version anglaise de ce document, le terme «domain»

a été remplacé par «subject field», qui est le terme privilégié.]
© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés 1
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ISO 12616-1:2021(F)
3.2
domaine
branche spécialisée de la connaissance

Note 1 à l'article: Les limites et la granularité d’un domaine sont déterminées selon un point de vue particulier lié

à l’objectif visé. Si un domaine est subdivisé, le résultat est de nouveau un domaine.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.1.4, modifiée — Le terme privilégié dans la version anglaise de ce document

est «subject field», à la place de «domain».]
3.3
objet
tout ce qui peut être perçu ou conçu

Note 1 à l'article: Les objets peuvent être matériels (par exemple ‹moteur›, ‹feuille de papier›, ‹diamant›),

immatériels (par exemple ‹rapport de conversion›, ‹plan de projet›) ou imaginaires (par exemple ‹licorne›,

‹hypothèse scientifique›).
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.1.1]
3.4
concept
unité de connaissance créée par une combinaison unique de caractéristiques

Note 1 à l'article: Les concepts ne sont pas nécessairement liés à des langues particulières. Ils sont cependant

soumis à l’influence du contexte socioculturel qui conduit souvent à des catégorisations différentes.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.2.1 modifiée — Suppression de la Note 2 à l’article.]
3.5
concept individuel
concept (3.4) qui correspond à un objet (3.3) unique

EXEMPLE ‹Saturne›, ‹la tour Eiffel›, ‹la Lune›, ‹numéro de série FRHR603928›, ‹Prix Nobel de physique 2016›.

Note 1 à l'article: Les concepts individuels sont représentés par des noms propres (3.10).

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.2.8]
3.6
concept général

concept (3.4) qui correspond à un nombre potentiellement illimité d’objets (3.3) qui forment un groupe

en raison de propriétés partagées
EXEMPLE ‹planète›, ‹tour›, ‹lune›, ‹Prix Nobel de physique›.

Note 1 à l'article: Pour un concept général, il est essentiel qu’un nombre d’objets correspondants supérieur à

1 puisse être perçu ou imaginé. Par exemple, ‹vaisseau spatial› a été un concept général avant qu’un tel objet

matériel n’existe, au moment où un seul objet de ce type existait, et ultérieurement, lorsque plusieurs objets de ce

type ont existé.
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.2.9]
3.7
désignation

représentation d’un concept (3.4) par un signe qui le dénote dans un domaine (3.2) ou sujet

Note 1 à l'article: Une désignation peut être linguistique ou non linguistique. Elle peut être constituée de

différents types de caractères, mais aussi de signes de ponctuation tels que des traits d’union et des parenthèses,

régis par des conventions spécifiques au domaine, au sujet ou au langage.

Note 2 à l'article: Une désignation peut être un terme (3.8), incluant les appellations (3.9), un nom propre (3.10) ou

un symbole (3.11).
2 © ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 12616-1:2021(F)

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.1, modifiée — Dans la version anglaise, suppression du synonyme

«designator» et, dans la définition, «domain» replacé par «subject field».]
3.8
terme

désignation (3.7) qui représente un concept général (3.6) par des moyens linguistiques

EXEMPLE «imprimante laser», «planète», «stimulateur cardiaque», «composé chimique», «¾ temps», «virus

de la grippe A», «peinture à l’huile».

Note 1 à l'article: Les termes peuvent être partiellement ou entièrement verbaux.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.2]
3.9
appellation

terme (3.8) appliqué à un groupe d’objets (3.3) dont les propriétés pertinentes sont identiques

EXEMPLE «Nokia 7 Plus®» (téléphone portable), «Adobe® Acrobat® X Pro» (logiciel), «Road King®»

(motocyclette) .
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.3]
3.10
nom propre
désignation (3.7) qui représente un concept individuel (3.5)

EXEMPLE «Organisation internationale de normalisation», «IBM® » , «Îles britanniques», «Organisation

des Nations Unies».
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.4]
3.11
symbole

désignation (3.7) qui représente un concept (3.4) par des moyens non linguistiques

Note 1 à l'article: Il existe plusieurs types de symboles tels que les symboles graphiques [ISO 3864 (toutes les

parties)] et les symboles littéraux [ISO 80000 (toutes les parties)].
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.5]
3.12
travail terminologique
gestion de la terminologie

activité portant sur la collecte, la description, le traitement et la présentation des concepts (3.4) et de

leurs désignations (3.7)

Note 1 à l'article: Le travail terminologique vise souvent à créer et à tenir à jour des recueils de données

terminologiques (3.21).

Note 2 à l'article: Le travail terminologique est souvent axé sur l’aménagement terminologique et peut comprendre

à la fois l’harmonisation des concepts, l’harmonisation des termes et la formation de termes.

Note 3 à l'article: Le travail terminologique peut être effectué de manière systématique ou ponctuelle.

1) Nokia 7 Plus® est une marque de Nokia Corporation, Adobe® Acrobat® X Pro est une marque d’Adobe Systems,

Road King® est une marque de Harley-Davidson. Ces informations sont données à l’intention des utilisateurs du

présent document et ne signifient nullement que l’ISO approuve l’emploi des produits ainsi désignés.

2) IBM® est une marque d’International Business Machines Corporation. Ces informations sont données à des fins

de commodité pour les utilisateurs du présent document et ne constituent en aucun cas une approbation par l’ISO

du produit cité.
© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 12616-1:2021(F)

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.5.1, modifiée — Dans la définition, suppression de «la systématisation

de», dans la Note 1 à l'article, «ressources terminologiques» remplacé par «recueils de données

terminologiques». Ajout de la Note 3 à l’article.]
3.13
travail terminologique prescriptif

travail terminologique (3.12) visant à décider de l’usage privilégié des désignations (3.7)

3.14
travail terminologique descriptif

travail terminologique (3.12) visant à documenter les désignations (3.7) telles qu’elles sont utilisées en

contexte sans favoriser un usage privilégié
3.15
terminographie

travail terminologique (3.12) visant à créer et à tenir à jour des recueils de données terminologiques (3.21)

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.5.2, modifiée — «ressources terminologiques» remplacé par «recueils de

données terminologiques».]
3.16
extraction de termes

travail terminologique (3.12) impliquant l’identification et le dépouillement de données terminologiques

(3.19) à partir de l’examen d’un corpus de textes (3.17)

Note 1 à l'article: Les données terminologiques (3.19) d’intérêt primordial sont en général les désignations (3.7), les

définitions et les contextes.

Note 2 à l'article: L’extraction de termes est souvent prise en charge par des outils logiciels prévus à cet effet.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.5.6]
3.17
corpus de textes
corpus
ensemble de données dans la langue

Note 1 à l'article: Les corpus de textes peuvent être utilisés pour diverses activités telles que l’analyse de textes

ou le travail terminologique (3.12).
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.6.4]
3.18
terme candidat

chaîne de caractères recueillie au moyen d’une extraction de termes (3.16) mais qui n’a pas encore été

sélectionnée comme un élément de texte à documenter dans le recueil de données terminologiques (3.21)

3.19
donnée terminologique
donnée relative à un concept (3.4) et à sa désignation (3.7)
Note 1 à l'artic
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 12616-1
ISO/TC 37/SC 2
Terminology work in support of
Secretariat: SCC
multilingual communication —
Voting begins on:
2021-05-19
Part 1:
Voting terminates on:
Fundamentals of translation-oriented
2021-07-14
terminography
Travail terminologique appuyant la communication multilingue —
Partie 1: Principes fondamentaux de la terminographie axée sur la
traduction
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 12616-1:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 12616-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 12616-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Fundamentals of terminology management ........................................................................................................................... 6

4.1 Goals ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.2 Work environments ............................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.3 Translation vs. terminology work .......................................................................................................................................... 8

4.4 Working methods ................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

4.4.1 Conceptual analysis ....................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.4.2 Systematic vs. ad hoc terminology work ..................................................................................................... 9

4.4.3 Prescriptive vs. descriptive terminology work ...................................................................................... 9

4.4.4 Text corpora ......................................................................................................................................................................10

5 Process steps and activities ....................................................................................................................................................................11

5.1 Setting goals ...........................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2 Basic workflow.....................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.3 Setting up a terminology database .....................................................................................................................................11

5.4 Collecting terminological data and initial assessment ......................................................................................12

5.5 Researching .............................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.6 Processing and documenting terminological data ................................................................................................13

5.7 Using and exchanging terminological data ..................................................................................................................13

5.8 Maintenance ...........................................................................................................................................................................................13

6 Terminography ....................................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.1 Best practices for open data categories ..........................................................................................................................14

6.2 Term ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.3 Definition ..................................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.4 Concept description .........................................................................................................................................................................15

6.5 Context ........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.6 Note ................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.7 References and source identification ...............................................................................................................................15

6.8 Abbreviations for names of languages and countries ........................................................................................16

7 Text elements for the Term field .......................................................................................................................................................17

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

7.2 Designations ...........................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.2.1 Terms ......................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.2.2 Proper names ...................................................................................................................................................................18

7.2.3 Symbols .................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.2.4 Name-like designations...........................................................................................................................................19

7.3 Other text elements ..........................................................................................................................................................................20

7.3.1 Phrases ..................................................................................................................................................................................20

7.3.2 Standard texts..................................................................................................................................................................20

8 Data management ............................................................................................................................................................................................20

8.1 Data categories for terminological data collections ............................................................................................20

8.2 Principles of modelling concept entries .........................................................................................................................21

8.2.1 Guidance on designing terminological data collections .............................................................21

8.2.2 Concept orientation ........................................................................................................................................... .........21

8.2.3 Term autonomy ..............................................................................................................................................................22

8.2.4 Data elementarity ........................................................................................................................................................22

8.2.5 Data granularity .............................................................................................................................................................22

8.2.6 Repeatability ....................................................................................................................................................................22

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/FDIS 12616-1:2021(E)

8.3 Open and closed data categories ..........................................................................................................................................23

8.4 Mandatory and optional data categories .......................................................................................................................23

8.5 Exchange and interoperability of terminological data ......................................................................................24

9 Tools ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

10 Skills and competences ...............................................................................................................................................................................25

10.1 Terminology tasks and the required skills ...................................................................................................................25

10.2 Basic terminology skills ...............................................................................................................................................................25

10.3 Information technology skills and competences ....................................................................................................26

10.4 Skills and competences related to term extraction ..............................................................................................26

10.5 Language skills .....................................................................................................................................................................................27

10.6 Subject matter expertise ..............................................................................................................................................................27

10.7 Research competence.....................................................................................................................................................................27

10.8 Social and cultural competences ..........................................................................................................................................27

Annex A (informative) Data categories for translation-oriented terminological data collections...29

Annex B (informative) Spreadsheet examples ........................................................................................................................................32

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................34

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 12616-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Language and terminology,

Subcommittee SC 2, Terminology workflow and language coding.

This document cancels and replaces the ISO 12616:2002, which has been technically revised.

The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— updates to focus on the broader environment in which terminology workers operate;

— deepening of the aspect of terminological data management and addition of processes, tools and

skills necessary for terminology tasks;

— updates to align with the technical state-of-art and the evolution of the profession.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/FDIS 12616-1:2021(E)
Introduction

Terminology work is conducted by people with different backgrounds and for different purposes. This

document focuses on the fundamentals necessary to perform basic terminology work in translation

contexts. While some details are occasionally given, the document provides the minimum information

necessary to set up and work in the simplest form of a terminological data collection (TDC). The more

complex tasks and processes performed by terminologists with more sophisticated technologies and in

larger production environments will be covered in a future ISO 12616-2.

For clear communication, the title “terminology worker” has been chosen to represent anyone doing

terminology work as an ancillary function of their professional activities. A terminology worker might be

a translator, project manager or technical communicator, and might work as a single-person enterprise,

for a language service provider, or in-house at a company or other organization. Terminologists and

terminology workers share the same basic skill set covered in this document; however, terminologists

have broader knowledge and competences, which will be discussed further in a future ISO 12616-2.

One of the most common scenarios for a terminology worker in translation contexts is the following: a

client produces documentation in a particular subject field in a source language and asks a translator

to translate a variety of interrelated documents. Since no terminology was provided, the translator

recognises that it would be beneficial to document the terminology found during translation

work to maintain consistency across documents in the target language. This document provides

terminographical best practices and data modelling principles to this end.

In this document’s examples, designations and other text elements are indicated by double quotation

marks, whereas objects, concepts, properties, characteristics, and types of characteristics are indicated

by single quotation marks. When referring to fields in a terminology database, the first letter of the field

name is capitalized and the field name is followed by the word “field” (e.g. Term field, Transfer comment

field). Data categories are indicated by slashes preceding and following the data category’s name (e.g. /

term/, /transfer comment/). This markup is intended to facilitate the distinction between references to

the three terminological levels and other text throughout this document.
vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 12616-1:2021(E)
Terminology work in support of multilingual
communication —
Part 1:
Fundamentals of translation-oriented terminography
1 Scope

This document specifies requirements and recommendations related to fundamentals of translation-

oriented terminography for producing sound bilingual or multilingual terminology collections. It

deals with the main tasks, skills, processes and technologies for translation-oriented terminography

practiced by terminology workers who do terminology work in low-complexity settings as part of non-

terminological activities. It does not cover terminology management involving sophisticated workflows,

a multitude of roles, or advanced terminological skills and competences.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 704, Terminology work — Principles and methods

ISO 16642, Computer applications in terminology — Terminological markup framework

ISO 26162-1, Management of terminology resources — Terminology databases — Part 1: Design

ISO 30042, Management of terminology resources — TermBase eXchange (TBX)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
terminology

set of designations (3.7) and concepts (3.4) belonging to one subject field (3.2) or subject

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.1.11, modified — “domain” replaced with “subject field”, which is the

preferred term in this document.]
3.2
subject field
domain
field of special knowledge

Note 1 to entry: The borderlines and the granularity of a subject field are determined from a purpose-related

point of view. If a subject field is subdivided, the result is again a subject field.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/FDIS 12616-1:2021(E)

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.1.4, modified — The preferred term in this document is “subject field”,

instead of “domain”.]
3.3
object
anything perceivable or conceivable

Note 1 to entry: Objects can be material (e.g. ‘engine’, ‘sheet of paper’, ‘diamond’), immaterial (e.g. ‘conversion

ratio’, ‘project plan’) or imagined (e.g. ‘unicorn’, ‘scientific hypothesis’).
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.1.1]
3.4
concept
unit of knowledge created by a unique combination of characteristics

Note 1 to entry: Concepts are not necessarily bound to particular natural languages. They are, however,

influenced by the social or cultural background which often leads to different categorizations.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.2.1 modified — Removed Note 2 to entry.]
3.5
individual concept
concept (3.4) that corresponds to a unique object (3.3)

EXAMPLE ‘Saturn’, ‘Eiffel Tower’, ‘Moon’, ‘serial number FRHR603928’, ‘2016 Nobel Prize in Physics’.

Note 1 to entry: Individual concepts are represented by proper names (3.10).
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.2.8]
3.6
general concept

concept (3.4) that corresponds to a potentially unlimited number of objects (3.3) which form a group by

reason of shared properties
EXAMPLE ‘planet’, ‘tower’, ‘moon’, ‘Nobel Prize in Physics’.

Note 1 to entry: For a general concept, it is essential that a number of corresponding objects greater than 1 can

be perceived or conceived of. For example, ‘spaceship’ has been a general concept before such a material object

existed, at the time when there existed only 1 such object, and later, when there existed several such objects.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.2.9]
3.7
designation

representation of a concept (3.4) by a sign which denotes it in a domain (3.2) or subject

Note 1 to entry: A designation can be linguistic or non-linguistic. It can consist of various types of characters, but

also punctuation marks such as hyphens and parentheses, governed by domain-, subject-, or language-specific

conventions.

Note 2 to entry: A designation can be a term (3.8) including appellations (3.9), a proper name (3.10), or a symbol

(3.11).
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.1; modified — Removed “designator” as a synonym.]
3.8
term
designation (3.7) that represents a general concept (3.6) by linguistic means

EXAMPLE “laser printer”, “planet”, “pacemaker”, “chemical compound”, “¾ time”, “Influenza A virus”, “oil

painting”.
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 12616-1:2021(E)
Note 1 to entry: Terms may be partly or wholly verbal.
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.2]
3.9
appellation

term (3.8) that is applied to a group of objects (3.3) whose relevant properties are identical

EXAMPLE “Nokia 7 Plus®” (mobile phone), “Adobe® Acrobat® X Pro” (software), “Road King®”

(motorcycle) .
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.3]
3.10
proper name
designation (3.7) that represents an individual concept (3.5)

EXAMPLE “International Organization for Standardization”, “IBM®” , “British Isles”, “United Nations”.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.4]
3.11
symbol
designation (3.7) that represents a concept (3.4) by non-linguistic means

Note 1 to entry: There are several types of symbols such as graphical symbols [ISO 3864 (all parts)] and letter

symbols [ISO 80000 (all parts)].
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.5]
3.12
terminology work
terminology management

work concerned with the collection, description, processing and presentation of concepts (3.4) and their

designations (3.7)

Note 1 to entry: Terminology work often aims at creating and maintaining terminology resources (3.21).

Note 2 to entry: Terminology work often aims at terminology planning and can involve all of concept

harmonization, term harmonization, and term formation.

Note 3 to entry: Terminology work can be carried out in a systematic or an ad hoc fashion.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.5.1, modified — Removed “systematic” in the definition, and added Note 3

to entry.]
3.13
prescriptive terminology work

terminology work (3.12) that aims at deciding on preferred usage of designations (3.7)

3.14
descriptive terminology work

terminology work (3.12) that aims at documenting designations (3.7) as they are used in contexts

without favouring preferred usage

1) Nokia 7 Plus® is a trademark of Nokia Corporation, Adobe® Acrobat® X Pro is a trademark of Adobe Systems,

Road King® is a trademark of Harley-Davidson. This information is given for the convenience of users of this

document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the products named.

2) IBM® is a trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. This information is given for the

convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the product named.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 12616-1:2021(E)
3.15
terminography

terminology work (3.12) aimed at creating and maintaining terminology resources (3.21)

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.5.2]
3.16
term extraction

terminology work (3.12) that involves the identification and excerption of terminological data (3.19) by

searching through a text corpus (3.17)

Note 1 to entry: Terminological data (3.19) of primary interest are typically designations (3.7), definitions and

contexts.
Note 2 to entry: Term extraction is often supported by dedicated software tools.
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.5.6]
3.17
text corpus
corpus
collection of natural language data

Note 1 to entry: Text corpora can be used for various activities such as text analysis or terminology work (3.12).

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.6.4]
3.18
candidate term

string of characters that has been collected by means of term extraction (3.16) but has not yet been

selected as a text element to be documented in the terminological data collection (3.21)

3.19
terminological data
data related to concepts (3.4) and their designations (3.7)

Note 1 to entry: Common terminological data include designations (3.7), definitions, contexts, notes to entry,

grammatical labels, subject labels, language identifiers, country identifiers, and source identifiers.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.6.1]
3.20
terminological entry
concept entry
collection of terminological data (3.19) related to only one concept (3.4)

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.6.2, modified — Added “concept entry” and “CE” as preferred and admitted

terms, respectively.]
3.21
terminological data collection
TDC
terminology resource

resource consisting of concept entries (3.20) with associated metadata and documentary information

[SOURCE: ISO 26162:2019, 3.2.4, modified — Added “terminology resource” from ISO 1087:2019, 3.7.1.]

3.22
data category

class of data items that are closely related from a formal or semantic point of view

EXAMPLE /part of speech/, /subject field/, /definition/.
4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 12616-1:2021(E)

Note 1 to entry: A data category can be viewed as a generalization of the notion of a field in a database.

Note 2 to entry: In running text, such as in this document, data category names are enclosed in forward slashes

(e.g. /part of speech/).
[SOURCE: ISO 26162:2019, 3.2.11]
3.23
terminology management system
TMS

software tool specifically designed with a metadata structure for collecting, maintaining, and accessing

terminological data (3.19)
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.6.13]
3.24
concept orientation
principle whereby a concept entry (3.20) describes a single concept (3.4)

Note 1 to entry: When two or more different concepts (3.4) are represented by the same designation (3.7) (in the

same language), this designation is considered a homograp
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST ISO/DIS 12616-1:2021
01-marec-2021
Terminološko delo v podporo večjezičnemu komuniciranju - 1. del: Osnove
prevodno usmerjene terminografije

Terminology work in support of multilingual communication - Part 1: Fundamentals of

translation-oriented terminography

Travail terminologique appuyant la communication multilingue - Partie 1: Principes

fondamentaux de la terminographie axée sur la traduction
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO/DIS 12616-1
ICS:
01.020 Terminologija (načela in Terminology (principles and
koordinacija) coordination)
oSIST ISO/DIS 12616-1:2021 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST ISO/DIS 12616-1:2021
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oSIST ISO/DIS 12616-1:2021
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 12616-1
ISO/TC 37/SC 2 Secretariat: SCC
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2020-02-18 2020-05-12
Terminology work in support of multilingual
communication —
Part 1:
Fundamentals of translation-oriented terminography
Travail terminologique appuyant la communication multilingue —
Partie 1: Principes fondamentaux de la terminographie axée sur la traduction
ICS: 01.120
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 12616-1:2020(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST ISO/DIS 12616-1:2021
ISO/DIS 12616-1:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
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Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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oSIST ISO/DIS 12616-1:2021
ISO/DIS 12616-1:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Fundamentals of terminology management ........................................................................................................................... 5

4.1 Goals ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.2 Work environments ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.3 Translation vs. terminology work .......................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Working methods ................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

4.4.1 Terminological analysis ............................................................................................................................................. 7

4.4.2 Systematic vs. ad-hoc terminology work .................................................................................................... 7

4.4.3 Prescriptive vs. descriptive terminology work ...................................................................................... 8

4.4.4 Use of text corpora ......................................................................................................................................................... 9

5 Terminography ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1 Best practices in terminography.............................................................................................................................................. 9

5.2 Term ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.3 Definition ..................................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.4 Context ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.5 Note ................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.6 References and source identification ...............................................................................................................................10

6 Skills and competences ...............................................................................................................................................................................12

6.1 Terminology tasks and the required skills ...................................................................................................................12

6.2 Basic terminology skills ...............................................................................................................................................................12

6.3 Skills and competences related to term extraction ..............................................................................................13

6.4 Language skills .....................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.5 Subject matter expertise ..............................................................................................................................................................14

6.6 Research competence.....................................................................................................................................................................14

6.7 Social and cultural competences ..........................................................................................................................................14

7 Process steps and activities ....................................................................................................................................................................15

7.1 Setting goals ...........................................................................................................................................................................................15

7.2 Overall workflow ................................................................................................................................................................................15

7.3 Setting up a terminological data collection .................................................................................................................16

7.4 Collecting designations .................................................................................................................................................................16

7.5 Researching designations and their concepts ...........................................................................................................16

7.6 Processing and documenting terminological data ................................................................................................16

7.7 Using and exchanging terminological data ..................................................................................................................16

7.8 Maintenance ...........................................................................................................................................................................................17

8 Information types for the /term/ field .......................................................................................................................................17

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

8.2 Terminological units .......................................................................................................................................................................18

8.2.1 Terms ......................................................................................................................................................................................18

8.2.2 Proper names ...................................................................................................................................................................18

8.2.3 Symbols .................................................................................................................................................................................18

8.2.4 Name-like designations...........................................................................................................................................19

8.3 Other units of information .........................................................................................................................................................20

8.3.1 Phrases ..................................................................................................................................................................................20

8.3.2 Standard texts..................................................................................................................................................................20

9 Data management ............................................................................................................................................................................................20

9.1 Data categories for terminological data collections ............................................................................................20

9.2 Principles of modelling concept entries .........................................................................................................................21

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9.2.1 Concept orientation ........................................................................................................................................... .........21

9.2.2 Term autonomy ..............................................................................................................................................................22

9.2.3 Data elementarity ........................................................................................................................................................22

9.2.4 Data granularity .............................................................................................................................................................22

9.2.5 Repeatability ....................................................................................................................................................................22

9.3 Open and closed data categories ..........................................................................................................................................23

9.4 Mandatory and optional data categories .......................................................................................................................23

9.5 Exchange and interoperability of terminological data ......................................................................................23

10 Tools ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

Annex A (informative) Data categories for translation-oriented terminology resources .........................25

Annex B (informative) Spreadsheet examples ........................................................................................................................................27

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................28

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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oSIST ISO/DIS 12616-1:2021
ISO/DIS 12616-1:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Language and terminology,

Subcommittee SC 2, Terminology workflow and language coding.

This document cancels and replaces the ISO 12616:2002, which has been technically revised.

The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— Focus on the broader environment in which terminology workers operate

— Deepening of the aspect of terminological data management and addition of processes, tools and

skills necessary for terminology tasks

— Updates aligned with the technical state-of-art and the evolution of the profession

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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oSIST ISO/DIS 12616-1:2021
ISO/DIS 12616-1:2020(E)
Introduction

Terminology work is conducted by people with different backgrounds and for different purposes. This

document focuses on the fundamentals necessary to perform basic terminology work in translation

contexts. While occasionally more details are given, the document provides the minimum information

necessary to set up and work in the simplest form of a terminology data collection (TDC).

For clear communication, the title “terminology worker” was chosen to represent anyone doing

terminology work as an ancillary function of their professional activities. A terminology worker might be

a translator, project manager or technical communicator and might work as a single-person enterprise,

at language service providers, or in-house at companies or other organisations. Terminologists and

terminology workers share the same basic skill set covered in this document; however, terminologists

have knowledge and competences beyond what is described here and will be discussed further in the

future ISO 12616-2.

One of the most common scenarios for a terminology worker is the following: a client produces

documentation in a particular domain in a source language and asks a translator to translate a variety

of interrelated documents. Since no terminology was provided, the translator recognises that it would

be beneficial to document the terminology found during translation work to maintain consistency

across documents in the target language. The translator carries out the necessary tasks and follows

terminographical best practices and data modelling principles as described in this document.

vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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oSIST ISO/DIS 12616-1:2021
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 12616-1:2020(E)
Terminology work in support of multilingual
communication —
Part 1:
Fundamentals of translation-oriented terminography
1 Scope

This document specifies fundamentals of translation-oriented terminography to provide guidance

for producing sound bilingual or multilingual terminology collections. This part of ISO 12616 deals

with the main tasks, skills, processes and technologies for translation-oriented terminography

practiced by terminology workers in simple settings. Terminology workers are translators, project

managers or technical communicators who do terminology work as part of their job, but are not full-

fledged terminologists. The more complex tasks and processes performed by terminologists and more

sophisticated technologies generally used in larger production environments will be covered in the

future ISO 12616-2.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 704:2009, Terminology work — Principles and methods
ISO 1087:2019, Terminology work and terminology science — Vocabulary
ISO 639, Codes for the representation of names of languages

ISO 16642:2017, Computer applications in terminology — Terminological markup framework

ISO 17100:2015, Translation services — Requirements for translation services

ISO/DIS 26162-1, Management of terminology resources — Terminology databases —Part 1: Design

ISO 15188:2001, Project management guidelines for terminology standardization
ISO 30042:2019, Management of terminology resources — TermBase eXchange (TBX)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
terminology worker

person whose role is to perform terminology work (3.8) as an ancillary function of other professional

activities
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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oSIST ISO/DIS 12616-1:2021
ISO/DIS 12616-1:2020(E)
3.2
terminologist

expert who performs terminology work (3.8) as a main function of a professional activity

3.3
technical communicator

expert who defines, creates and delivers information products for the safe, efficient and effective use of

products (technical systems, software, services).
3.4
data category

class of data items that are closely related from a formal or semantic point of view

EXAMPLE /part of speech/, /subject field/, /definition/.

Note 1 to entry: A data category can be viewed as a generalisation of the notion of a field in a database.

Note 2 to entry: In running text, such as in this document, data category names are enclosed in forward slashes

(e.g. /part of speech/).
[SOURCE: ISO 30042:2019]
3.5
terminological data collection
TDC
text or data resource consisting of concept entries (3.7)
3.6
terminological data
data related to concepts (3.16) or their designations (3.17)
3.7
concept entry
terminological entry
entry
collection of terminological data (3.6) related to only one concept (3.16)
[SOURCE: ISO/FDIS 26162-1:2019(E)]
3.8
terminology work
terminology management

work concerned with the collection, description, processing and presentation of concepts (3.16) and

their designations (3.17)

Note 1 to entry: Terminology work can be carried out in a systematic or an ad-hoc fashion.

3.9
terminography

part of terminology work (3.8) concerned with the recording and presentation of terminological data (3.6)

3.10
term extraction

terminology work (3.8) that involves the identification and excerption of terminological data (3.6) by

searching through a text corpus (3.12)

Note 1 to entry: Terminological data (3.6) of primary interest are typically designations (3.17), definitions and

contexts.
Note 2 to entry: Term extraction is often supported by dedicated software tools.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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oSIST ISO/DIS 12616-1:2021
ISO/DIS 12616-1:2020(E)
[SOURCE: ISO/FDIS 1087:2019(E)]
3.11
term identification

part of term extraction (3.10) involving recognition and selection of designations (3.17)

3.12
text corpus
corpus
collection of natural language data brought together for terminology work (3.8)
[SOURCE: ISO/FDIS 1087:2019(E)]
3.13
candidate term

designation (3.17) that has been collected by means of term extraction (3.10) but has not been reviewed

by means of term assessment (3.14)
3.14
term assessment
process of rating designations (3.17) based on agreed criteria
Note 1 to entry: Criteria commonly include acceptability, usability and clarity.
3.15
object
anything perceivable or conceivable

Note 1 to entry: Objects can be material (e.g. ‘engine’, ‘sheet of paper’, ‘diamond’), immaterial (e.g. ‘conversion

ratio’, ‘project plan’) or imagined (e.g. ‘unicorn’, ‘scientific hypothesis’).
[SOURCE: ISO/FDIS 1087:2019(E)]
3.16
concept
unit of knowledge created by a unique combination of characteristics

Note 1 to entry: Concepts are not necessarily bound to particular natural languages. They are, however, influenced

by the social or cultural background which often leads to different categorisations.

[SOURCE: ISO/FDIS 1087:2019(E)]
3.17
designation
terminological unit

representation of a concept (3.16) by a sign which denotes it in a domain or subject

Note 1 to entry: In this standard, terminological unit is used for the content of the /term/ field in a database.

[SOURCE: ISO/FDIS 1087:2019(E)]
3.18
term
designation (3.17) that represents a general concept (3.16) by linguistic means
[SOURCE: ISO/FDIS 1087:2019(E)]
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oSIST ISO/DIS 12616-1:2021
ISO/DIS 12616-1:2020(E)
3.19
proper name
name
designation (3.17) that represents an individual concept (3.16)

EXAMPLE “International Organization for Standardization”, “IBM®” ), “British Isles”, “United Nations”.

[SOURCE: ISO/FDIS 1087:2019(E)]
3.20
appellation

term (3.18) that is applied to a group of objects (3.15) whose relevant properties are identical

EXAMPLE “Nokia 7 Plus®” (mobile phone), “Adobe® Acrobat® X Pro” (software), “Road King®”

(motorcycle) ).
[SOURCE: ISO/FDIS 1087:2019(E)]
3.21
symbol
designation (3.17) that represents a concept (3.16) by non-linguistic means

Note 1 to entry: There are several types of symbols such as graphical symbols (ISO 3864 all parts) and letter

symbols (ISO 80000 all parts).
[SOURCE: ISO/FDIS 1087:2019(E)]
3.22
data granularity
degree of precision of data

Note 1 to entry: For example, the set of individual data categories /part of speech/, /grammatical gender/, and /

grammatical number/ provides for greater data granularity than does the single data category /grammar/.

[SOURCE: ISO/DIS 26162-1]
3.23
data elementarity
principle whereby a data field contains only one data element
[SOURCE: ISO/DIS 26162-1]
3.24
term autonomy

principle whereby all terms (3.18) in a concept entry (3.7) are considered independent sub-units and

can be described using the same set of data categories (3.4)
[SOURCE: ISO/DIS 26162-1]
3.25
concept orientation
principle whereby a concept entry (3.7) describes a single concept (3.16)

Note 1 to entry: A concept entry can contain multiple terms, which are therefore considered semantically

equivalent.
[SOURCE: ISO/DIS 26162-1]

1) IBM® is a trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. This information is given for

theconvenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the product named.

2) Nokia 7 Plus® is a trademark of Nokia Corporation, Adobe® Acrobat® X Pro is a trademark of Adobe

Systems,Road King® is a trademark of Harley-Davidson. This information is given for the convenience of users of

thisdocument and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the products named.

4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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oSIST ISO/DIS 12616-1:2021
ISO/DIS 12616-1:2020(E)
3.26
repeatability

principle whereby a data category (3.4) can be repeated within a concept entry (3.7) and whereby it can

also be combined with other data categories (3.4)
3.27
prescriptive terminology work
approach for managing terminology that indicates preferred usage
3.28
descriptive terminology work

approach for managing terminology that documents the way designations (3.17) are used in contexts

without indicating preferred usage
3.29
source language
language of the content to be translated
[SOURCE: ISO 18587:2017, 3.2.2]
3.30
target language
language into which source language (3.29) content is translated
[SOURCE: ISO 18587:2017, 3.2.4]
4 Fundamentals of terminology management
4.1 Goals

Terminology management has different goals. A basic goal is that users of a terminology data collection

are able to retrieve terminological information that answers their question. The collection must thus

cover the pertinent subject areas and terminologies. Concept entries in the collection must be correct

and complete and not exhibit any data integrity issues with other entries in the collection.

An extension of the basic goal above for translation support is that data is optimised for use in computer-

aided translation systems. Such systems have a terminology component. During the translation

process, the content of the translation segment is matched against the terminology data collection

(TDC). Matches are displayed in the terminology component or made available for easy integration into

the translation in the target-language segment.
4.2 Work environments

Work in pursuit of this goal is performed in many different work environments with one person or

several doing terminology work, supported by tools, following working methods along a particular

workflow, etc. They document the result of their
...

PROJET
NORME ISO/FDIS
FINAL
INTERNATIONALE 12616-1
ISO/TC 37/SC 2
Travail terminologique appuyant la
Secrétariat: SCC
communication multilingue —
Début de vote:
2021-05-19
Partie 1:
Vote clos le:
Principes fondamentaux de la
2021-07-14
terminographie axée sur la traduction
Terminology work in support of multilingual communication —
Part 1: Fundamentals of translation-oriented terminography
LES DESTINATAIRES DU PRÉSENT PROJET SONT
INVITÉS À PRÉSENTER, AVEC LEURS OBSER-
VATIONS, NOTIFICATION DES DROITS DE PRO-
PRIÉTÉ DONT ILS AURAIENT ÉVENTUELLEMENT
CONNAISSANCE ET À FOURNIR UNE DOCUMEN-
TATION EXPLICATIVE.
OUTRE LE FAIT D’ÊTRE EXAMINÉS POUR
ÉTABLIR S’ILS SONT ACCEPTABLES À DES FINS
INDUSTRIELLES, TECHNOLOGIQUES ET COM-
Numéro de référence
MERCIALES, AINSI QUE DU POINT DE VUE
ISO/FDIS 12616-1:2021(F)
DES UTILISATEURS, LES PROJETS DE NORMES
INTERNATIONALES DOIVENT PARFOIS ÊTRE
CONSIDÉRÉS DU POINT DE VUE DE LEUR POSSI-
BILITÉ DE DEVENIR DES NORMES POUVANT
SERVIR DE RÉFÉRENCE DANS LA RÉGLEMENTA-
TION NATIONALE. ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 12616-1:2021(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2021

Tous droits réservés. Sauf prescription différente ou nécessité dans le contexte de sa mise en œuvre, aucune partie de cette

publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique,

y compris la photocopie, ou la diffusion sur l’internet ou sur un intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Une autorisation peut

être demandée à l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.

ISO copyright office
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ii © ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO/FDIS 12616-1:2021(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principes fondamentaux de la gestion de la terminologie ....................................................................................... 6

4.1 Objectifs ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.2 Environnements de travail ........................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.3 Traduction vs travail terminologique .................................................................................................................................. 8

4.4 Méthodes de travail ............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

4.4.1 Analyse conceptuelle .................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.4.2 Travail terminologique systématique vs ad hoc ................................................................................... 9

4.4.3 Travail terminologique prescriptif vs descriptif ................................................................................10

4.4.4 Corpus de textes ............................................................................................................................................................11

5 Étapes du processus et activités ........................................................................................................................................................11

5.1 Définition des objectifs .................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2 Flux de travail de base ...................................................................................................................................................................12

5.3 Configuration d’une base de données terminologiques ...................................................................................12

5.4 Collecte des données terminologiques et évaluation initiale ......................................................................13

5.5 Recherche .................................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.6 Traitement et documentation des données terminologiques .....................................................................14

5.7 Utilisation et échange de données terminologiques ...........................................................................................14

5.8 Mise à jour ................................................................................................................................................................................................15

6 Terminographie ..................................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.1 Bonnes pratiques relatives aux catégories de données ouvertes .............................................................15

6.2 Terme ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.3 Définition ..................................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.4 Description de concept .................................................................................................................................................................16

6.5 Contexte .....................................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.6 Note ................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.7 Références et identification des sources .......................................................................................................................17

6.8 Abréviations pour les noms de langues et de pays ...............................................................................................18

7 Éléments de texte pour le champ Terme ..................................................................................................................................18

7.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.2 Désignations ...........................................................................................................................................................................................20

7.2.1 Termes ...................................................................................................................................................................................20

7.2.2 Noms propres ..................................................................................................................................................................20

7.2.3 Symboles ..............................................................................................................................................................................20

7.2.4 Désignations de type nominatif .......................................................................................................................21

7.3 Autres éléments de texte .............................................................................................................................................................22

7.3.1 Syntagmes ...........................................................................................................................................................................22

7.3.2 Textes normalisés .................. .................................................... ...................................................................................22

8 Gestion des données ......................................................................................................................................................................................22

8.1 Catégories de données pour les recueils de données terminologiques ..............................................22

8.2 Principes de modélisation des articles conceptuels ............................................................................................23

8.2.1 Recommandations relatives à la conception des recueils de données

terminologiques ............................................................................................................................................................23

8.2.2 Orientation conceptuelle .......................................................................................................................................24

8.2.3 Autonomie des termes .............................................................................................................................................24

8.2.4 Élémentarité des données ....................................................................................................................................24

8.2.5 Granularité des données ........................................................................................................................................24

© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés iii
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ISO/FDIS 12616-1:2021(F)

8.2.6 Répétabilité .......................................................................................................................................................................25

8.3 Catégories de données ouvertes et fermées ...............................................................................................................25

8.4 Catégories de données obligatoires et facultatives...............................................................................................26

8.5 Échange et interopérabilité des données terminologiques ...........................................................................26

9 Outils ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................26

10 Savoir-faire et compétences...................................................................................................................................................................27

10.1 Tâches terminologiques et compétences requises ...............................................................................................27

10.2 Compétences de base en terminologie ............................................................................................................................28

10.3 Savoir-faire et compétences en technologies de l’information ..................................................................28

10.4 Savoir-faire et compétences liés à l’extraction de termes ..............................................................................29

10.5 Compétences linguistiques ........................................................................................................................................................29

10.6 Expertise dans le domaine .........................................................................................................................................................30

10.7 Capacité de recherche ....................................................................................................................................................................30

10.8 Compétences sociales et culturelles ..................................................................................................................................30

Annexe A (informative) Catégories de données pour les recueils de données

terminologiques axés sur la traduction ....................................................................................................................................32

Annexe B (informative) Exemples de tableurs ........................................................................................................................................35

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................37

iv © ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO/FDIS 12616-1:2021(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/ directives).

L’attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l’élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l’ISO (voir www .iso .org/ brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l’ISO liés à l’évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l’adhésion

de l’ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien suivant: www .iso .org/ iso/ fr/ avant-propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le Comité technique ISO/TC 37, Langage et terminologie, sous-

comité SC 2, Flux des travaux terminologiques et codage des langues.

Le présent document annule et remplace l’ISO 12616:2002, qui a fait l’objet d’une révision technique.

Les principales modifications par rapport à l’édition précédente sont les suivantes:

— mises à jour en vue de mettre l’accent sur l’environnement élargi dans lequel les travailleurs en

terminologie exercent leur activité;

— approfondissement de l’aspect de la gestion des données terminologiques et ajout de processus,

d’outils et de compétences nécessaires aux tâches terminologiques;

— mises à jour en vue de s’aligner sur les avancées techniques et l’évolution de la profession.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www .iso .org/ fr/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés v
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ISO/FDIS 12616-1:2021(F)
Introduction

Le travail terminologique est effectué par des personnes ayant des parcours différents et pour des

objectifs différents. Le présent document porte sur les principes fondamentaux nécessaires pour

effectuer un travail terminologique de base dans des contextes de traduction. Bien que quelques détails

soient parfois donnés, le document fournit les informations minimales nécessaires pour configurer

et exploiter la forme la plus simple d’un recueil de données terminologiques (RDT). Les tâches et les

processus plus complexes effectués par les terminologues avec des technologies plus sophistiquées et

dans des environnements de production plus importants seront couverts dans une future ISO 12616-2.

Pour une communication claire, l’intitulé de «travailleur en terminologie» a été choisi pour représenter

toute personne effectuant un travail terminologique en tant que fonction complémentaire de ses

activités professionnelles. Un travailleur en terminologie peut être un traducteur, un chef de projet ou

un rédacteur technique et peut travailler en qualité d’entreprise individuelle, pour un prestataire de

services linguistiques, ou en interne dans une entreprise ou un autre organisme. Les terminologues

et les travailleurs en terminologie partagent le même socle de compétences couvert dans le présent

document; cependant, les terminologues ont des connaissances et des compétences plus élargies qui

seront discutées plus en détail dans une future ISO 12616-2.

L’un des scénarios les plus courants pour un travailleur en terminologie dans des contextes de

traduction est le suivant: un client produit de la documentation dans un domaine particulier dans une

langue source et demande à un traducteur de traduire divers documents connexes. Comme aucune

terminologie n’a été fournie, le traducteur reconnaît qu’il serait judicieux de documenter la terminologie

identifiée pendant le travail de traduction afin de maintenir la cohérence entre les documents dans la

langue cible. Le présent document fournit des bonnes pratiques terminographiques et des principes de

modélisation des données à cet effet.

Dans les exemples du présent document, les désignations et autres éléments de texte sont indiqués

par des guillemets doubles, tandis que les objets, concepts, propriétés, caractéristiques et types de

caractéristiques sont indiqués par des guillemets simples. Lorsqu’il est fait référence à des domaines

dans une base de données terminologiques, la première lettre du nom de domaine prend une majuscule

et le nom de domaine est suivi du mot «domaine» (par exemple, Terme domaine, Commentaire de

transposition domaine). Les catégories de données sont indiquées par des barres obliques qui précèdent

et suivent le nom de la catégorie de données (par exemple, /terme/, /commentaire de transposition/).

Ce balisage a pour but de faciliter la distinction entre les références aux trois niveaux terminologiques

et les autres textes dans le présent document.
vi © ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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PROJET FINAL DE NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO/FDIS 12616-1:2021(F)
Travail terminologique appuyant la communication
multilingue —
Partie 1:
Principes fondamentaux de la terminographie axée sur la
traduction
1 Domaine d’application

Le présent document spécifie les exigences et les recommandations relatives aux principes

fondamentaux de la terminographie axée sur la traduction afin de produire de solides recueils

terminologiques bilingues ou multilingues. Il traite des principales tâches et compétences, ainsi que des

processus et technologies, pour la terminographie axée sur la traduction pratiquée par les travailleurs

en terminologie qui effectuent un travail terminologique dans des configurations de faible complexité

dans le cadre d’activités non terminologiques. Il ne couvre pas la gestion de la terminologie impliquant

des flux de travail sophistiqués, une multitude de rôles ou des savoir-faire et compétences avancés.

2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants sont cités dans le texte de sorte qu’ils constituent, pour tout ou partie de leur

contenu, des exigences du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique.

Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s’applique (y compris les

éventuels amendements).
ISO 704, Travail terminologique — Principes et méthodes

ISO 16642, Applications informatiques en terminologie — Plate-forme pour le balisage de terminologies

informatisées

ISO 26162-1, Gestion des ressources terminologiques — Bases de données terminologiques — Partie 1:

Conception
ISO 30042, Gestion des ressources terminologiques — TermBase eXchange (TBX)
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions suivants s’appliquent.

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse https:// www .iso .org/ obp;

— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse https:// www .electropedia .org/ .
3.1
terminologie

ensemble des désignations (3.7) et des concepts (3.4) appartenant à un domaine (3.2) ou à un sujet

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.1.11, modifiée — Dans la version anglaise de ce document, le terme «domain»

a été remplacé par «subject field», qui est le terme privilégié.]
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ISO/FDIS 12616-1:2021(F)
3.2
domaine
branche spécialisée de la connaissance

Note 1 à l'article: Les limites et la granularité d’un domaine sont déterminées selon un point de vue particulier lié

à l’objectif visé. Si un domaine est subdivisé, le résultat est de nouveau un domaine.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.1.4, modifiée — Le terme privilégié dans la version anglaise de ce document

est «subject field», à la place de «domain».]
3.3
objet
tout ce qui peut être perçu ou conçu

Note 1 à l'article: Les objets peuvent être matériels (par exemple ‹moteur›, ‹feuille de papier›, ‹diamant›),

immatériels (par exemple ‹rapport de conversion›, ‹plan de projet›) ou imaginaires (par exemple ‹licorne›,

‹hypothèse scientifique›).
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.1.1]
3.4
concept
unité de connaissance créée par une combinaison unique de caractéristiques

Note 1 à l'article: Les concepts ne sont pas nécessairement liés à des langues particulières. Ils sont cependant

soumis à l’influence du contexte socioculturel qui conduit souvent à des catégorisations différentes.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.2.1 modifiée — Suppression de la Note 2 à l’article.]
3.5
concept individuel
concept (3.4) qui correspond à un objet (3.3) unique

EXEMPLE ‹Saturne›, ‹la tour Eiffel›, ‹la Lune›, ‹numéro de série FRHR603928›, ‹Prix Nobel de physique 2016›.

Note 1 à l'article: Les concepts individuels sont représentés par des noms propres (3.10).

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.2.8]
3.6
concept général

concept (3.4) qui correspond à un nombre potentiellement illimité d’objets (3.3) qui forment un groupe

en raison de propriétés partagées
EXEMPLE ‹planète›, ‹tour›, ‹lune›, ‹Prix Nobel de physique›.

Note 1 à l'article: Pour un concept général, il est essentiel qu’un nombre d’objets correspondants supérieur à

1 puisse être perçu ou imaginé. Par exemple, ‹vaisseau spatial› a été un concept général avant qu’un tel objet

matériel n’existe, au moment où un seul objet de ce type existait, et ultérieurement, lorsque plusieurs objets de ce

type ont existé.
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.2.9]
3.7
désignation

représentation d’un concept (3.4) par un signe qui le dénote dans un domaine (3.2) ou sujet

Note 1 à l'article: Une désignation peut être linguistique ou non linguistique. Elle peut être constituée de

différents types de caractères, mais aussi de signes de ponctuation tels que des traits d’union et des parenthèses,

régis par des conventions spécifiques au domaine, au sujet ou au langage.

Note 2 à l'article: Une désignation peut être un terme (3.8), incluant les appellations (3.9), un nom propre (3.10) ou

un symbole (3.11).
2 © ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO/FDIS 12616-1:2021(F)

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.1, modifiée — Suppression du synonyme «designator» dans la version

anglaise.]
3.8
terme

désignation (3.7) qui représente un concept général (3.6) par des moyens linguistiques

EXEMPLE «imprimante laser», «planète», «stimulateur cardiaque», «composé chimique», «¾ temps», «virus

de la grippe A», «peinture à l’huile».

Note 1 à l'article: Les termes peuvent être partiellement ou entièrement verbaux.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.2]
3.9
appellation

terme (3.8) appliqué à un groupe d’objets (3.3) dont les propriétés pertinentes sont identiques

EXEMPLE «Nokia 7 Plus®» (téléphone portable), «Adobe® Acrobat® X Pro» (logiciel), «Road King®»

(motocyclette) .
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.3]
3.10
nom propre
désignation (3.7) qui représente un concept individuel (3.5)

EXEMPLE «Organisation internationale de normalisation», «IBM® » , «Îles britanniques», «Organisation

des Nations Unies».
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.4]
3.11
symbole

désignation (3.7) qui représente un concept (3.4) par des moyens non linguistiques

Note 1 à l'article: Il existe plusieurs types de symboles tels que les symboles graphiques [ISO 3864 (toutes les

parties)] et les symboles littéraux [ISO 80000 (toutes les parties)] .
[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.4.5]
3.12
travail terminologique
gestion de la terminologie

activité portant sur la collecte, la description, le traitement et la présentation des concepts (3.4) et de

leurs désignations (3.7)

Note 1 à l'article: Le travail terminologique vise souvent à créer et à tenir à jour des ressources terminologiques

(3.21).

Note 2 à l'article: Le travail terminologique est souvent axé sur l’aménagement terminologique et peut comprendre

à la fois l’harmonisation des concepts, l’harmonisation des termes et la formation de termes.

Note 3 à l'article: Le travail terminologique peut être effectué de manière systématique ou ponctuelle.

1) Nokia 7 Plus® est une marque de Nokia Corporation, Adobe® Acrobat® X Pro est une marque d’Adobe Systems,

Road King® est une marque de Harley-Davidson. Ces informations sont données à l’intention des utilisateurs du

présent document et ne signifient nullement que l’ISO approuve l’emploi des produits ainsi désignés.

2) IBM® est une marque d’International Business Machines Corporation. Ces informations sont données à des fins

de commodité pour les utilisateurs du présent document et ne constituent en aucun cas une approbation par l’ISO

du produit cité.
© ISO 2021 – Tous droits réservés 3
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ISO/FDIS 12616-1:2021(F)

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.5.1, modifiée — Suppression de «la systématisation de» dans la définition et

ajout de la Note 3 à l’article.]
3.13
travail terminologique prescriptif

travail terminologique (3.12) visant à décider de l’usage privilégié des désignations (3.7)

3.14
travail terminologique descriptif

travail terminologique (3.12) visant à documenter les désignations (3.7) telles qu’elles sont utilisées en

contexte sans favoriser un usage privilégié
3.15
terminographie

travail terminologique (3.12) visant à créer et à tenir à jour des ressources terminologiques (3.21)

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.5.2]
3.16
extraction de termes

travail terminologique (3.12) impliquant l’identification et le dépouillement de données terminologiques

(3.19) à partir de l’examen d’un corpus de textes (3.17)

Note 1 à l'article: Les données terminologiques (3.19) d’intérêt primordial sont en général les désignations (3.7), les

définitions et les contextes.

Note 2 à l'article: L’extraction de termes est souvent prise en charge par des outils logiciels prévus à cet effet.

[SOURCE: ISO 1087:2019, 3.5.6]
3.17
corpus de textes
corpus
ensemble de données dans la langue
Note 1 à l'article: Les corpus de textes peuvent être uti
...

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