Plastics — Vocabulary — Amendment 1: Additional items

Plastiques — Vocabulaire — Amendement 1: Termes supplémentaires

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Plastics — Vocabulary
AMENDMENT 1: Additional items
Plastiques — Vocabulaire
AMENDEMENT 1: Éléments
Kunststoffe — Fachwörterverzeichnis
ÄNDERUNG 1: Weitere Einträge
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ISO 472:2013/Amd.1:2018(E/F)
ISO 2018

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ISO 472:2013/Amd.1:2018(E/F)

© ISO 2018
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ISO 472:2013/Amd.1:2018(E/F)
ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards
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described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the
different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the
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This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61, Plastics, Subcommittee SC 1,
Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A
complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved/Tous droits réservés iii

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ISO 472:2013/Amd.1:2018(E/F)
Plastics — Vocabulary
AMENDMENT 1: Additional items
Clause 2
Delete terminological entries 2.193, 2.195, 2.263, 2.400, 2.964, 2.1197, 2.1216.
Clause 2, after 2.1265
Add the following Clause 3.
3 Terms and definitions — Additional items
entirety of all irreversible chemical and physical processes occurring in a material in the course of time
chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride)
poly(vinyl chloride) modified by the controlled chlorination of the polymer
compressive strength
maximum compressive stress sustained by the test specimen during a
compressive test
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in megapascals.
critical energy release rate
value of the energy release rate G in a precracked specimen under plane-
strain loading conditions, when the crack starts to grow
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in Joules per square metre, J/m .
critical stress intensity factor
value of the stress intensity factor when the crack under load actually starts
to enlarge under a plane-strain loading condition around the crack tip
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in pascals square root of metre, Pa√m.
Note 2 to entry: It is related to its critical energy release rate G by the formula:
G =
where E is the modulus of elasticity, determined under similar conditions of loading time (up to crack initiation)
and temperature.
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ISO 472:2013/Amd.1:2018(E/F)
In the case of plane-strain conditions:
E =
where E is the tensile modulus and μ is Poisson’s ratio.
dammar resin
resin obtained from species of Shorea, Hopea, and Balnocarpus
Note 1 to entry: Dammar resin is soluble in certain organic solvents and used as a tackifier and modifier of
pressure-sensitive adhesives.
degate, verb
to separate the sprue from the moulded part
degree of polymerization
average number of the monomeric units in a polymer
channel or orifice through which material is injected from the sprue
into a mould cavity
laminate, noun
product made by bonding together two or more layers of a material or materials
Poisson's ratio
negative ratio of the strain increment Δε , in one of the two axes normal to the direction of extension,
to the corresponding strain increment Δε in the direction of extension, within the linear portion of the
longitudinal versus normal strain curve
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed as a dimensionless ratio.
thermoplastic polymer produced by the polymerisation or copolymerisation of olefins
Note 1 to entry: Examples of olefins include ethylene, propylene.
pot life
maximum period of time during which a multi-part adhesive or resin can be used after mixing the
Note 1 to entry: The pot life varies with volume and temperature of the mixed adhesive and the ambient
temperature. The term "pot life" is also used for the application of hot-melt adhesives for the period for which an
adhesive, ready for use, remains usable when kept at normal operating temperature.
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ISO 472:2013/Amd.1:2018(E/F)
resin transfer moulding
closed-mould system for moulding of reinforced plastics that processes inject matrix resins in to the
mould in which reinforcement materials are preset
Note 1 to entry: The reinforcement materials include continuous strand, cloth, woven roving, long fibre and
chopped strand.
submarine gate
tunnel gate
injection channel situated mainly underneath the mating surface, so that the sprue is pulled off with
the ejection operation
unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride)
poly(vinyl chloride) without any plasticizer
Note 1 to entry: Ingredients added to poly(vinyl chloride), such as stabilizers, lubricants, etc., are not considered
as plasticizers in the usual technical sense.
volume resistivity
quotient obtained when the potential gradient is divided by the current density
Note 1 to entry: The volume resistivity of a material, in ohm centimetres, is equal to the volume resistance
-6 3
between opposite faces of a 1 × 10 m cube of the material.
different properties, such as Young’s modulus or strength, along with different directions
cavity pressure
pressure of the thermoplastic material in the cavity at any time during the moulding process, measured
centrally near the gate or the inner surface of the cavity
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in megapascals (MPa).
material which is of similar composition and construction to the test material, used for comparison and
exposed at the same time as the test material
electroformed mould
container with a cavity or cavities, made by electroplating metal on the reverse pattern of the cavity
family mould
container with a cavity or cavities, that contains more than one cavity which have different geometries
flat wise
perpendicular direction to original laminated sheet surface when referring to the cutting of the test
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ISO 472:2013/Amd.1:2018(E/F)
hand lay up
process of placing (and working) successive plies of reinforcing material or resin impregnated
reinforcement in position on a mould by hand
impregnate, verb
to soak reinforcements with a resin
interpenetrating polymer network
polymer comprising two or more networks which are at least partially interlaced on a molecular scale
but not covalently bonded to each other and cannot be separated unless chemical bonds are broken
Note 1 to entry: A mixture of two or more pre-formed polymer networks is not an IPN, they are polymer blends.
liquid crystalline polymer
polymer that can exhibit one or more fluid state(s) with long-range orientational order over a certain
range of temperatures (thermotropic liquid-crystalline polymer) or solution concentrations (lyotropic
liquid- crystalline polymer)
capability of a mixture to form a single phase
Note 1 to entry: Single phases exist over certain ranges of temperature, pressure and composition. Whether or
not a single phase exists depends on the chemical structure, molar mass distribution, and molecular architecture
of the components present.
polymerization in which the growth of polymer chains proceeds by condensation reactions between
molecules of all degrees of polymerization
polymer blend
macroscopically homogeneous mixture of two or more different species of polymer
Note 1 to entry: In most cases, blends are homogeneous on scales smaller than several times visual optical
Note 2 to entry: For polymer blends, no account is taken of the miscibility or immiscibility of the constituent
polymers, i.e., no assumption is made regarding the number of phases present.
Note 3 to entry: The use of the term polymer alloy for a polymer blend is discouraged.
polymer gel
polymer network, including a physical one, swollen or capable of being swollen in a liquid
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ISO 472:2013/Amd.1:2018(E/F)
semi-interpenetrating polymer network
polymer comprising one or more networks and one or more linear or branched polymer(s) characterized
by the penetration on a molecular scale of at least one of the networks by at least some of the linear or
branched macromolecules
Note 1 to entry: Semi-interpenetrating polymer networks are distinguished from interpenetrating polymer
networks because the constituent linear or branched polymers can, in principle, be separated from the
constituent polymer network(s) without breaking chemical bonds; they are polymer blends.
magnesia-alumina-silica glass, especially designed to provide high tensile strength glass filaments
ultimate anaerobic biodegradation
breakdown of an organic compound by microorganisms in the absence of oxygen to carbon dioxide,
methane and mineral salts of any other elements present (mineralization) plus new biomass
unidirectional laminate
reinforced plastics laminate in which substantially all of the fibres are oriented in the same direction
wet out
condition of an impregnated reinforcement wherein substantially all voids between the strands or
filaments are filled with resin
defin, verb
to remove fins from moulded resin
transfer moulding
process of moulding a thermosetting material by passage from a heated pot into the cavity of a closed,
heated mould
unsaturated polyester resin
thermosetting resin polycondensated from unsaturated acids and alcohols
material placed in the hopper
two or more immiscible polymers united, usually by another component, to form a polymeric
composition having enhanced performance properties
antistatic agent
substance added in small proportions to a material or applied to its surface to counteract the build-up
of an electrical charge on the material
chain length
total length of a chain molecule measured from atom to atom along the chain
Note 1 to entry: This term should not be used for the direct distance between the ends of the molecule.
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ISO 472:2013/Amd.1:2018(E/F)
comb chain
macromolecule consisting of a main chain from which, at regular intervals, linear chains, all of
comparable length, emanate
comb polymer
polymer, the molecules of which are comb chains (3.44)
constitutional repeating unit
smallest constitutional unit (3.47) the repetition of which describes a regular polymer
constitutional unit
species of atom or group of atoms present in a chain of a polymer or oligomer molecule
measure of the energy dissipated as heat by a material or a material system subjected to an
oscillatory load
Note 1 to entry: In the case of free oscillation, damping is the decrease with time of the amplitude of a system.
double-strand chain
macromolecule that can be described by constitutional units (3.47) joined so as to form an uninterrupted
sequence of rings through two atoms
double-strand polymer
polymer, the molecules of which are double-strand chains (3.49)
dynamic stress
stress resulting from forces the value and/or direction of which vary in the course of time
expandable plastic
plastic formulated in such a way that it can be transformed into a cellular plastic by thermal, chemical
or mechanical means
internal plasticizer
co-reactant which, when incorporated into a polymer, confers improved flexibility and resilience to
the polymer
Note 1 to entry: A flexibilizer gives an adhesive film a greater extension at break, a lower modulus and a lower
temperature at which it becomes brittle. A flexibilizer is not extractable and will not migrate from the adhesive film.
polyelectrolyte with very few ionic groups
isotactic polymer
regular polymer, the molecules of which can be described in terms of only one species of configurational
base unit (having chiral or prochiral atoms in the main chain) in a single sequential arrangement
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ISO 472:2013/Amd.1:2018(E/F)
ladder polymer
polymer that has a double-stranded main chain
long chain polymer
linear polymer or a linear portion of a polymer
main chain
linear portion of a macromolecule to which all other chains (long, short or both) may be regarded as
being pendant
Note 1 to entry: In the case of two or more chains equally could be considered to be the main chain, the one
selected leads to the simplest geometrical representation of the molecule.
plastic deformation
part of the strain in a stressed plastic which remains after the applied stress has been removed
plasticate, verb
render a thermoplastic compound more processable by means of mechanical working and/or heat
polymeric reaction product of polyols and polycarboxylic acids having the repeating linkage -CO-O-
Note 1 to entry: The resulting polyester can be saturated or unsaturated depending on the polycarboxylic acid used.
Note 2 to entry: Typical examples of polyester are poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) or poly(ethylene
terephthalate) (PET).
substance composed of molecules characterized by the multiple repetition of one or more constitutional
units (3.47) linked to each other in amounts sufficient to provide a set of properties that do not vary
markedly with the addition or removal of one or a few of the constitutional units
Note 1 to entry: The nature of these constitutional units, their sequence and the average number per molecule
influence the physical and mechanical properties of the polymer.
having properties similar to leather, essentially waterproof, but capable of transmitting water vapour
to some practical degree
reinforced plastic
plastic with materials embedded in the composition, resulting in properties superior to those of the
base resin
short-chain branch
oligomeric offshoot from a polymer chain
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ISO 472:2013/Amd.1:2018(E/F)
strain amplitude
ratio of the maximum deformation, measured from the mean deformation, to the free length of the
unstrained test specimen
Note 1 to entry: The strain amplitude is measured from zero to peak on one side only.
test atmosphere
atmosphere to which a test sample or test specimen is exposed throughout a test
property of a material which can absorb energy, generally implying relatively high elongation at break
and absence of brittleness
urea-formaldehyde resin
amino resin made by the polycondensation of urea (carbamide) with formaldehyde
radiant flux per unit area incident on a surface
Note 1 to entry: The irradiance is measured in watts per square metre.
global solar irradiance
solar radiant flux, both direct and diffuse, received on a horizontal plane unit area from a solid angle of
2π steradians
Note 1 to entry: The irradiance is measured in watts per square metre.
spectral irradiance
radiant flux per unit area per wavelength interval
Note 1 to entry: The irradiance is measured in watts per square metre per nanometer.
radiant exposure
time integral of irradiance
Note 1 to entry: The exposure is measured in joules per square metre.
diffuse solar radiation
total of the sky- and (if within the field of view) ground-reflected radiation within the 2π steradian field
of view of a plane surface, excluding the radiation from within the 5° to 6° solid angle centred on the
sun’s disc
Note 1 to entry: For incidence angle α, between the normal to the plane and the direct beam, diffuse hemispherical
radiation is determined by subtracting the component of the direct radiation in the plane [cos(α) times the direct
radiation] from the total hemispherical radiation.
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ISO 472:2013/Amd.1:2018(E/F)
direct radiation
direct solar radiation
direct beam radiation
solar irradiance included within a restricted solid angle (typically 5° to 6°) centred on the sun’s disc
Note 1 to entry: If the direct normal solar radiation is known, the direct radiation on a tilted plane can be
calculated by multiplying the direct normal solar radiation by the cosine of the angle defined by the normal to the
plane and a line from the foot of the normal to the centre of the sun’s disc.
direct normal solar radiation
direct solar radiation (3.75) incident on a plane normal (perpendicular) to the solar beam
Note 1 to entry: Direct normal solar radiation is measured with a pyrheliometer.
test specimen
specific portion of the material upon which the testing is to be performed
replicate specimen
identical piece of the test material being evaluated which is exposed, conditioned and tested at the
same time
conditioning atmosphere
constant atmosphere in which a test sample or test specimen is kept before being subjected to a test
Add the following list of references.
[13] ISO 294-4, Plastics — Injection moulding of test specimens of thermoplastic materials — Part 4:
Determination of moulding shrinkage
[14] ISO 527-1, Plastics — Determination of tensile properties — Part 1: General principles
[15] ISO 604, Plastics — Determination of compressive properties
[16] ISO 4582, Plastics — Determination of changes in colour and variations in properties after exposure
to daylight under glass, natural weathering or laboratory light sources
[17] ISO 6721-1, Plastics — Determination of dynamic mechanical properties — Part 1: General principles
[18] ISO 9370, Plastics — Instrumental determination of radiant exposure in weathering tests — General
guidance and basic test method
[19] ISO 14853, Plastics — Determination of the ultimate anaerobic biodegradation of plastic materials
in an aqueous system — Method by measurement of biogas production
[20] ISO 15985, Plastics — Determination of the ultimate anaerobic biodegradation under high-solids
anaerobic-digestion conditions — Method by analysis of released biogas
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ISO 472:2013/Amd.1:2018(E/F)
L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes
nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est
en général confiée aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude
a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,
gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux.
L'ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui
concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.
Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont
décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier, de prendre note des différents
critères d'approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été
rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www
.iso .org/directives).
L'attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de
droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable
de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant
les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de
l'élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l'Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de
brevets reçues par l'ISO (voir www .iso .org/brevets).
Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données
pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un
Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions
spécifiques de l'ISO liés à l'évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l'adhésion
de l'ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles
techniques au commerce (OTC), voir www .iso .org/avant -propos.
Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 61, Plastiques, sous-comité SC 1,
Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent
document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes
se trouve à l’adresse www .iso .org/fr/members .html.
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ISO 472:2013/Amd.1:2018(E/F)
Plastiques — Vocabulaire
AMENDEMENT 1: Termes supplémentaires
Article 2
Supprimer les articles terminologiques 2.193, 2.195, 2.263, 2.400, 2.964, 2.1197, 2.1216.
Article 2, après 2.1265
Ajouter l’Article 3 suivant.
3 Termes et définitions – Termes supplémentaires
ensemble de tous les processus chimiques et physiques irréversibles survenant dans un matériau au
cours du temps
poly(chlorure de vinyle) chloré
poly(chlorure de vinyle) modifié par chloration contrôlée du polymère
résistance à la compression
contrainte de compression maximale supportée par l’éprouvette pendant un
essai de compression
Note 1 à l'article: Elle est exprimée en mégapascals.
taux de restitution d’énergie critique
valeur du taux de restitution d’énergie G pour une éprouvette
préentaillée, dans des conditions de mise en charge induisant une déformation plane, lorsque la fissure
commence à se propager
Note 1 à l'article: Il est exprimé en joules par mètre carré, J/m .
facteur d’intensité de contrainte critique
valeur du facteur d’intensité de contrainte lorsque la fissure sous charge
commence réellement à s’agrandir dans des conditions de mise en charge induisant une déformation
plane autour de l’extrémité de la fissure
Note 1 à l'article: Il est exprimé en pascals racine carrée de mètres, Pa√m.
Note 2 à l'article: Il est lié au taux de restitution d’énergie critique G par la formule:
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ISO 472:2013/Amd.1:2018(E/F)
G =
où E est le module d’élasticité, déterminé dans des conditions de temps de charge (jusqu’à l’initiation de la fissure)
et de température similaires.
Dans des conditions de mise en charge induisant une déformation plane:
E =
où E est le module en traction et μ est le coefficient de Poisson.
résine dammar
résine obtenue à partir d’espèces de Shorea, Hopea et Balnocarpus
Note 1 à l'article: La résine dammar est soluble dans certains solvants organiques et est utilisée comme
épaississant et modificateur des adhésifs sensibles à la pression.
séparer la carotte de la pièce moulée
degré de polymérisation
nombre moyen d’unités monomères dans un polymère
canal ou orifice à travers lequel la matière est injectée depuis
la carotte jusque dans une cavité d’un moule
produit réalisé par collage d’au moins deux couches d’un ou plusieurs matériaux
coefficient de Poisson
rapport négatif de l’incrément de déformation Δε selon l’un des deux axes perpendiculaires à la
direction d’extension, sur l’incrément de déformation correspondant Δε dans la direction d’extension,
dans la partie linéaire de la courbe de déformation longitudinale en fonction de la déformation normale
Note 1 à l'article: Il est exprimé comme un rapport sans dimension.
polymère thermoplastique produit par polymérisation ou copolymérisation d’oléfines
Note 1 à l'article: Exemples d’oléfines: éthylène, propylène.
vie en pot
période maximale pendant laquelle un adhésif ou une résine constitué(e) de plusieurs éléments peut
être utilisé(e) après le mélange des composants
Note 1 à l'article: La vie en pot varie en fonction du volume et de la température de l’adhésif mélangé, et en
fonction de la température ambiante. Le terme « vie en pot » est également employé pour l’application d’adhésifs
thermofusibles pour désigner la période pendant laquelle un adhésif prêt à l’emploi reste utilisable lorsqu’il est
conservé à la température normale d’utilisation.
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ISO 472:2013/Amd.1:2018(E/F)
moulage par transfert de résine
système de moule fermé utilisé pour le moulage de matières plastiques renforcées, qui consiste à
injecter des résines de matrice dans le moule dans lequel les matériaux de renfort sont prédurcis
Note 1 à l'article: Les matériaux de renfort comprennent les fils continus, les tissus, les stratifils, les longues
fibres et les fils coupés.
entrée submergée
entrée en tunnel
canal d’injection situé principalement sous le plan de joint de façon que la carotte soit arrachée lors de
poly(chlorure de vinyle) non plastifié
poly(chlorure de vinyle) sans plastifiant
Note 1 à l'article: Les ingrédients ajoutés au poly(chlorure de vinyle), tels que les stabilisateurs, les lubrifiants,
etc., ne sont pas considérés comme des plastifiants au sens technique usuel.
résistivité transversale
quotient obtenu lorsque le gradient de potentiel est divisé par la densité de courant
Note 1 à l'article: La résistivité transversale d’un matériau, en ohms centimètres, est égale à la résistance
−6 3
transversale en

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