Additive manufacturing — General principles — Part 1: Terminology

Fabrication additive — Principes généraux — Partie 1: Terminologie

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 17296-1
First edition
Additive manufacturing — General
principles —
Part 1:
Terminology
Fabrication additive — Principes généraux —
Partie 1: Terminologie
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO 17296-1:2015(E)
ISO 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 17296-1:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 17296-1:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2.1 General terms ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2.2 Process categories ................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

2.3 Processing: General ............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

2.4 Processing: Data..................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2.5 Processing: Material ........................................................................................................................................................................... 8

2.6 Applications ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

2.7 Properties .................................................................................................................................................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Basic principles ..........................................................................................................................................................12

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
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ISO 17296-1:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 261, Additive manufacturing, in cooperation

with ASTM F 42 on the basis of a partnership agreement between ISO and ASTM International with the

aim to create a common set of ISO/ASTM standards on Additive Manufacturing.

ISO 17296 consists of the following parts, under the general title Additive manufacturing — General

principles:
— Part 1: Terminology
— Part 2: Overview of process categories and feedstock
— Part 3: Main characteristics and corresponding test methods
— Part 4: Overview of data processing
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ISO 17296-1:2015(E)
Introduction

Additive manufacturing is the general term for those technologies that based on a geometrical

representation creates physical objects by successive addition of material. These technologies are

presently used for various applications in engineering industry as well as other areas of society, such as

medicine, education, architecture, cartography, toys and entertainment.

During the development of additive manufacturing technology there have been numerous different

terms and definitions in use, often with reference to specific application areas and trademarks. This is

often ambiguous and confusing which hampers communication and wider application of this technology.

It is the intention of this part of ISO 17296 to provide a basic understanding of the fundamental

principles for additive manufacturing processes, and based on this, to give clear definitions for

terms and nomenclature associated with additive manufacturing technology. The objective of this

standardization of terminology for additive manufacturing is to facilitate communication between

people involved in this field of technology on a world-wide basis.

This International Standard has been developed in close cooperation of ISO/TC 261 and ASTM F 42 on

basis of a partnership agreement between ISO and ASTM International with the aim to create a common

set of ISO/ASTM standards on Additive manufacturing.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 17296-1:2015(E)
Additive manufacturing — General principles —
Part 1:
Terminology
1 Scope

This part of ISO 17296 establishes and defines terms used in additive manufacturing (AM) technology,

which applies the additive shaping principle and thereby builds physical 3D geometries by successive

addition of material.
The terms have been classified into specific fields of application.

New terms emerging from the future work within ISO/TC 261 will be included in upcoming amendments

and overviews of this International Standard.
2 Terms and definitions
2.1 General terms
2.1.1
3D printer
machine used for 3D printing (2.3.1).
2.1.2
additive manufacturing

process of joining materials to make parts (2.6.1) from 3D model data, usually layer (2.3.10) upon layer,

as opposed to subtractive manufacturing and formative manufacturing methodologies

Note 1 to entry: Historical terms: additive fabrication, additive processes, additive techniques, additive layer

manufacturing, layer manufacturing, solid freeform fabrication and freeform fabrication.

Note 2 to entry: The meaning of “additive-”, “subtractive-” and “formative-” manufacturing methodologies are

further discussed in Annex A.
2.1.3
additive system
additive manufacturing system
additive manufacturing equipment
machine and auxiliary equipment used for additive manufacturing (2.1.2)
2.1.4
AM machine

section of the additive manufacturing system (2.1.3) including hardware, machine control software,

required set-up software and peripheral accessories necessary to complete a build cycle (2.3.3) for

producing parts (2.6.1)
2.1.5
AM machine user
operator of or entity using an AM machine (2.1.4)
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ISO 17296-1:2015(E)
2.1.6
AM system user
additive system user

operator of or entity using an entire additive manufacturing system (2.1.3) or any component of an

additive system
2.1.7
front

side of the machine that the

operator faces to access the user interface or primary viewing window, or both
2.1.8
material supplier

provider of material/ feedstock (2.5.2) to be processed in additive manufacturing system (2.1.3)

2.1.9
multi-step process

type of additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which parts (2.6.1) are fabricated in two or more

operations where the first typically provides the basic geometric shape and the following consolidates

the part to the fundamental properties of the intended material (metallic, ceramic, polymer or composite)

Note 1 to entry: Removal of the support structure and cleaning may be necessary, however in this context not

considered as a separate process step.

Note 2 to entry: The principle of single-step (2.1.10) and multi-step processes are further discussed in Annex A.

2.1.10
single-step process

type of additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which parts (2.6.1) are fabricated in a single operation

where the basic geometric shape and basic material properties of the intended product are achieved

simultaneously

Note 1 to entry: Removal of the support structure and cleaning may be necessary, however in this context not

considered as a separate process step.

Note 2 to entry: The principle of single-step and multi-step processes (2.1.9) are further discussed in Annex A.

2.2 Process categories
2.2.1
binder jetting

additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which a liquid bonding agent is selectively deposited to join

powder materials
2.2.2
directed energy deposition

additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which focused thermal energy is used to fuse materials by

melting as they are being deposited

Note 1 to entry: “Focused thermal energy” means that an energy source (e.g. laser, electron beam, or plasma arc)

is focused to melt the materials being deposited.
2.2.3
material extrusion

additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which material is selectively dispensed through a nozzle or

orifice
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ISO 17296-1:2015(E)
2.2.4
material jetting

additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which droplets of build material are selectively deposited

Note 1 to entry: Example materials include photopolymer and wax.
2.2.5
powder bed fusion

additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which thermal energy selectively fuses regions of a powder

bed (2.5.8)
2.2.6
sheet lamination

additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which sheets of material are bonded to form an object

2.2.7
vat photopolymerization

additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which liquid photopolymer in a vat is selectively cured by

light-activated polymerization
2.3 Processing: General
2.3.1
3D printing

fabrication of objects through the deposition of a material using a print head, nozzle, or another

printer technology

Note 1 to entry: Term often used in a non-technical context synonymously with additive manufacturing (2.1.2);

until present times this term has in particular been associated with machines that are low end in price and/or

overall capability.
2.3.2
build chamber

enclosed location within the additive manufacturing system (2.1.3) where the parts (2.6.1) are fabricated

2.3.3
build cycle

single process cycle in which one or more components are built up in layers (2.3.10) in the process

chamber of the additive manufacturing system (2.1.3)
2.3.4
build envelope

largest external dimensions of the x-, y-, and z-axes within the build space (2.3.6) where parts (2.6.1)

can be fabricated

Note 1 to entry: The dimensions of the build space will be larger than the build envelope.

2.3.5
build platform

base which provides a surface upon which the building of the part/s (2.6.1), is started

and supported throughout the build process

Note 1 to entry: In some systems, the parts are built attached to the build platform, either directly or through a

support structure. In other systems, such as powder bed (2.5.8) systems, no direct mechanical fixture between

the build and the platform may be required.
2.3.6
build space

location where it is possible for parts (2.6.1) to be fabricated, typically within the build chamber (2.3.2)

or on a build platform (2.3.5)
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ISO 17296-1:2015(E)
2.3.7
build surface

area where material is added, normally on the last deposited layer (2.3.10) which becomes the

foundation upon which the next layer is formed

Note 1 to entry: For the first layer, the build surface is often the build platform (2.3.5).

Note 2 to entry: In the case of direct energy deposition processes, the build surface can be an existing part onto

which material is added.

Note 3 to entry: If the orientation of the material deposition or consolidation means, or both, is variable, it may be

defined relative to the build surface.
2.3.8
build volume
total usable volume available in the machine for building parts (2.6.1)
2.3.9
feed region

location/s in the machine where feedstock (2.5.2) is stored and from

which a portion of the feedstock is repeatedly conveyed to the powder bed during the build cycle (2.3.3)

2.3.10
layer
material laid out, or spread, to create a surface
2.3.11
machine coordinate system

three-dimensional coordinate system as defined by a fixed point on the build platform (2.3.5) with

the three principal axes labelled x-, y-, and z-, with rotary axis about each of these axis labelled A,

B, and C, respectively, where the angles between x-, y- and z- can be Cartesian or defined by the

machine manufacturer

Note 1 to entry: Machine coordinate system is fixed relative to the machine, as opposed to coordinate systems

associated with the build surface (2.3.7) which can be translated or rotated. Machine coordinate system is

[6]
illustrated in ISO/ASTM 52921.
2.3.12
manufacturing lot

set of manufactured parts (2.6.1) having commonality between feedstock (2.5.2), production run (2.3.19),

additive manufacturing system (2.1.3) and post-processing (2.5.6) steps (if required) as recorded on a

single manufacturing work order

Note 1 to entry: Additive manufacturing system (2.1.3) could include one or several AM machines (2.1.4) and/or

post-processing machine units as agreed by AM (2.1.2) provider and customer.
2.3.13
origin
zero point
(0, 0, 0)

designated universal reference point at which the three primary axes in a coordinate system intersect

Note 1 to entry: Coordinate system can be Cartesian or as defined by the machine manufacturer. The concept of

[6]
origin is illustrated in ISO/ASTM 52921.
2.3.14
build origin

origin (2.3.13) most commonly located at the centre of the build platform (2.3.5) and fixed on the build

facing surface, but could be defined otherwise by the build set-up
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ISO 17296-1:2015(E)
2.3.15
machine origin
machine home
machine zero point
origin (2.3.13) as defined by the machine manufacturer
2.3.16
overflow region

location/s in the machine where excess powder is stored during

a build cycle (2.3.3)

Note 1 to entry: For certain machine types the overflow region may consist of one or more dedicated chambers

or a powder recycling system.
2.3.17
part location
location of the part (2.6.1) within the build volume (2.3.8)

Note 1 to entry: The part location is normally specified by the x-, y- and z-coordinates for the position of the

geometric centre (2.4.9) of the part’s bounding box (2.4.3) with respect to the build volume origin (2.3.13). Part

[6]
location is illustrated in ISO/ASTM 52921.
2.3.18
process parameters

set of operating parameters and system settings used during a build cycle (2.3.3)

2.3.19
production run

all parts (2.6.1) produced in one build cycle (2.3.3) or sequential series of build cycles using the same

feedstock (2.5.2) batch and process conditions
2.3.20
system set-up
configuration of the additive manufacturing system (2.1.3) for a build
2.3.21
x-axis

axis in the machine coordinate

system (2.3.11) that runs parallel to the front (2.1.7) of the machine and perpendicular to the y-axis

(2.3.22) and z-axis (2.3.23)

Note 1 to entry: The positive x-direction runs from left to

right as viewed from the front of the machine while facing toward the build volume (2.3.8) origin (2.3.13).

Note 2 to entry: It is common that the x-axis is horizontal and parallel with one of the edges of the build

platform (2.3.5).
2.3.22
y-axis

axis in the machine coordinate

system (2.3.11) that runs perpendicular to the z-axis (2.3.23) and x-axis (2.3.21)

Note 1 to entry: The positive direction is defined in

[1]

ISO 841 to make a right hand set of coordinates. In the most common case of an upwards z-positive direction, the

positive y-direction will then run from the front to the back of the machine as viewed from the front of the machine.

Note 2 to entry: In the case of building in the downwards z-positive direction, the positive y-direction will then

run from the back of the machine to the front as viewed from the front of the machine.

Note 3 to entry: It is common that the y-axis is horizontal and parallel with one of the edges of the build

platform (2.3.5).
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ISO 17296-1:2015(E)
2.3.23
z-axis

, axis in the machine coordinate

system (2.3.11) that run perpendicular to the x-axis (2.3.21) and y-axis (2.3.22)

Note 1 to entry: The positive direction is defined in

[1]

ISO 841 to make a right hand set of coordinates. For processes employing planar, layerwise addition of material,

the positive z-direction will then run normal to the layers (2.3.10).

Note 2 to entry: For processes employing planar layerwise addition of material, the positive z-direction, is the

direction from the first layer to the subsequent layers.

Note 3 to entry: Where addition of material is possible from multiple directions (such as with certain directed

[1]

energy deposition (2.2.2) systems), the z- axis may be identified according to the principles in ISO 841, (4.3.3)

which addresses “swivelling or gimballing.”
2.4 Processing: Data
2.4.1
3D scanning
3D digitizing

method of acquiring the shape and size of an object as a 3-dimensional representation by recording

x, y, z coordinates on the object’s surface and through software the collection of points is converted

into digital data

Note 1 to entry: Typical methods use some amount of automation, coupled with a touch probe, optical sensor, or

other device.
2.4.2
Additive Manufacturing File Format
AMF

file format for communicating additive manufacturing (2.1.2) model data including a description of the 3D

surface geometry with native support for colour, materials, lattices, textures, constellations and metadata.

Note 1 to entry: Additive Manufacturing File Format (AMF) can represent one of multiple objects arranged in a

constellation. Similar to STL (2.4.16), the surface geometry is represented by a triangular mesh, but in AMF the

triangles may also be curved. AMF can also specify the material and colour of each volume and the colour of each

[5]
triangle in the mesh. ISO/ASTM 52915 gives the standard specification of AMF.
2.4.3
bounding box

orthogonally oriented minimum perimeter cuboid that can span the maximum extents of

the points on the surface of a 3D part (2.6.1)

Note 1 to entry: Where the manufactured part includes the test geometry plus additional external features (for

example, labels, tabs or raised lettering), the bounding box may be specified according to the test part geometry

excluding the additional external features if noted. Different varieties of bounding boxes are illustrated in

[6]
ISO/ASTM 52921.
2.4.4
arbitrarily oriented bounding box

bounding box (2.4.3) calculated without any constraints on the resulting

orientation of the box
2.4.5
machine bounding box

bounding box (2.4.3) for which the surfaces are parallel to the machine coordinate

system (2.3.11)
2.4.6
master bounding box
bounding box (2.4.6) which encloses all of the parts (2.6.1) in a single build
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ISO 17296-1:2015(E)
2.4.7
extensible markup language
XML

standard from the WorldWideWeb Consortium (W3C) that provides for tagging of information content

within documents offering a means for representation of content in a format that is both human and

machine readable

Note 1 to entry: Through the use of customizable style sheets and schemas, information can be represented in a

uniform way, allowing for interchange of both content (data) and format (metadata).

2.4.8
facet

typically a three- or four-sided polygon that represents an element of a 3D polygonal mesh surface or

model

Note 1 to entry: Triangular facets are used in the file formats most significant to AM (2.1.2): AMF (2.4.2) and STL

(2.4.17); however AMF files permits a triangular facet to be curved.
2.4.9
geometric centre
centroid

, location at the arithmetic middle of the bounding box (2.4.3) of the part (2.6.1)

Note 1 to entry: The centre of the bounding box could lie outside the part.
2.4.10
initial graphics exchange specification
IGES

platform neutral CAD data exchange format intended for exchange of product geometry and geometry

annotation information

Note 1 to entry: IGES is the common name for a United States National Bureau of Standards standard NBSIR 80–

1978, Digital Representation for Communication of Product Definition Data, which was approved by ANSI first

[3]

as ANS Y14.26M-1981 and later as ANS USPRO/IPO-100–1996. IGES version 5.3 was superseded by ISO 10303,

STEP (2.4.15) in 2006.
2.4.11
initial build orientation

orientation of the part as it is first placed in the build volume (2.3.8)

[6]
Note 1 to entry: Initial build orientation is illustrated in ISO/ASTM 52921.
2.4.12
nesting

situation when parts (2.6.1) are made in one build cycle (2.3.3) and are located such that their bounding

boxes (2.4.3), arbitrarily oriented (2.4.4) or otherwise, will overlap
2.4.13
PDES
Product Data Exchange Specification or Product Data Exchange using STEP (2.4.15)

Note 1 to entry: Originally, a product data exchange specification developed in the 1980s by the IGES/PDES

Organization, a program of US Product Data Association (USPRO). It was adopted as the basis for and subsequently

[3]
superseded by ISO 10303 STEP.
2.4.14
part reorientation

rotation around the geometric centre (2.4.9) of the part’s bounding box (2.4.3) from the specified initial

build orientation (2.4.11) of that part (2.6.1)
[6]
Note 1 to entry: Part reorientation is illustrated in ISO/ASTM 52921.
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ISO 17296-1:2015(E)
2.4.15
STEP
standard for the exchange of product model data

Note 1 to entry: ISO standard that provides a representation of product information, along with the necessary

[3]

mechanisms and definitions to enable product data to be exchanged. ISO 10303, applies to the representation

of product information, including components and assemblies; the exchange of product.

2.4.16
STL

file format for model data describing the surface geometry of an object as a tessellation of triangles

used to communicate 3D geometries to machines in order to build physical parts (2.6.1)

Note 1 to entry: The STL file format was originally developed as part of the CAD package for the early

STereoLithography Apparatus, thus referring to that process. It is sometimes also described as “Standard

Triangulation Language” or “Standard Tessalation Language”, though it has never been recognized as an official

standard by any standardization organization.
2.4.17
surface model

mathematical or digital representation of an object as a set of planar or curved surfaces, or both, that

can, but does not necessarily have to, represent a closed volume
2.5 Processing: Material
2.5.1
curing

chemical process which results in the ultimate properties of a finish or other material

2.5.2
feedstock
DEPRECATED: source material
DEPRECATED: starting material
DEPRECATED: base material
DEPRECATED: original material

bulk raw material supplied to the additive manufacturing (2.1.2) building process

Note 1 to entry: For additive manufacturing building processes, the bulk raw material is typically supplied in

various forms such as liquid, powder, suspensions, filaments, sheets, etc.
2.5.3
fusion
act of uniting two or more units of material into a single unit of material
2.5.4
laser sintering

powder bed fusion (2.2.5) process used to produce objects from powdered materials using one or

more lasers to selectively fuse or melt the particles at the surface, layer (2.3.10) upon layer, in an

enclosed chamber

Note 1 to entry: Most LS machines partially or fully melt the materials they process. The word “sintering” is a

historical term and a misnomer, as the process typically involves full or partial melting, as opposed to traditional

powdered metal sintering using a mould and heat and/or pressure.
2.5.5
part cake

lightly bound powder

surrounding the fabricated parts (2.6.1) at the end of a build cycle (2.3.3)
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ISO 17296-1:2015(E)
2.5.6
post-processing

process steps taken after the completion of an additive manufacturing (2.1.2) build cycle

(2.3.3) in order to achieve the desired properties in the final product
2.5.7
powder batch

powder used as feedstock (2.5.2) which could be used powder (2.5.11), virgin powder (2.5.12) or a

blend of the two

Note 1 to entry: A powder batch could be used in one or more production runs using different process parameters.

2.5.8
powder bed
part bed

build area in an additive manufacturing system (2.1.3) in which feedstock (2.5.2) is deposited and

selectively fused by means of a heat source or bonded by means of an adhesive to build up parts (2.6.1)

2.5.9
powder blend

quantity of powder made by thoroughly intermingling powders originating from one or several powder

lots (2.5.10) of the same nominal composition

Note 1 to entry: A common type of powder blend consists of a combination of virgin powder (2.5.12) and used

powder (2.5.11). The specific requirements for a powder blend are typically determined by the application, or by

agreement between the supplier and end-user.

Note 2 to entry: In traditional powder metallurgy, a distinction is made between blended powders and mixed

powders, in which case blended powders are combinations of powders with nominally identical composition,

whereas mixed powders are combinations of powders with different compositions.
2.5.10
powder lot

quantity of powder produced under traceable, controlled conditions, from a single powder

manufacturing process cycle

Note 1 to entry: The size of a powder lot is defined by the powder supplier. It is common that the powder supplier

distributes a portion of a powder lot to multiple AM system users (2.1.6).
Note 2 to entry: Source documentation of the powder lot is normally required
...

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
ISO/TC 261
Date: 2015-05-13
ISO 17296-1:2015(E)
ISO/TC 261/SC /WG 1
Secretariat: DIN
Additive manufacturing — General principles — Part 1: Terminology
Élément introductif — Élément central — Partie 1: Titre de la partie
Document type: International Standard
Document subtype:
Document stage: (60) Publication
Document language: E

O:\Documents\TC261\059524 - ISO_NP 17296-1 (Ed 1)\50.00\180\C059524e_trackchanges.doc STD

Version 2.5a
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ISO 17296-1:2014(E)
Copyright notice

This ISO document is a Draft International Standard and is copyright‐protected by ISO. Except as

permitted under the applicable laws of the user's country, neither this ISO draft nor any extract

from it may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any

means, electronic, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission being

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Requests for permission to reproduce should be addressed to either ISO at the address below or

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Reproduction may be subject to royalty payments or a licensing agreement.
Violators may be prosecuted.
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17296-1:2014(E)
Contents Page
Foreword iv
Introduction v

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................... 1

2.1 General terms .................................................................................................................................................... 1

2.2 Process categories ........................................................................................................................................... 2

2.3 Processing: General ........................................................................................................................................ 3

2.4 Processing: Data ............................................................................................................................................... 6

2.5 Processing: Material ....................................................................................................................................... 8

2.6 Applications .................................................................................................................................................... 10

2.7 Properties ....................................................................................................................................................... 10

Annex A (informative) Basic principles .............................................................................................................. 12

A.1 Additive shaping of materials .................................................................................................................. 12

A.2 Single‐step and multi‐step additive manufacturing processes .................................................... 13

A.3 Additive manufacturing processing principles ................................................................................. 13

A.3.1 Overview of AM single‐step processing principles ........................................................................... 14

A.3.2 Overview of AM multi‐step processing principles ............................................................................ 16

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 18

Alphabetical index ...................................................................................................................................................... 19

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 17296-1:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national

standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally

carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a

technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee.

International organizations, governmental and non‐governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in

the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all

matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International StandardsThe procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its

further maintenance are described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval

criteria needed for the different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in

accordance with the editorial rules given inof the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2

(see www.iso.org/directives.).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patentsThe main task of technical

committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards adopted by the

technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International

Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.
ISO 17296‐1 was prepared by).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword ‐ Supplementary informationCommittee

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 261, Additive Manufacturingmanufacturing, in

cooperation with ASTM F 42 on the basis of a partnership agreement between ISO and ASTM

International with the aim to create a common set of ISO/ASTM standards on Additive Manufacturing.

ISO 17296 consists of the following parts, under the general title Additive manufacturing — General

principles:
— Part 1: Terminology
— Part 2: Overview of process categories and feedstock
— Part 3: Main characteristics and corresponding test methods
— Part 4: Overview of data processing
iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17296-1:2014(E)
Introduction

Additive manufacturing is the general term for those technologies that based on a geometrical

representation creates physical objects by successive addition of material. These technologies are

presently used for various applications in engineering industry as well as other areas of society, such as

medicine, education, architecture, cartography, toys and entertainment.

During the development of additive manufacturing technology there have been numerous different

terms and definitions in use, often with reference to specific application areas and trademarks. This is

often ambiguous and confusing which hampers communication and wider application of this

technology.

It is the intention of this international standardpart of ISO 17296 to provide a basic understanding of

the fundamental principles for additive manufacturing processes, and based on this, to give clear

definitions for terms and nomenclature associated with additive manufacturing technology. The

objective of this standardization of terminology for additive manufacturing is to facilitate

communication between people involved in this field of technology on a world‐wide basis.

This international standardInternational Standard has been developed in close cooperation of ISO/TC

261 and ASTM F 42 on basis of a partnership agreement between ISO and ASTM International with the

aim to create a common set of ISO/ASTM standards on Additive Manufacturing. manufacturing.

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 17296-1:2014(E)
Additive manufacturing — General principles — Part 1:
Terminology
1 Scope

This part of ISO 17296 establishes and defines terms used in additive manufacturing (AM) technology,

which applies the additive shaping principle and thereby builds physical 3D geometries by successive

addition of material.
The terms have been classified into specific fields of application.

New terms emerging from the future work within ISO/TC 261 will be included in upcoming

amendments and overviews of this international standardInternational Standard.
2 Terms and definitions
2.1 General terms
2.1.1
3D printer, noun
machine used for 3D printing (2.3.1).
2.1.2
additive manufacturing, noun

process of joining materials to make parts (2.6.1) from 3D model data, usually layer (2.3.10) upon layer,

as opposed to subtractive manufacturing and formative manufacturing methodologies

Note 1 to entry: Historical terms: additive fabrication, additive processes, additive techniques, additive layer

manufacturing, layer manufacturing, solid freeform fabrication and freeform fabrication.

Note 2 to entry: The meaning of "“additive‐", "‐”, “subtractive‐"‐” and "“formative‐"‐” manufacturing methodologies

are further discussed in Annex A.
2.1.3
additive system, noun
additive manufacturing system
additive manufacturing equipment
machine and auxiliary equipment used for additive manufacturing (2.1.2)
2.1.4
AM machine, noun

section of the additive manufacturing system (2.1.3) including hardware, machine control software,

required set‐up software and peripheral accessories necessary to complete a build cycle (2.3.3) for

producing parts (2.6.1)
2.1.5
AM machine user, noun
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ISO 17296-1:2014(E)
operator of or entity using an AM machine (2.1.4)
2.1.6
AM system user, noun
additive system user

operator of or entity using an entire additive manufacturing system (2.1.3) or any component of an

additive system
2.1.7
front, noun

side of the machine that the

operator faces to access the user interface or primary viewing window, or both
2.1.8
material supplier, noun

provider of material/ feedstock (2.5.2) to be processed in additive manufacturing system (2.1.3)

2.1.9
multi‐step process, noun

type of additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which parts (2.6.1) are fabricated in two or more

operations where the first typically provides the basic geometric shape and the following consolidates

the part to the fundamental properties of the intended material (metallic, ceramic, polymer or

composite)

Note 1 to entry: Removal of the support structure and cleaning may be necessary, however in this context not

considered as a separate process step.

Note 2 to entry: The principle of single‐step (2.1.10) and multi‐step processes are further discussed in Annex A.

2.1.10
single‐step process, noun

type of additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which parts (2.6.1) are fabricated in a single operation

where the basic geometric shape and basic material properties of the intended product are achieved

simultaneously

Note 1 to entry: Removal of the support structure and cleaning may be necessary, however in this context not

considered as a separate process step.

Note 2 to entry: The principle of single‐step and multi‐step processes (2.1.9) are further discussed in Annex A.

2.2 Process categories
2.2.1
binder jetting, noun

additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which a liquid bonding agent is selectively deposited to join

powder materials
2.2.2
directed energy deposition, noun

additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which focused thermal energy is used to fuse materials by

melting as they are being deposited
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ISO 17296-1:2014(E)

Note 1 to entry: "“Focused thermal energy"” means that an energy source (e.g.,. laser, electron beam, or plasma

arc) is focused to melt the materials being deposited.
2.2.3
material extrusion, noun

additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which material is selectively dispensed through a nozzle or

orifice
2.2.4
material jetting, noun

additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which droplets of build material are selectively deposited

Note 1 to entry: Example materials include photopolymer and wax.
2.2.5
powder bed fusion, noun

additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which thermal energy selectively fuses regions of a powder

bed (2.5.8)
2.2.6
sheet lamination, noun

additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which sheets of material are bonded to form an object

2.2.7
vat photopolymerization, noun

additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which liquid photopolymer in a vat is selectively cured by

light‐activated polymerization
2.3 Processing: General
2.3.1
3D printing, noun

fabrication of objects through the deposition of a material using a print head, nozzle, or another printer

technology

Note 1 to entry: Term often used in a non‐technical context synonymously with additive manufacturing (2.1.2);

until present times this term has in particular been associated with machines that are low end in price and/or

overall capability.
2.3.2
build chamber, noun

enclosed location within the additive manufacturing system (2.1.3) where the parts (2.6.1) are

fabricated
2.3.3
build cycle, noun

single process cycle in which one or more components are built up in layers (2.3.10) in the process

chamber of the additive manufacturing system (2.1.3)
2.3.4
build envelope, noun
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ISO 17296-1:2014(E)

largest external dimensions of the x‐, y‐, and z‐axes within the build space (2.3.6) where parts (2.6.1)

can be fabricated

Note 1 to entry: The dimensions of the build space will be larger than the build envelope.

2.3.5
build platform, noun

base which provides a surface upon which the building of the part/s (2.6.1), is started

and supported throughout the build process

Note 1 to entry: In some systems, the parts (2.6.1) are built attached to the build platform, either directly or

through a support structure. In other systems, such as powder bed (2.5.8) systems, no direct mechanical fixture

between the build and the platform may be required.
2.3.6
build space, noun

location where it is possible for parts (2.6.1) to be fabricated, typically within the build chamber (2.3.2)

or on a build platform (2.3.5)
2.3.7
build surface, noun

area where material is added, normally on the last deposited layer (2.3.10) which becomes the

foundation upon which the next layer is formed

Note 1 to entry: For the first layer, the build surface is often the build platform (2.3.5).

Note 2 to entry: In the case of direct energy deposition processes, the build surface can be an existing part onto

which material is added.

Note 3 to entry: If the orientation of the material deposition or consolidation means, or both, is variable, it may be

defined relative to the build surface.
2.3.8
build volume, noun
total usable volume available in the machine for building parts (2.6.1)
2.3.9
feed region, noun

location/s in the machine where feedstock (2.5.2) is stored and from

which a portion of the feedstock is repeatedly conveyed to the powder bed during the build cycle (2.3.3)

2.3.10
layer, noun
material laid out, or spread, to create a surface
2.3.11
machine coordinate system, noun

three‐dimensional coordinate system as defined by a fixed point on the build platform (2.3.5) with the

three principal axes labelled x‐, y‐, and z‐, with rotary axis about each of these axis labelled A, B, and C,

respectively, where the angles between x‐, y‐ and z‐ can be Cartesian or defined by the machine

manufacturer
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ISO 17296-1:2014(E)

Note 1 to entry: Machine coordinate system is fixed relative to the machine, as opposed to coordinate systems

associated with the build surface (2.3.7) which can be translated or rotated. Machine coordinate system is

[2] [6]
illustrated in ISO/ASTM 52921 ..
2.3.12
manufacturing lot, noun

set of manufactured parts (2.6.1) having commonality between feedstock (2.5.2), production run

(2.3.19), additive manufacturing system (2.1.3) and post‐processing (2.5.6) steps (if required) as

recorded on a single manufacturing work order

Note 1 to entry: Additive manufacturing system (2.1.3) could include one or several AM machines (2.1.4) and/or

post‐processing (2.5.6) machine units as agreed by AM (2.1.2) provider and customer.

2.3.13
origin, noun
zero point
(0, 0, 0)

designated universal reference point at which the three primary axes in a coordinate system intersect

Note 1 to entry: Coordinate system can be Cartesian or as defined by the machine manufacturer. The concept of

[2] [6]
origin is illustrated in ISO/ASTM 52921 ..
2.3.14
build origin, noun

origin (2.3.13) most commonly located at the centre of the build platform (2.3.5) and fixed on the build

facing surface, but could be defined otherwise by the build set‐up
2.3.15
machine origin, noun
machine home
machine zero point
origin (2.3.13) as defined by the machine manufacturer
2.3.16
overflow region, noun

location/s in the machine where excess powder is stored during

a build cycle (2.3.3)

Note 1 to entry: For certain machine types the overflow region may consist of one or more dedicated chambers or

a powder recycling system.
2.3.17
part location, noun
location of the part (2.6.1) within the build volume (2.3.8)

Note 1 to entry: The part location is normally specified by the x‐, y‐ and z‐coordinates for the position of the

geometric centre (2.4.9) of the part's bounding box (2.4.3) with respect to the build volume (2.3.8) origin (2.3.13).

[2] [6]
Part location is illustrated in ISO/ASTM 52921 ..
2.3.18
process parameters, noun

set of operating parameters and system settings used during a build cycle (2.3.3)

2.3.19
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ISO 17296-1:2014(E)
production run, noun

all parts (2.6.1) produced in one build cycle (2.3.3) or sequential series of build cycles using the same

feedstock (2.5.2) batch and process conditions
2.3.20
system set‐up, noun
configuration of the additive manufacturing system (2.1.3) for a build
2.3.21
x‐axis, noun

axis in the machine coordinate

system (2.3.11) that runs parallel to the front (2.1.7) of the machine and perpendicular to the y‐axis

(2.3.22) and z‐axis (2.3.23)

Note 1 to entry: The positive x‐direction runs from left to

right as viewed from the front of the machine while facing toward the build volume (2.3.8) origin (2.3.13).

Note 2 to entry: It is common that the x‐axis is horizontal and parallel with one of the edges of the build platform

(2.3.5).
2.3.22
y‐axis, noun

axis in the machine coordinate

system (2.3.11) that runs perpendicular to the z‐axis (2.3.23) and x‐axis (2.3.21)

Note 1 to entry: The positive direction is defined in ISO

[31]

841 to make a right hand set of coordinates. In the most common case of an upwards z‐positive direction, the

positive y‐direction will then run from the front to the back of the machine as viewed from the front of the

machine.

Note 2 to entry: In the case of building in the downwards z‐positive direction, the positive y‐direction will then run

from the back of the machine to the front as viewed from the front of the machine.

Note 3 to entry: It is common that the y‐axis is horizontal and parallel with one of the edges of the build platform

(2.3.5).
2.3.23
z‐axis, noun

, axis in the machine coordinate

system (2.3.11) that run perpendicular to the x‐axis (2.3.21) and y‐axis (2.3.22)

Note 1 to entry: The positive direction is defined in ISO

[31]

841 to make a right hand set of coordinates. For processes employing planar, layerwise addition of material,

the positive z‐direction will then run normal to the layers (2.3.10).

Note 2 to entry: For processes employing planar layerwise addition of material, the positive z‐direction, is the

direction from the first layer to the subsequent layers.

Note 3 to entry: Where addition of material is possible from multiple directions (such as with certain directed

[3]

energy deposition (2.2.2) systems), the z‐ axis may be identified according to the principles in ISO 841 (section ,

[1]
(4.3.3)) which addresses “swivelling or gimballing.”
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ISO 17296-1:2014(E)
2.4 Processing: Data
2.4.1
3D scanning, noun
3D digitizing

method of acquiring the shape and size of an object as a 3‐dimensional representation by recording x, y,

z coordinates on the object’s surface and through software the collection of points is converted into

digital data

Note 1 to entry: Typical methods use some amount of automation, coupled with a touch probe, optical sensor,

or other device.
2.4.2
Additive Manufacturing File Format
AMF, noun

file format for communicating additive manufacturing (2.1.2) model data including a description of the

3D surface geometry with native support for colour, materials, lattices, textures, constellations and

metadata.

Note 1 to entry: Additive Manufacturing File Format (AMF) can represent one of multiple objects arranged in a

constellation. Similar to STL (2.4.16)), the surface geometry is represented by a triangular mesh, but in AMF the

triangles may also be curved. AMF can also specify the material and colour of each volume and the colour of each

[45]
triangle in the mesh. ISO/ASTM 52915 gives the standard specification of AMF.
2.4.3
bounding box, noun

orthogonally oriented minimum perimeter cuboid that can span the maximum extents of the

points on the surface of a 3D part (2.6.1)

Note 1 to entry: Where the manufactured part includes the test geometry plus additional external features (for

example, labels, tabs or raised lettering), the bounding box may be specified according to the test part geometry

excluding the additional external features if noted. Different varieties of bounding boxes are illustrated in

[2] [6]
ISO/ASTM 52921 ..
2.4.4
arbitrarily oriented bounding box, noun

bounding box (2.4.3) calculated without any constraints on the resulting orientation

of the box
2.4.5
machine bounding box, noun

bounding box (2.4.3) for which the surfaces are parallel to the machine coordinate

system (2.3.11)
2.4.6
master bounding box, noun
bounding box (2.4.6) which encloses all of the parts (2.6.1) in a single build
2.4.7
extensible markup language, noun
XML

standard from the WorldWideWeb Consortium (W3C) that provides for tagging of information content

within documents offering a means for representation of content in a format that is both human and

machine readable
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ISO 17296-1:2014(E)

Note 1 to entry: Through the use of customizable style sheets and schemas, information can be represented in a

uniform way, allowing for interchange of both content (data) and format (metadata).

2.4.8
facet, noun

typically a three‐ or four‐sided polygon that represents an element of a 3D polygonal mesh surface or

model

Note 1 to entry: Triangular facets are used in the file formats most significant to AM (2.1.2): AMF (2.4.2) and STL

(2.4.17); however AMF files permits a triangular facet to be curved.
2.4.9
geometric centre, noun
centroid

, location at the arithmetic middle of the bounding box (2.4.3) of the part (2.6.1). )

Note 1 to entry: The centre of the bounding box could lie outside the part.
2.4.10
initial graphics exchange specification
IGES, noun
Initial Graphics Exchange Specification

platform neutral CAD data exchange format intended for exchange of product geometry and geometry

annotation information

Note 1 to entry: IGES is the common name for a United States National Bureau of Standards standard NBSIR 80‐–

1978, Digital Representation for Communication of Product Definition Data, which was approved by ANSI first as

[5] [3]

ANS Y14.26M‐1981 and later as ANS USPRO/IPO‐100‐–1996. IGES version 5.3 was superseded by ISO 10303 ,,

STEP (2.4.15) in 2006.
2.4.11
initial build orientation, noun

orientation of the part as it is first placed in the build volume (2.3.8)

[2] [6]
Note 1 to entry: Initial build orientation is illustrated in ISO/ASTM 52921 ..
2.4.12
nesting, participlenoun

situation when parts (2.6.1) are made in one build cycle (2.3.3) and are located such that their bounding

boxes (2.4.3), arbitrarily oriented (2.4.4) or otherwise, will overlap
2.4.13
PDES, noun
Product Data Exchange Specification or Product Data Exchange using STEP (2.4.15)

Note 1 to entry: Originally, a product data exchange specification developed in the 1980s by the IGES/PDES

Organization, a program of US Product Data Association (USPRO). It was adopted as the basis for and

[53]
subsequently superseded by ISO 10303 STEP.
2.4.14
part reorientation, noun

rotation around the geometric centre (2.4.9) of the part’s bounding box (2.4.3) from the specified initial

build orientation (2.4.11) of that part (2.6.1)
[6]
[2]
Note 1 to entry: Part reorientation is illustrated in ISO/ASTM 52921 ..
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ISO 17296-1:2014(E)
2.4.15
STEP, noun
standard for the exchange of product model data

Note 1 to entry: ISO standard that provides a representation of product information, along with the necessary

[5] [3]

mechanisms and definitions to enable product data to be exchanged. The standard, ISO 10303 ,, applies to the

representation of product information, including components and assemblies; the exchange of product.

2.4.16
STL, noun

file format for model data describing the surface geometry of an object as a tessellation of triangles used

to communicate 3D geometries to machines in order to build physical parts (2.6.1)

Note 1 to entry: The STL file format was originally developed as part of the CAD package for the early

STereoLithography Apparatus, thus referring to that process. It is sometimes also described as "“Standard

Triangulation Language"” or "“Standard Tessalation Language",”, though it has never been recognized as an

official standard by any standardization organization.
2.4.17
surface model, noun

mathematical or digital representation of an object as a set of planar or curved surfaces, or both, that

can, but does not necessarily have to, represent a closed volume
2.5 Processing: Material
2.5.1
curing, verb

chemical process which results in the ultimate properties of a finish or other material

2.5.2
feedstock, noun
DEPRECATED: source material
DEPRECATED: starting material
DEPRECATED: base material
DEPRECATED: original material

bulk raw material supplied to the additive manufacturing (2.1.2) building process

Note 1 to entry: For additive manufacturing building processes, the bulk raw material is typically supplied in

various forms such as liquid, powder, suspensions, filaments, sheets, etc.
2.5.3
fusion, noun
act of uniting two or more units of material into a single unit of material
2.5.4
laser sintering, noun

powder bed fusion (2.2.5) process used to produce objects from powdered materials using one or more

lasers to selectively fuse or melt the particles at the surface, layer (2.3.10) upon layer, in an enclosed

chamber

Note 1 to entry: Most LS machines partially or fully melt the materials they process. The word “sintering” is a

historical term and a misnomer, as the process typically involves full or partial melting, as opposed to traditional

powdered metal sintering using a mould and heat and/or pressure.
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ISO 17296-1:2014(E)
2.5.5
part cake, noun

lightly bound powder

surrounding the fabricated parts (2.6.1) at the end of a build cycle (2.3.3)
2.5.6
post‐processing, noun
...

DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 17296-1
ISO/TC 261 Secretariat: DIN
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2014-10-28 2015-01-28
Additive manufacturing — General principles —
Part 1:
Terminology
Fabrication additive — Principes généraux —
Partie 1: Terminologie
ICS: 01.040.25;25.040.20
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 17296-1:2014(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 17296-1:2014(E)
Copyright notice

This ISO document is a Draft International Standard and is copyright-protected by ISO. Except as

permitted under the applicable laws of the user’s country, neither this ISO draft nor any extract

from it may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means,

electronic, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission being secured.

Requests for permission to reproduce should be addressed to either ISO at the address below or ISO’s

member body in the country of the requester.
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Reproduction may be subject to royalty payments or a licensing agreement.
Violators may be prosecuted.
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/CD 17296-1
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... v

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 1

2.1 General terms ........................................................................................................................................ 1

2.2 Process categories ................................................................................................................................ 2

2.3 Processing: General .............................................................................................................................. 3

2.4 Processing: Data ................................................................................................................................... 6

2.5 Processing: Material ............................................................................................................................. 8

2.6 Applications ........................................................................................................................................... 9

2.7 Properties ............................................................................................................................................. 10

Annex A (informative) Basic principles ........................................................................................................ 12

A.1 Additive shaping of materials ............................................................................................................ 12

A.2 Single-step and multi-step additive manufacturing processes ...................................................... 13

A.3 Additive manufacturing processing principles ................................................................................ 13

A.3.1 Overview of AM single-step processing principles ......................................................................... 14

A.3.2 Overview of AM multi-step processing principles ........................................................................... 15

Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 17

Alphabetical index ............................................................................................................................................ 18

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/CD 17296-1
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 17296-1 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 261, Additive Manufacturing in cooperation with

ASTM F 42 on the basis of a partnership agreement between ISO and ASTM International with the aim to

create a common set of ISO/ASTM standards on Additive Manufacturing..

ISO 17296 consists of the following parts, under the general title Additive manufacturing — General principles:

 Part 1: Terminology
 Part 2: Overview of process categories and feedstock
 Part 3: Main characteristics and corresponding test methods
 Part 4: Overview of data processing
iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO/CD 17296-1
Introduction

Additive manufacturing is the general term for those technologies that based on a geometrical representation

creates physical objects by successive addition of material. These technologies are presently used for various

applications in engineering industry as well as other areas of society, such as medicine, education,

architecture, cartography, toys and entertainment.

During the development of additive manufacturing technology there have been numerous different terms and

definitions in use, often with reference to specific application areas and trademarks. This is often ambiguous

and confusing which hampers communication and wider application of this technology.

It is the intention of this international standard to provide a basic understanding of the fundamental principles

for additive manufacturing processes, and based on this, to give clear definitions for terms and nomenclature

associated with additive manufacturing technology. The objective of this standardization of terminology for

additive manufacturing is to facilitate communication between people involved in this field of technology on a

world-wide basis.

This international standard has been developed in close cooperation of ISO/TC 261 and ASTM F 42 on basis

of a partnership agreement between ISO and ASTM International with the aim to create a common set of

ISO/ASTM standards on Additive Manufacturing.
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COMMITTEE DRAFT ISO/CD 17296-1
Additive manufacturing — General principles — Part 1:
Terminology
1 Scope

This part of ISO 17296 establishes and defines terms used in additive manufacturing (AM) technology, which

applies the additive shaping principle and thereby builds physical 3D geometries by successive addition of

material.
The terms have been classified into specific fields of application.

New terms emerging from the future work within ISO/TC 261 will be included in upcoming amendments and

overviews of this international standard.
2 Terms and definitions
2.1 General terms
2.1.1
3D printer, noun
machine used for 3D printing (2.3.1).
2.1.2
additive manufacturing, noun

process of joining materials to make parts (2.6.1) or objects from 3D model data, usually layer (2.3.10) upon

layer, as opposed to subtractive manufacturing and formative manufacturing methodologies

Note 1 to entry: historical terms: additive fabrication, additive processes, additive techniques, additive layer manufacturing,

layer manufacturing, solid freeform fabrication and freeform fabrication.

Note 2 to entry: the meaning of "additive-", "subtractive-" and "formative-" manufacturing methodologies are further

discussed in Annex A.
2.1.3
additive system, noun
additive manufacturing system
additive manufacturing equipment
machine and auxiliary equipment used for additive manufacturing (2.1.2)
2.1.4
AM machine, noun

section of the additive manufacturing system (2.1.3) including hardware, machine control software, required

set-up software and peripheral accessories necessary to complete a build cycle (2.3.3) for producing parts

(2.6.1)
2.1.5
AM machine user, noun
operator of or entity using an AM machine (2.1.4)
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ISO/CD 17296-1
2.1.6
AM system user, noun
additive system user

operator of or entity using an entire additive manufacturing system (2.1.3) or any component of an additive

system
2.1.7
front, noun

side of the machine that the operator

faces to access the user interface or primary viewing window, or both
2.1.8
material supplier, noun

provider of material/ feedstock (2.5.2) to be processed in additive manufacturing equipment (2.1.3)

2.1.9
multi-step process, noun

type of additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which parts (2.6.1) are fabricated in two or more operations

where the first typically provides the basic geometric shape and the following consolidates the part to the

intended basic material properties

Note 1 to entry: Removal of the support structure and cleaning may be necessary, however in this context not considered

as a separate process step.

Note 2 to entry: The principle of single-step (2.1.10) and multi-step processes are further discussed in Annex A.

2.1.10
single-step process, noun

type of additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which parts (2.6.1) are fabricated in a single operation where

the basic geometric shape and basic material properties of the intended product are achieved simultaneously

Note 1 to entry: Removal of the support structure and cleaning may be necessary, however in this context not considered

as a separate process step.

Note 2 to entry: The principle of single-step and multi-step processes (2.1.9) are further discussed in Annex A.

2.2 Process categories
2.2.1
binder jetting, noun

additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which a liquid bonding agent is selectively deposited to join powder

materials
2.2.2
directed energy deposition, noun

additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which focused thermal energy is used to fuse materials by melting

as they are being deposited

Note 1 to entry: "Focused thermal energy" means that an energy source (e.g., laser, electron beam, or plasma arc) is

focused to melt the materials being deposited
2.2.3
material extrusion, noun

additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which material is selectively dispensed through a nozzle or orifice

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ISO/CD 17296-1
2.2.4
material jetting, noun

additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which droplets of build material are selectively deposited

Note 1 to entry: Example materials include photopolymer and wax.
2.2.5
powder bed fusion, noun

additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which thermal energy selectively fuses regions of a powder bed

(2.5.8)
2.2.6
sheet lamination, noun

additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which sheets of material are bonded to form an object

2.2.7
vat photopolymerization, noun

additive manufacturing (2.1.2) process in which liquid photopolymer in a vat is selectively cured by light-

activated polymerization
2.3 Processing: General
2.3.1
3D printing, noun

fabrication of objects through the deposition of a material using a print head, nozzle, or another printer

technology

Note 1 to entry: Term often used in a non-technical context synonymously with additive manufacturing (2.1.2); until

present times this term has in particular been associated with machines that are low end in price and/or overall capability.

2.3.2
build chamber, noun

enclosed location within the additive manufacturingsystem (2.1.3) where the parts (2.6.1) are fabricated

2.3.3
build cycle, noun

single process cycle in which one or more components are built up in layers (2.3.10) in the process chamber

of the AM machine (2.1.4)
2.3.4
build envelope, noun

largest external dimensions of the x-, y-, and z-axes within the build space (2.3.6) where parts (2.6.1) can be

fabricated

Note 1 to entry: The dimensions of the build space will be larger than the build envelope.

2.3.5
build platform, noun

base which provides a surface upon which the build is started and supported throughout the

build process

Note 1 to entry: In some systems the parts (2.6.1) are built attached to the build platform, either directly or through a

support structure. In other systems, such as powder bed (2.5.8) systems, no direct mechanical fixture between the build

and the platform may be required.
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ISO/CD 17296-1
2.3.6
build space, noun

location where the parts (2.6.1) may be fabricated, typically within the build chamber (2.3.2) or on a build

platform (2.3.5)
2.3.7
build surface, noun

area where material is added, normally on the last deposited layer (2.3.10) which becomes the foundation

upon which the next layer is formed

Note 1 to entry: For the first layer the build surface is often the build platform (2.3.5).

Note 2 to entry: In the case of direct energy deposition process, the build surface can be an existing part onto which

material is added.

Note 3 to entry: If the orientation of the material deposition or consolidation means, or both, is variable, it may be defined

relative to the build surface.
2.3.8
build volume, noun
total usable volume available in the machine for building parts (2.6.1)
2.3.9
feed region, noun

location/s in the machine where feedstock (2.5.2) is stored and from which a

portion of the feedstock is repeatedly conveyed to the part bed during the build cycle (2.3.3)

2.3.10
layer, noun
material laid out, or spread, to create a surface
2.3.11
machine coordinate system, noun

three-dimensional coordinate system as defined by a fixed point on the build platform (2.3.5) with the three

principal axes labelled x-, y-, and z-, with rotary axis about each of these axis labelled A, B, and C,

respectively, where the angles between x-, y- and z- can be Cartesian or defined by the machine

manufacturer
2.3.12
manufacturing lot, noun

set of manufactured components having commonality between powder, production run (2.3.19), machine, and

post-processing (2.5.6) steps (if required) as recorded on a single manufacturing work order

2.3.13
origin, noun
zero point
(0, 0, 0)

designated universal reference point at which the three primary axes in a coordinate system intersect

Note 1 to entry: Coordinate system can be Cartesian or as defined by the machine manufacturer.

2.3.14
build origin, noun

origin (2.3.13) most commonly located at the centre of the build platform (2.3.5) and fixed on the build facing

surface, but could be defined otherwise by the build set-up
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2.3.15
machine origin, noun
machine home
machine zero point
origin (2.3.13) as defined by the machine manufacturer
2.3.16
overflow region, noun

location/s in the machine where excess powder is stored during a

build cycle (2.3.3)

Note 1 to entry: For certain machine types the overflow region may consist of one or more dedicated chambers or a

powder recycling system.
2.3.17
part location, noun
location of the part (2.6.1) within the build volume (2.3.8)

Note 1 to entry: The part location is normally specified by the x-, y- and z-coordinates for the position of the geometric

centre (2.4.9) of the part's bounding box (2.4.3) with respect to the build volume (2.3.8) origin (2.3.13).

2.3.18
process parameters, noun

set of operating parameters and system settings used during a single build operation

2.3.19
production run, noun

all components produced in one build cycle (2.3.3) or sequential series of build cycles using the same powder

lot (2.5.10) and process conditions
2.3.20
system set-up, noun
configuration of the additive manufacturing system (2.1.3) for a build
2.3.21
x-axis, noun

axis in the machine coordinate system

(2.3.11) that runs parallel to the front (2.1.7) of the machine and perpendicular to the y-axis (2.3.22) and z-axis

(2.3.23)

Note 1 to entry: The positive x-direction runs from left to right as

viewed from the front of the machine while facing toward the build volume (2.3.8) origin (2.3.13)

Note 2 to entry: It is common that the x-axis is horizontal and parallel with one of the edges of the build platform (2.3.5).

2.3.22
y-axis, noun

axis in the machine coordinate system

(2.3.11) that runs perpendicular to the z-axis (2.3.23) and x-axis (2.3.21)
[3]

Note 1 to entry: The positive direction is defined in ISO 841 to

make a right hand set of coordinates. In the most common case of an upwards z-positive direction, the positive y-direction

will then run from the front to the back of the machine as viewed from the front of the machine.

Note 2 to entry: In the case of building in the downwards z-positive direction the positive y-direction will then run from the

back of the machine to the front as viewed from the front of the machine.

Note 3 to entry: It is common that the y-axis is horizontal and parallel with one of the edges of the build platform (2.3.5).

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ISO/CD 17296-1
2.3.23
z-axis, noun

, axis in the machine coordinate system

(2.3.11) that run perpendicular to the x-axis (2.3.21) and y-axis (2.3.22)
[3]

Note 1 to entry: The positive direction is defined in ISO 841 to

make a right hand set of coordinates. For processes employing planar, layerwise addition of material, the positive z-

direction will then run normal to the layers (2.3.10).

Note 2 to entry: For processes employing planar layerwise addition of material, the positive z-direction, is the direction

from the first layer to the subsequent layers.

Note 3 to entry: Where addition of material is possible from multiple directions (such as with certain directed energy

[3]

deposition (2.2.2) systems), the z- axis may be identified according to the principles in ISO 841 (section 4.3.3) which

addresses “swivelling or gimballing.”
[3]
[SOURCE: ISO 841 .]
2.4 Processing: Data
2.4.1
3D scanning, noun
3D digitizing

method of acquiring the shape and size of an object as a 3-dimensional representation by recording x,y,z

coordinates on the object’s surface and through software the collection of points is converted into digital data

Note to entry Typical methods use some amount of automation, coupled with a touch probe, optical sensor, or other

device.
2.4.2
AMF, noun

file format for communicating additive manufacturing (2.1.2) model data including a description of the 3D

surface geometry with native support for colour, materials, lattices, textures, constellations and metadata.

Note 1 to entry: Additive Manufacturing File Format (AMF) can represent one of multiple objects arranged in a

constellation. Similar to STL (2.4.16) the surface geometry is represented by a triangular mesh, but in AMF the triangles

may also be curved. AMF can also specify the material and colour of each volume and the colour of each triangle in the

mesh.
[4]
[SOURCE: ISO/ASTM 52915 .]
2.4.3
bounding box, noun

orthogonally oriented minimum perimeter cuboid that can span the maximum extents of the points

on the surface of a 3D part (2.6.1)

Note 1 to entry: Where the manufactured part includes the test geometry plus additional external features (for example,

labels, tabs or raised lettering), the bounding box may be specified according to the test pa

...

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