This document specifies the design criteria and testing methods adequate to guarantee the ultimate strength and operational dependability of cargo restraint sling assemblies made of steel wire rope, with a 22,25 kN (5 000 lbf) rated ultimate load capability, as can be used by the airline industry in order to restrain on board civil transport aircraft during flight, including the following: —   cargo loaded and tied down onto airworthiness approved air cargo pallets, themselves restrained into aircraft lower deck, main deck or upper deck cargo systems and meeting the requirements of ISO 8097 (NAS 3610) or ISO 21100, or —   non-unitized individual pieces of cargo, or pieces of cargo placed onto an unrestrained ("floating") pallet into either lower deck, main deck or upper deck containerized cargo compartments of an aircraft, to be restrained onto aircraft structure attachment (tie-down) points. Two types of wire rope restraint slings are defined: a) type A: adjustable length restraint sling assemblies, including a tension retaining device and termination fittings attached to the wire rope end eyes; b) type B: fixed length restraint sling extensions, to be used in conjunction with a type A cable; extensions are usually terminated at both ends by eyes, without additional fittings, and can be attached through hooks or shackles. The cables specified in this document are intended exclusively for restraint purposes on board aircraft, and not for use as lifting slings.

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1.1 This document provides general utilization requirements and recommendations and calculation methods adequate to guarantee the effectiveness and ultimate strength of tie-down/lashing arrangements performed to restrain cargo on board civil transport aircraft during flight, including the following: a) cargo loaded and tied down onto airworthiness approved air cargo pallets, themselves restrained into aircraft lower deck or main deck or upper deck cargo systems meeting the restraint requirements of air cargo pallets approved in accordance with ISO8097 (NAS 3610) or ISO 21100, or b) additional tie-down on aircraft structure when necessitated by pallet maximum gross mass or centre of gravity limits, or c) non-unitized individual pieces of cargo, or pieces of cargo placed onto an unrestrained pallet (floating pallet) into either lower deck, main deck or upper deck containerized cargo compartments of an aircraft, when using for this purpose restraint slings (wire rope cables) specified in ISO 20291-1. 1.2 Restraint slings as specified in this document can also be used for permanent or semi-permanent attachment of a special purpose device, such as aircraft engine transport stand (see ISO 11241), horse stall (see ISO 9469), automobile transport device (see ISO 8268) or other, whether or not airworthiness approved, onto an aircraft pallet. 1.3 This document applies to cargo tie-down/lashing arrangements using exclusively air cargo restraint slings conforming to ISO 20291-1. NOTE      Where tie-down is performed onto aircraft structure as per 1.1 b) or c), additional restrictions can be stated in the aircraft's authority approved Weight and Balance Manual. 1.4 This document specifies industry recognized means of complying with airworthiness authorities general regulations applicable to load securing on board civil transport aircraft (see 14 CFR Part 25 and EASA CS-25, CCAR-25 or Japanese Airworthiness Standard Part 3), and aircraft manufacturers authority approved Weight and Balance Manuals for each aircraft type as specified therein. 1.5 The wire rope slings in this document are intended exclusively for restraint purposes on board aircraft and are not intended to be used as lifting slings for handling or any other purpose.

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This document specifies the minimum requirements for airworthiness approval of air cargo pallets, nets and containers, generally designated as air cargo unit load devices (ULD). This document is intended to provide a uniform technical reference for air cargo unit load devices approval. As a prerequisite, it is presupposed that the applicable general civil aviation requirements and the aircraft manufacturer's approved Weight and Balance Manual are followed. This document defines the minimum performance requirements and test parameters for air cargo unit load devices requiring approval of airworthiness for installation in an approved aircraft cargo compartment and restraint system that complies with the cargo restraint and occupant protection requirements of EASA CS-25 or 14 CFR Part 25, except for the 9,0 g forward ultimate inertia force of § 25.561(b) (3) (ii). This document applies to airworthiness approved air cargo unit load devices intended for carriage on board civil transport category airplanes type certificated under EASA CS-25 or 14 CFR Part 25, or equivalent. This document exclusively applies to unit load devices airworthiness approval and testing parameters. It does not apply to aircraft design or aircraft operating requirements, which are provided by the approved Weight and Balance Manual for each aircraft type. Other aspects that do not directly pertain to air cargo unit load devices airworthiness approval and testing are not covered by this document and are defined in other International Standards (see Bibliography), e.g.: — ULD design specifications, — ULD in service damage limits, — ULD restraint malfunction limitations, — ULD test methods, — ULD load distribution models, — ULD maximum allowable contours, — ULD CG (centre for gravity) location control means, — ULD pressure equalization methods, — ULD utilization guidelines. Air cargo unit load devices qualified prior to publication of this document were approved in accordance with the requirements of ISO 8097:2001. This document is intended as a TSO approval reference for all new models of unit load devices in the sizes and types it covers, in replacement of ISO 8097. For air cargo unit load devices the size or type of which is not covered in this document, see the requirements of ISO 8097:2001, if their size or type is contained therein, or other equivalent criteria, if not. NOTE 1 ISO 8097 is based on USA National Aerospace Standard NAS 3610 revision 10:1990, Specification for Cargo Unit Load Devices. NOTE 2 The requirements for cargo covers are not defined in this document, except insofar as net restraint is incorporated therein.

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This document specifies the dimensions of connections for starting aircraft engines by air, which are necessary to ensure international interchangeability of connectors with adaptors. lt also gives the minimum clearances required on the aircraft to provide adequate access for the ground adaptor.

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This document defines the industry agreed model for load distribution on air cargo unit load devices (ULD) bases to apply the maximum allowable centre of gravity (C.G.) eccentricity. Its purpose is to establish a common reference load distribution algorithm for: a) comparable and repeatable ULD testing methods, or equivalent numeric simulations; b) aircraft structure and cargo systems design assumptions, consistent with existing airframers practices; and c) definition of operators unit load devices utilization rules and cargo build-up training programs. It applies to all types of unit load devices intended for use on board civil transport aircraft and airworthiness approved in accordance with the performance requirements and testing parameters of either ISO 21100 or, as applicable, ISO 8097. It also applies to non-airworthiness approved (non-certified) containers as defined in ISO 4118, the utilisation of which is controlled by the provisions of the aircraft type's Weight and Balance Manual and other airframe manufacturer's documents.

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This document specifies the design, performance and testing requirements for "Cargo Stopper" air cargo restraint accessories with a 22 250 N (5 000 lbf) rated load capacity, to be used in conjunction with air cargo restraint straps meeting ISO 16049-1 (TSO/ETSO ̶ C172), or air cargo restraint slings meeting ISO 20291-1, with the same rated load. Cargo stopper devices designed to this document are intended to be used in either of the following typical instances: a) to ensure restraint/tie-down of a piece of cargo that does not lend itself to either direct hooking of tie-down straps or passing a strap around without risk of slippage; a common example is long shaped cargo items with a narrow cross-section, whether or not overhanging from the pallet, individual or in bundles, e.g. pipes or beams; see ISO 16049-2:2020, 7.4; b) to restrain cargo smaller than the pallet net's mesh, or identified as "piercing" cargo, presenting a hazard to the aircraft in the event of it being released during flight; c) when a crate containing cargo, even though its cross-section is large enough to be directly tied-down with the pallet net or restraint straps, contains or can contain a heavy item, e.g. a piece of machinery, shaft, or similar, with a cross-section lower than the pallet net's mesh size; NOTE Such "hidden" items have been known to break free from insufficiently strong crates when subjected to in-flight accelerations, then pass due to their small size through the net mesh restraining the crate and be released into the cargo compartment. d) to assist in tying-down odd-shaped cargo pieces where it is difficult or not allowed to directly attach tie-down straps or pass them around the load in an effective manner.

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This document establishes the minimum requirements for deicing/anti-icing methods on the ground of main line and regional airplanes, in accordance with ICAO, Document 9640-AN/9401) and the relevant civil aviation requirements, to facilitate the safe operation of main line and regional civil transport airplanes during icing conditions. This document does not specify requirements for specific aircraft model types. Airlines' published manuals, procedures or methods supplement the information contained in this document. Frost, ice or snow deposits, which can seriously affect the aerodynamic performance and/or controllability of an aircraft, are effectively removed by the application of the procedures specified in this document. It is the airplane operator's responsibility to consult airplane manufacturer's aircraft operations manual, aircraft maintenance manual and service letters to determine any limitations/restrictions relating to the use of deicing/anti-icing methods meeting this document for the type and model of airplane to be treated.

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This document specifies the design criteria and testing methods adequate to guarantee the ultimate load and operational dependability of cargo restraint strap assemblies with a typical 22 250 N (5 000 lbf) rated ultimate tension load capability, as used by the airline industry. These restraint straps are used in civil transport aircraft during flight for: a) cargo loaded and tied down onto airworthiness approved air cargo pallets, themselves restrained into aircraft lower deck, main deck or upper deck cargo systems and meeting the requirements of ISO 8097 (NAS 3610) or ISO 21100, or b) non-unitized individual pieces of cargo, or pieces of cargo placed onto an unrestrained ("floating") pallet into either lower deck, main deck or upper deck containerized cargo compartments of an aircraft, c) the same restraint strap assemblies can also be used in other applications such as: 1) non-containerized (bulk loaded) baggage and cargo compartments; 2) to ensure cargo restraint inside an airworthiness approved air cargo container. NOTE The ultimate loads allowable on the attachment points available in most aircraft bulk compartments and inside many air cargo containers are significantly lower than 22 250 N (5 000 lbf). This results in the restraint arrangements ultimate load capability being dictated by the weakest element, i.e. the attachment points: typical 22 250 N ultimate load restraint straps will therefore be in excess of the requirements for such applications. Compliance with this document provides one means of cargo restraint straps airworthiness approval by Civil Aviation Authorities under TSO/ETSO-C172a, in addition to the other requirements therein.

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This document aims at providing general utilization requirements and recommendations and calculation methods adequate to guarantee the effectiveness and ultimate load strength of tie-down/lashing arrangements performed to restrain cargo on board civil transport aircraft during flight: a) cargo loaded and tied down onto airworthiness approved air cargo pallets, themselves restrained into aircraft lower deck or main deck or upper deck cargo systems meeting the restraint requirements of air cargo pallets approved in accordance with ISO 8097 (NAS3610) or ISO 21100, or b) additional tie-down on aircraft structure when necessitated by pallet maximum gross mass or centre of gravity limits, or c) non-unitized individual pieces of cargo, or pieces of cargo placed onto an unrestrained ("floating") pallet into either lower deck, main deck or upper deck containerized cargo compartments of an aircraft, or d) individual pieces of load loaded in non-containerized (bulk loaded) baggage or cargo compartments. This document applies to cargo tie-down/lashing arrangements using exclusively air cargo restraint straps conforming to ISO 16049-1. Its general recommendations may also be used for tie-down arrangements using other means (e.g. steel cables, rope, other types of straps), but under the user's responsibility as to their adequacy and the strength calculations required. NOTE 1 Where tie-down is performed onto aircraft structure as per b) or c) above, additional restrictions can be stated in the aircraft's Authority approved Weight and Balance Manual. NOTE 2 The use of chains, rods, or other rigid devices for tie-down onto civil transport aircraft floor tracks, which can generate excessive stress in the aircraft structure, is not part of the scope of this document. . This document aims at providing industry recognized means of complying with Airworthiness Authorities general requirements applicable to load securing on board civil transport aircraft (see CCAR-25, JAS Part 3, 14 CFR Part 25 and EASA CS-25), and aircraft manufacturers Authority approved Weight and Balance Manuals for each aircraft type as specified therein. It is not the intent of this document to specify when restraint straps should be used, but how they should be used. Meeting the methods requirements of this document is not alone sufficient to ensure flight safety: this document is based on the assumption that cargo tie-down will be designed, performed, and checked prior to aircraft departure in accordance with appropriate operating instructions conforming to the Weight and Balance Manual of the aircraft concerned, by competent, suitably trained, personnel as defined for example in ISO 9001:2015, 6.2.2 (see Clause 8).

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This document specifies the interface requirements for tow bar attachment fittings on the nose gear (when towing operations are performed from the nose gear) of conventional tricycle type landing gears of commercial civil transport aircraft. Its purpose is to achieve tow bar attachment fittings interface standardization by aircraft mass category (which determines tow bar forces) in order to ensure that a single type of tow bar with a standard connection can be used for all aircraft types within or near that mass category, so as to assist operators and airport handling companies in reducing the number of different tow bar types used. This document is applicable to all new models of regional aircraft within the specified maximum ramp mass range which enter service or are designed after its date of publication. It does not apply to previously in service regional aircraft models, which present a considerable variety of tow bar attachment fittings. However, a simple retrofit modification is described that may make certain in-service fittings compatible with a tow bar head in conformity with this document, where deemed appropriate in order to facilitate operation of such aircraft types at airports. This document is applicable to regional commercial transport aircraft airworthiness certified under FAR/EASA-CS Parts 25 with a maximum ramp mass of ≤ 50 000 kg (110,000 lb). It does not apply to — aircraft airworthiness certified under FAR/EASA-CS Parts 23 as commuter category aeroplanes, and — aircraft airworthiness certified under FAR/EASA-CS Parts 25 but with a maximum ramp mass of > 50 000 kg (110,000 lb), which are covered by ISO 8267‑1. Where a family of existing or contemplated aircraft types bridges two mass categories, use a single tow bar attachment fitting interface for all of them, and consider the use of the standard dimensions for the higher mass category, be it part of this document or ISO 8267‑1, throughout the family. NOTE As far as practical, this document was defined in order to be compatible with as many existing aircraft types as possible in the mass category concerned.

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ISO 11532:2018 establishes common graphical symbols for use on all types of aircraft ground support equipment. They have been compiled for the benefit of those who deal with such equipment, such as airlines, airport handling agencies, airport authorities, manufacturers, etc., in order to facilitate fast and accurate identification of controls, indicators and decals of powered and unpowered equipment. The presentation of this document is based on the recommendations of ISO/TC 145, Graphical symbols. ISO 11532:2018 is also intended to promote standardization of terms for controls, indicators, etc. for aircraft ground support equipment and alleviate language problems. These graphical symbols are intended to be placed on all new equipment and retrofitted on all existing equipment as far as possible. NOTE This document is intended to be read with the documents listed in the bibliography.

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ISO 1464:2018 specifies the minimum clear space to be provided beneath the aircraft main jacking points, in order to accommodate tripod jacks and thus ensure adequate clearance between the jacks and the adjacent aircraft structure. ISO 1464:2018 is not intended to define fully all jack clearance dimensions. In situations where clearances are critical, it is used as a design aid only. Final critical clearances are established by using actual jack dimensions.

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ISO 9788:2017 specifies the geometry, performance and testing requirements for a double stud tie-down fitting assembly, having a load capacity of 22 250 N (5 000 lbf), when installed in rail or track conforming to ISO 7166. Other materials than those specified can alternatively be used, provided the performance and testing requirements of this document are complied with. Double stud tie-down fittings are intended to be used as either: a) loose items to be attached to an air cargo pallet's track or an aircraft's floor rail in order to constitute a tie-down arrangement together with cargo restraint straps meeting the requirements of ISO 16049-1 or cargo restraint slings (steel cables) meeting the requirements of ISO 20291-1, b) or permanently attached tie-down components of pallet nets meeting the requirements of ISO 4115 or ISO 4170. In this case, where deemed appropriate, the stud geometry can alternatively conform to ISO 7166, and the breaking strength requirement can be limited to the value necessary to meet the net's airworthiness approval/certification in accordance with ISO 21100. Single stud tie-down fittings are not covered by this document. They nevertheless can, where deemed appropriate, use the same stud geometry alternatively to the stud configuration specified in applicable ISO 7166.

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ISO 10842:2017 specifies the locations and types of aircraft ground service connections in order to optimize ground services both fixed and mobile, for the seven different services hereafter: - 400 Hz electrical power; - preconditioned air for cabin conditioning; - pneumatic power for jet engine start; - potable water; - lavatory service (draining, flushing); - aircraft refuelling; - interphone (headset) connections. It focuses on these aircraft services because: - these connections are those most frequently used during aircraft airport turnaround operations; - in terms of economic benefit, they have the greatest impact through improved efficiency. ISO 10842:2017 is intended to apply to any new type of main line commercial transport category aircraft designed or built after its publication. In addition, it is expected that any substantially modified new derivative aircraft type in the same category (derived from a previously existing type) will, insofar as technically and economically practical, meet the requirements of this document, if specified in the aircraft type specification established between customer airline(s) and manufacturer. It is not the intent of this document to restrict in any way the basic design of any future types of civil passenger transport aircraft. It aims, however, at clarifying for aircraft design engineers the design characteristics which would make it difficult or impossible for a new type of aircraft to be adequately serviced from existing airport facilities. Should basic aircraft design requirements impose on a future model certain characteristics not complying with the present document: - either alternative methods of servicing the aircraft will have to be implemented; or - existing facilities in the airports where such a new type of aircraft is to operate will require some degree of modification/rework; or - additional interface devices/equipment will be required in order to service such a new type of aircraft; in either case resulting in increased aircraft servicing constraints and operating cost.

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ISO 9667:2017 specifies dimensional and physical requirements of tow bar connections to tractor and aircraft (see Figure 1). It is applicable to any new type of commercial transport category aircraft tow bar designed or built after publication of ISO 9667:2017. The purpose of ISO 9667:2017 is to standardize tow bar attachments to airplane and tractor according to the mass category of the towed aircraft, so that one tow bar head with different shear levels can be used for all aircraft that are within the same mass category and are manufactured in compliance with ISO 8267.

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ISO 12640-1:2017 specifies mass and dimensions requirements for individual pieces of baggage checked in by airline passengers at airports to be carried in aircraft cargo compartments. ISO 12640-1:2017 does not apply to cabin baggage carried on board by passengers.

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ISO 16004:2017 specifies dimensional interface and unobstructed space requirements applicable to the aircraft mating section of either a) passenger boarding bridges, or b) passenger transfer vehicles used at airports for boarding and disembarkation of passengers on the types of civil transport aircraft which have been listed hereafter. These types of aircraft have a door sill height greater than 2,0 m (80 in) over the ground. Lower aircraft usually do not require such means of access, and have not been taken into account.

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ISO 7718-1:2016 specifies minimum requirements for dimensions and unobstructed space around main deck passenger doors of future types of civil-passenger transport aircraft when they are intended to be compatible with the thousands of passenger boarding bridges and passenger transfer vehicles existing, or being planned, in airports worldwide. ISO 7718-1:2016 is not applicable to existing models of civil transport aircraft, or derivative models with entry into service up to year 2000 with the same fuselage, for which the aircraft-mating section of passenger boarding bridges or passenger transfer vehicles is expected to be compatible with ISO 16004. It is not the intent of this document to restrict in any way the basic design of any future types of civil-passenger transport aircraft. However, it aims at clarifying, for aircraft-design engineers, the design characteristics which would make it difficult or impossible for a new type of aircraft to adequately connect with existing airport passenger boarding bridges or passenger transfer vehicles. If basic aircraft-design requirements impose on a future model certain dimensional characteristics not complying with this document, note that: - either alternative methods of embarking/disembarking passengers will need to be implemented, such as integral aircraft stairs, etc.; - or existing passenger boarding bridges and/or passenger transfer vehicles in the airports where such a new type of aircraft is to operate will require some degree of modification/reworking; - or additional interface devices/equipment will be required in order to connect such a new type of aircraft with existing passenger boarding bridges and passenger transfer vehicles. Each case results in increased aircraft-handling constraints and operating cost.

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ISO 7718-2:2016 specifies the minimum dimensional and unobstructed space requirements around future civil-passenger transport aircraft upper deck passenger doors when they are intended to be compatible with passenger boarding bridges planned in airports worldwide. This document is not applicable to existing models of civil transport aircraft, or derivative models with entry into service up to year 2000 with the same fuselage, for which the aircraft-mating section of passenger boarding bridges or passenger transfer vehicles is expected to be compatible with ISO 16004. However, it is expected that the design of such aircraft types may be taken into account for design of passenger boarding bridges capable of upper deck servicing, in addition to this document. It is not the intent of this document to restrict in any way the basic design of any future types of civil-passenger transport aircraft. It aims, however, at clarifying for aircraft design engineers the design characteristics which would make it difficult or impossible for a new type of aircraft to adequately connect with airport passenger boarding bridges. Should basic aircraft design requirements impose on a future model certain dimensional characteristics not complying with this document, note that: - either alternative methods of embarking/disembarking passengers will need to be implemented, such as using the internal aircraft stairs, etc.; - or upper deck passenger boarding bridges in the airports where such a new type of aircraft is to operate will require some degree of modification/reworking; - or additional interface devices/equipment will be required in order to connect such a new type of aircraft with existing upper deck passenger boarding bridges. Each case results in increased aircraft-handling constraints and operating cost.

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ISO 43:2016 specifies the profiles and dimensions of aircraft jacking pads and the minimum clearance to be provided around them. Aircraft jacking pads, also called adapters, can be attached to primary flight structure (PFS) or to axles.

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ISO 20683-2:2016 is applicable to towbarless aircraft towing vehicles (TLTVs) interfacing with the nose landing gear of civil transport aircraft with a maximum ramp mass comprised between 10 000 and 50 000 kg (22 000 and 110 000 lb), commonly designated as "regional aircraft." The requirements for main line transport aircraft with a higher maximum ramp mass are specified in ISO 20683‑1. It is not applicable to TLTVs which were manufactured before its date of publication. It specifies general design requirements, testing and evaluation requirements, maintenance, calibration, documentation, records, tracing and accountability requirements in order to ensure that the loads induced by the tow vehicle will not exceed the design loads of the nose gear or its steering system, or reduce the certified safe life limit of the nose gear, or induce a stability problem during aircraft push back and/or maintenance towing operations. It specifies requirements and procedures for towbarless tow vehicles (TLTVs) intended for aircraft pushback and gate relocation or maintenance towing only. It is not intended to allow for dispatch (operational) towing (see Clause 3). Dispatch towing imposes greater loads on nose gears and aircraft structure due to the combination of speed and additional passenger, cargo, and fuel loads. It does not apply to towbarless towing vehicles interfacing with aircraft main landing gear.

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ISO 20683-1:2016 is applicable to towbarless aircraft towing vehicles (TLTVs) interfacing with the nose landing gear of main line civil transport aircraft with a maximum ramp mass over 50 000 kg (110 000 lb). The requirements for regional transport aircraft with a lower maximum ramp mass are specified in ISO 20683‑2. It is not applicable to TLTVs which were manufactured before its date of publication. It specifies general design requirements, testing and evaluation requirements, maintenance, calibration, documentation, records, tracing and accountability requirements in order to ensure that the loads induced by the tow vehicle will not exceed the design loads of the nose gear or its steering system, or reduce the certified safe life limit of the nose gear, or induce a stability problem during aircraft pushback and/or gate relocation or maintenance towing operations. This document specifies requirements and procedures for towbarless tow vehicles (TLTVs) intended for aircraft pushback and gate relocation or maintenance towing only. It is not intended to allow for dispatch (operational) towing (see Clause 3). Dispatch towing imposes greater loads on nose gears and aircraft structure due to the combination of speed and additional passenger, cargo, and fuel loads. This document does not apply to towbarless towing vehicles interfacing with aircraft main landing gear.

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ISO 4118:2016 covers the design, performance and testing requirements for lower deck containers for use in main line aircraft which do not require airworthiness approval/certification when loaded under the conditions of compartment restraint and/or where applicable according to the aircraft type's approved Weight and Balance Manual, ISO 8097 or ISO 21100 equivalent base plate restraint for these containers. Aircraft Weight and Balance Manuals require non-certified containers be constructed then loaded in such a manner that neither the container nor its contents can become a hazard or damage the aircraft structure under flight conditions. Compliance with ISO 4118:2016 is one means of demonstrating compliance with these requirements. Most sizes of containers covered by ISO 4118:2016 (base sizes K, L, P and Q) cannot physically be loaded and latched on aircraft main deck cargo systems. Base size A and M containers can, but are not allowed on aircraft main decks, which in general do not accept non-certified units. Accordingly, all containers covered by ISO 4118:2016 are intended to be used/installed exclusively in aircraft lower deck compartments NOTE The metric equivalents for dimensions have been rounded up or down to the nearest millimetre, except in critical dimensions. Masses have been rounded up to the nearest kilogram and forces have been rounded up to the nearest 10 N. See introduction where it is deemed necessary to use exact values.

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ISO 19281:2016 the minimum design and performance criteria and testing methods of passive fire resistant containers (FRCs) for carriage on aircraft main deck, to be used on either of the following: a) in those cargo compartments of civil transport aircraft where they constitute one means of complying with applicable airworthiness regulations; b) on a voluntary basis, when deemed appropriate by operators to improve fire protection in aircraft cargo compartments where airworthiness regulations do not currently mandate their use. The fire resistant containers (FRCs) specified by this International Standard are intended to be used to contain and restrain unitized cargo for loading into either of the following aircraft main deck cargo compartments: a) Class B aircraft cargo compartments according to CS-25, CCAR-25, JAS Part 3 or 14CFR Part 25 25.857 (b), in accordance a) or b) above; b) Class E aircraft cargo compartments according to CS-25, CCAR-25, JAS Part 3 or 14CFR Part 25 25.857 (e), in accordance with b) above; c) Class F aircraft cargo compartments according to CS-25 § 25.857(f) and AMC to CS-25.855 and 25.857, or 14CFR Part 25 § 25.857(f) and FAA Advisory Circular AC25.857-X, in accordance with a) above. NOTE 1 Though nothing formally prevents a fire resistant container (FRC) from being carried in a lower deck Class C aircraft cargo compartment, it is not intended for this use since its fire containment capability would be redundant with that of the aircraft's fire detection and suppression system, which it could hamper. Consult current regulatory guidance materials and aircraft type's Weight and Balance Manual whenever available. Containers are specified in this International Standard only insofar as their flammability requirements and fire resistance performance are concerned. They are not otherwise specified in this International Standard, but still require meeting the applicable general standards. NOTE 2 See Clause 2 and 4.1 and 4.2 for applicable containers airworthiness approval and general design standards. This International Standard does not cover requirements for fire detection or suppression devices. The specified fire resistant containers (FRCs) are passive devices capable of containing a fire for the specified duration by themselves. NOTE 3 Nothing, however, prevents additional use of self-contained fire detection or suppression devices within fire resistant containers (FRCs), but such devices are not specified herein (see 4.5.5). ISO 19281:2016 does not cover requirements for other types of fire resistant containers not specified therein. The use of fire resistant containers meeting the requirements of this International Standard is not alone sufficient to ensure flight safety: this International Standard is based on the assumption that the approved fire resistant containers will be built up, installed, and checked prior to aircraft loading in accordance with appropriate operating instructions, by competent, suitably trained, personnel as defined for example in ISO 9001:2008, 6.2.2 (see 9.3).

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ISO 8267-1:2015 specifies the interface requirements for tow bar attachment fittings on the nose gear (when towing operations are performed from the nose gear) in conventional tricycle type landing gears of commercial civil transport passenger and freight aircraft. Its purpose is to achieve tow bar attachment fittings interface standardization by aircraft mass category (which determines tow bar forces) in order to ensure that a single type of tow bar with a standard connection can be used for all aircraft types within or near that mass category, so as to assist operators and airport handling companies in reducing the number of different tow bar types used. ISO 8267-1:2015 is applicable to all new models of main line aircraft within the specified maximum ramp mass range, entering service or designed after its date of publication. ISO 8267-1:2015 is applicable to main line commercial transport aircraft of airworthiness certified under FAR/EASA-CS Parts 25 with a maximum ramp mass of > 50 000 kg (110 000 lb). It does not apply to aircraft of airworthiness certified under FAR/EASA-CS Parts 25 but with a maximum ramp mass of ≤ 50 000 kg (110 000 lb), which are covered by ISO 8267‑2. Where a family of existing or contemplated aircraft types bridges two mass categories, use a single tow bar attachment fitting interface for all of them, and consider the use of the standard dimensions for the higher mass category throughout the family. NOTE As far as practical, this part of ISO 8267 was defined in order to be compatible with as many existing aircraft types as possible in the mass category concerned.

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ISO 15845:2014 specifies the minimum functional and safety requirements for enclosed self-propelled boarding vehicles designed for transporting and boarding/de-boarding persons with reduced mobility onto/from the main deck or upper deck of main line civil transport aircraft on which they are travelling as a passenger. The intent of ISO 15845:2014 is not to specify equipment design, but rather to define minimum functional and safety requirements and highlight those criteria which are known to be essential to an efficient and safe operation on civil transport aircraft in the environment of international airports. ISO 15845:2014 specifies the worldwide requirements recognized by aircraft and vehicle manufacturers as well as airlines and airport authorities. In addition, it shall be applied with due reference to the national governmental regulations of the country where the vehicle is to be operated. The main though not exclusive areas in which such national regulations can apply are: ? general requirements applicable to road vehicles, or similar local airport regulations; ? sanitary requirements regarding design, cleaning, disinfection and equipment of vehicles that can be used to carry diseased persons with or without medical attendance; ? safety requirements applicable to elevating equipment carrying persons in the elevated position. Nothing in this International Standard, however, shall be deemed to supersede any locally applicable law or regulation, unless a specific exemption has been obtained for this purpose from the appropriate Authority. See NOTE of 4.1.1 hereafter as regards legal requirements applicable in the European Union and EFTA. ISO 15845:2014 assumes that a disabled or incapacitated passenger can be accompanied by at least one attendant, and can be seated in a wheelchair or reclining on a stretcher trolley. Major factors in the design of the vehicle, with relevance to safety, are the consideration of psychological aspects, i.e. feelings of well-being and security, and the physical comfort of the passenger and the avoidance of panic. ISO 15845:2014 also assumes that any type of wheelchair, e.g. standard type with or without occupant self-restraint system, aircraft aisle width wheelchairs without armrests, non-occupant propelled wheelchairs, battery powered wheelchairs, etc., or any type of stretcher transport trolley, can be employed. NOTE It is assumed that battery powered wheelchairs will not be taken into the cabin of an aircraft. ISO 15845:2014 does not apply to other forms of aircraft loading equipment which can be used but is not specifically designed for boarding of incapacitated or disabled persons, e.g. mobile lounges, passenger boarding bridges, or externally mounted pods such as used on medical evacuation helicopters. ISO 15845:2014 does not apply to unmodified automotive parts approved for public vehicles, e.g. chassis, when used on a boarding vehicle for the purpose for which they were designed. Certain requirements of this International Standard are specifically dictated by overwing access to doors of certain aircraft types, and might not apply to other aircraft types. However, the intent of this International Standard is that any vehicle capable of reaching the upper deck of very large capacity aircraft (VLCA) shall be able to safely handle this specific situation.

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ISO 6966-2:2014 specifies the minimum design requirements applicable to all aircraft ground support equipment (GSE) in order to ensure safety of staff operating or maintaining the equipment or in its vicinity, and protection of aircraft against interference or damage. ISO 6966-2:2014 does not apply to automotive vehicles or parts thereof approved for public vehicles, when used on aircraft ground support equipment for the purpose for which they are designed.

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ISO 11077:2014 specifies the general functional, performance, and safety requirements for a self-propelled vehicle equipped with a boom type aerial device and aircraft de-icing/anti-icing fluid (ADF) spraying systems, hereinafter designated as "de-icer". ISO 11077:2014 does not specify a comprehensive set of technical design criteria for aircraft de-icing/anti-icing vehicles, but only those relating to the main functional, safety, and performance requirements. ISO 11077:2014 is not applicable to stationary equipment, e.g. gantries, cranes, used to perform de-icing/anti-icing operations on aircraft.

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ISO 10327:2014 covers the minimum design and operational testing requirements for general purpose, base-restrained containers exclusively intended for the main or upper deck cargo compartments of main line civil transport aircraft, capable of being used by either airlines or shippers and requiring an airworthiness authority approval (certification). ISO 10327:2014 does not cover the performance requirements and ultimate load testing parameters for airworthiness authorities approval (certification), which are covered in ISO 21100 or, for units approved prior to 2012, ISO 8097:2001. The design and operational testing requirements of ISO 10327:2014 are additional to the performance and certification testing requirements of these International Standards. ISO 10327:2014 does not cover containers with an overall height of 1 625 mm (64 in) or less, that can be loaded on the lower deck compartments of main line civil transport aircraft, which are specified in ISO 6517, nor air-surface main deck containers, which are specified in ISO 4128 and ISO 8323.

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ISO 14186:2013 specifies the minimum design and performance criteria and testing methods of fire containment covers (FCCs) used: either in those cargo compartments of civil transport aircraft where they constitute one means of complying with applicable airworthiness regulations, or on a voluntary basis, when deemed appropriate by operators to improve fire protection in aircraft cargo compartments where airworthiness regulations do not mandate their use.

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ISO 6517:2013 covers the minimum design and operational testing requirements for general purpose base-restrained containers exclusively intended for the lower deck compartments of main line civil transport aircraft, capable of being used by either airlines or shippers and requiring airworthiness authority approval (certification). ISO 6517:2013 does not cover the performance requirements and ultimate load testing parameters for approval by airworthiness authorities (certification), which are covered in ISO 21100 or, for units approved prior to 2012, ISO 8097:2001. The design and operational testing requirements of ISO 6517:2013 are additional to those of these standards.

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ISO 27470:2011 specifies the minimum functional, performance and safety requirements for a catering vehicle capable of transporting and loading/unloading in-flight service (catering) equipment and supplies into or from the upper deck of very large capacity aircraft, as well as the main deck of these or other aircraft types. The intent of ISO 27470:2011 is not to specify equipment design, but rather to define minimum functional and performance requirements and highlight those criteria which are known to be essential to an efficient and safe operation on civil transport aircraft in the environment of international airports. ISO 27470:2011 specifies the worldwide requirements recognized by aircraft and vehicle manufacturers as well as airlines and catering agencies. In addition, it shall be applied with due reference to the national governmental regulations of the country where the vehicle is to be operated. The main though not exclusive areas in which such national regulations may apply are: a) general requirements applicable to road vehicles; b) sanitary requirements regarding design, cleaning and disinfection of vehicles used to carry food for human consumption; c) stability and other safety requirements applicable to elevating equipment carrying personnel in the elevated position. Nothing in ISO 27470:2011, however, shall be deemed to supersede any locally applicable law or regulation, unless a specific exemption has been obtained for this purpose from the appropriate Authority. Certain requirements of ISO 27470:2011 are specifically dictated by overwing access to doors of certain aircraft types, and may not apply to other aircraft types. However, the intent of ISO 27470:2011 is that any upper deck catering vehicle shall be capable of safely handling this specific situation.

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ISO 11078:2007 defines the requirements for non Newtonian ISO types II, III and IV fluids used in the removal and prevention of ice, snow, or frost on exterior surfaces of main line and regional civil transport airplanes on the ground. ISO 11078:2007 is applicable to de-icing/anti-icing fluids for use on airplanes in general. However, the applicability may have limitations for particular airplane types. It is the airplane operator's responsibility to consult the aircraft operations manual, the aircraft maintenance manual and the service letters of the airplane manufacturer, to determine any limitations/restrictions relating to the use of de-icing/anti-icing fluids that conform to ISO 11078:2007 for the type and model of airplane to be treated.

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ISO 11075:2007 defines the requirements for ISO type I fluids used in the removal and prevention of ice, snow, or frost on exterior surfaces of main line and regional civil transport airplanes on the ground. ISO 11075:2007 is applicable to de-icing/anti-icing fluids for use on airplanes in general. However, the applicability may have limitations for particular airplane types. It is the airplane operator's responsibility to consult the aircraft operations manual, the aircraft maintenance manual and the service letters of the airplane manufacturer, to determine any limitations/restrictions relating to the use of de-icing/anti-icing fluids that conform to ISO 11075:2007 for the type and model of airplane to be treated.

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ISO 17775:2006 specifies the detail dimensions of the male connector interfaces, fitted to an aircraft, used for servicing of the potable water systems, the toilet-flush water systems, and the toilet drain systems currently in common use. ISO 17775:2006 is applicable to all commercial aircraft with water and toilet systems and is recommended for military and private aircraft that use water and toilet systems. ISO 17775:2006 does not include requirements for the ground half (female) couplings or protective caps, but provides sufficient interface details for such items to be designed. It does not include any specified dimensions for the clearance required around the connector on the aircraft body itself for either any protective caps or ground half couplings, although general recommendations are made.

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ISO 6967:2006 specifies the functional requirements for a self-propelled loader capable of raising air cargo unit load devices (ULDs) with base dimensions and maximum mass as specified. The requirements of ISO 6967:2006 were determined based on generally recognized assumptions with regard to the normally intended use of aircraft ground equipment, when used on the ramp of international civil airports in order to handle, service or maintain civil transport aircraft; and with regard to the environmental (surface, slope, weather, lighting, operating rules, staff qualification, etc.) conditions prevailing on the ramp area of the majority of international civil airports.

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ISO 6968:2005 specifies the functional requirements for a self-propelled loader capable of raising air cargo unit load devices (ULDs) with base dimensions and maximum mass as specified. The requirements of ISO 6968:2005 were determined based on generally recognized assumptions with regard to the normally intended use of aircraft ground support equipment, when used on the ramp of international civil airports in order to handle, service or maintain civil transport aircraft; and with regard to the environmental (surface, slope, weather, lighting, operating rules, staff qualification, etc.) conditions prevailing on the ramp area of the majority of international civil airports.

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ISO 6966-1:2005 specifies the minimum general design requirements applicable to aircraft ground support equipment in order to ensure definition of aircraft ground support equipment general requirements for designers; effective operation of aircraft ground support equipment. The requirements of ISO 6966-1:2005 apply to any piece of aircraft ground support equipment used on airports. ISO 6966-1:2005 does not intend to provide all the design requirements applicable for aircraft ground support equipment. Other requirements apply, and can be found in separate standards: ISO 6966-2 specifies the safety-related requirements applicable to all aircraft ground support equipment; ISO 4116 specifies the additional requirements applicable for conveying surfaces of those pieces of aircraft ground support equipment intended for handling and loading of baggage and cargo unit load devices (ULDs); specific standards, listed in the Bibliography, define the functional and performance requirements for certain types of aircraft ground support equipment. ISO 6966-1:2005 does not apply to unmodified general-use transportation vehicles such as automobiles, vans, buses and flat-bed trucks when used on airports.

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ISO 16412:2005 specifies utilization guidelines to be applied when preparing air cargo pallets for carriage on board civil transport aircraft. It identifies the various concerns to be taken into consideration to ensure flight safety, and provides recognized industry standard methods to achieve it. 16412:2005 is applicable to any certified air cargo pallet built up from either a single or a number of pieces of commercial cargo, intended to be loaded on lower, main or upper deck of a civil transport aircraft, whether a freighter or a passenger-carrying aircraft. Its field of application includes all pallets prepared within ground premises, whether at a shipper's facilities or an airport cargo warehouse, including those intended to be loaded into the aircraft in a floating position. The provisions of ISO 16412:2005 may not entirely apply in the event of pre-embarked pallets. In such a case, it is up to the operator to identify and implement the applicable criteria. 16412:2005 is not intended to apply to air cargo pallets prepared for military transport aircraft, and does not take into account any specific criteria for military aircraft. Nothing, however, precludes it being used for guidelines in this case, it being the military operator's responsibility to identify and implement any additional applicable criteria.

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This International Standard specifies the minimum requirements and test conditions for certified cargo unit load devices to be installed in certified aircraft. It covers pallets, nets and containers intended for use with the following classes of aircraft loading and restraint systems: _ Class I: Unit load device restraint in conformity with all flight and ground load conditions, including 9g forward emergency loading conditions. _ Class II: All other unit load device restraints.

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This International Standard specifies the minimum operational requirements for thermal efficiency to ensure that perishable cargoes in insulated standard airborne containers are kept in prime condition during the ground handling and air transportation cycle for a maximum period of 36 h. It is applicable to all insulated air cargo containers irrespective of their size and designation. It does not provide details concerning refrigerated or heated containers and/or the methods and equipment used to obtain the required thermal effect, such as cryogenic, gaseous or liquid fluids, or mechanical compressors/heaters. NOTES 1 The term "perishable cargo" refers, for example, to dairy produce, fruit, vegetables, flowers, frozen foods, meat, fish, etc., requiring maintenance of specific temperature ranges during door-to-door transportation involving air transport. 2 It should be noted that throughout this document environmental (atmospheric) temperatures are expressed in commercial values of degrees Celsius/Fahrenheit (°C/°F) and technical (scientific) temperatures are expressed in the International Standard measure, kelvin (K). A temperature conversion table is given for convenience in annex A.

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Covers the methodology of calculating for the determination of the internal volumes of both the main deck and the lower deck aircraft cargo compartments. The minimum required clearance between the compartment envelope and the unit load devices (ULDs) is also stated in order to provide the maximum ULD external contour and the methodology to define the ULD internal volumes.

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Gives the functional, performance and safety requirements for self-propelled passenger boarding stairs intended for access to the cabin of all aircraft types commonly in service in international civil air transport with a cabin door sill height equal to or exceeding 2,54 m.

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Describes the minimum safety requirements to be met by containers used to transport cargo by civil transport aircraft under normal pressure equalization during climb and descent and under emergency pressure equalization in the event of a sudden depressurization.

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Specifies the criteria to be used to determine stability of aircraft loading and servicing equipment, including wind loads. Is intended to define uniform criteria, calculation and testing methods in order to provide a safe work environment under all predictable circumstances.

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Specifies the functional, performance and safety requirements for a vehicle equipped with a liftable van body used for loading and unloading of catering equipment and supplies on all large capacity aircraft types in service in international civil air transport.

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Specifies dimensional, structural and environmental requirements for nets used to secure cargo on aircraft pallets meeting the requirements of ISO 4117 or ISO 4171. Establishes six basic sizes of pallet nets.

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Specifies functional, dimensional, structural and environmental requirements for the design of aircraft engine transport devices, used to transport aircraft engines in wide-body aircraft. These devices are intended to be used in conjunction with pallets compatible with ISO 8097 Class II restraint requirements. Specifies minimum air and ground handling features and is intended to ensure interchangeability and compatibility with present and future air transport and ground handling system.

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