Guidelines for a procedure to support the European standardization of cements

This CEN Technical Report provides guidance for the procedure to be followed in order to support the European standardization of new cements that are not covered by an existing European Standard.
The term 'new cement' has been used in this document to describe its primary focus, however, this same guideline procedure may be used for other products to be standardized by CEN/TC 51.

Leitlinien für ein Verfahren zur Unterstützung der europäischen Normung von Zement

Directrices générales pour l’obtention du soutien de la standardisation européenne des ciments

Le présent Rapport technique du CEN fournit des lignes directrices concernant la procédure à suivre pour appuyer la normalisation européenne de nouveaux ciments qui ne sont pas couverts par une Norme européenne existante.
Le terme « nouveau ciment » a été utilisé dans le présent document pour décrire son objectif premier ; toutefois, la même procédure recommandée peut être utilisée pour d'autres produits devant être normalisés par le CEN/TC 51.

Smernice za postopek podpore evropski standardizaciji cementov

To tehnično poročilo CEN podaja napotke za postopek, ki se uporabi kot podpora evropski standardizaciji cementov, ki niso zajeti v obstoječih evropskih standardih.
V tem dokumentu je uporabljen izraz »novi cementi« za opis njegovega osnovnega cilja, toda isti usmeritveni postopek se lahko uporabi za druge izdelke, ki jih standardizira CEN/TC 51.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
29-Sep-2015
Publication Date
13-Sep-2016
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
02-Jun-2016
Due Date
07-Aug-2016
Completion Date
14-Sep-2016

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16912:2016
01-oktober-2016
Smernice za postopek podpore evropski standardizaciji cementov
Guidelines for a procedure to support the European standardization of cements

Leitlinien für ein Verfahren zur Unterstützung der europäischen Normung von Zement

Directrices générales pour l’obtention du soutien de la standardisation européenne des

ciments
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 16912:2016
ICS:
01.120 Standardizacija. Splošna Standardization. General
pravila rules
91.100.10 Cement. Mavec. Apno. Malta Cement. Gypsum. Lime.
Mortar
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16912:2016 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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CEN/TR 16912
TECHNICAL REPORT
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
May 2016
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
ICS 91.100.10
English Version
Guidelines for a procedure to support the European
standardization of cements

Directrices générales pour l'obtention du soutien de la Leitlinien für ein Verfahren zur Unterstützung der

standardisation européenne des ciments europäischen Normung von Zement

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 24 May 2016. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 51.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 16912:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Procedure of application and standardization of a new cement ................................................... 5

4.1 General information on standardization processes ........................................................................... 5

4.2 Classification of new cements ..................................................................................................................... 5

4.3 General criteria for the assessment of new cements ......................................................................... 6

4.4 Application for the standardization of a new cement ........................................................................ 6

4.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.4.2 The dossier and its contents ....................................................................................................................... 7

4.5 Evaluation and decision by CEN/TC 51 ................................................................................................... 7

5 Assessment of fitness for use ...................................................................................................................... 8

5.1 Meaning of “fitness for use” ......................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Elements of the assessment of fitness for use ....................................................................................... 8

5.3 Characteristics of the new cement which are relevant to its fitness for use ............................. 8

5.4 Methods for the assessment and verification of the relevant product characteristics ...... 11

5.4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11

5.4.2 Constituents and composition of the cement ..................................................................................... 11

5.4.3 Durability aspects ........................................................................................................................................ 12

5.4.4 Environmental aspects ............................................................................................................................... 13

5.4.5 Possible health impact ............................................................................................................................... 14

6 Patents and other intellectual property rights (IPR) relevant for the standardization

of the new cement ........................................................................................................................................ 15

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 16

Tables

Table 1 — Categorization of new cements and the corresponding requirements ................................................ 6

Table 2 — Product characteristics of a new cement that may be relevant to its fitness for use ..................... 9

Table 3 — Characterization of constituents ....................................................................................................................... 12

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European foreword

This document (CEN/TR 16912:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 51 “Cement

and building limes”, the secretariat of which is held by NBN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

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Introduction

The willingness to improve construction products leads to the optimization of existing cements as well

as to the development of new binders. Improvement may concern in particular the performance of the

products, the reduction of production costs or the lowering of the environmental impact. With regards

to the environment, a fundamental policy objective of the European Union is to encourage/incentivise a

reduction in CO emissions within a framework of sustainable development. Cement manufacturers are

reducing their specific CO emissions e.g. by the production of cements with a lower clinker content. At

the same time, the expectations of contractors, ready-mixed concrete producers and precast concrete

manufacturers should also be met by maintaining high levels of performance in cements and in the

durability of concrete.

Existing cement standards, in particular EN 197-1, allow manufacturers to select cement compositions

with low clinker content, i.e. CEM III/B and C, CEM IV/B, CEM V. However, these cements are often used

for their good resistance to chemically aggressive environments but do not necessarily achieve, in

concrete, the early age strength required where formwork is to be removed at less than 24 h.

Maintaining performance, in particular early strength and durability related characteristics, while

reducing specific CO emissions by the development of new types of cement is expected to be one of the

main challenges of the coming years.

When considering such new cements intended to be used to produce structural concrete the question

arises whether these products should be covered by European Standards or by European Technical

Assessments (ETAs). For an answer, the various EU policy documents referenced in the bibliography

should be considered, in particular the “Council Conclusions on standardization and innovation

(Brussels, 25 September 2008)” [7] which highlight “the essential contribution which standardization

can make towards developing innovation and competitiveness, by facilitating access to markets,

enabling interoperability between new and existing products, services and processes, enhancing

protection of users, giving consumers confidence in innovations and disseminating research results”.

CEN and CENELEC have responded to all the EU initiatives and adopted, in October 2008, an integrated

approach titled “Standardization Innovation and Research (STAIR)”. From this common approach of the

EU and CEN, it is clear that European standardization may cover innovation.

An application to standardize a new cement should be submitted to the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 51 based on a dossier introduced by the applicant who may, according to CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations – Part 2:2015 [14], be a national standardization body (CEN Member), a CEN

Technical Committee, the EU or EFTA Secretariat, an international organization or an European trade,

professional, technical or scientific organization. It is essential that all applicants are aware in advance

of the information they should provide to CEN/TC 51 in the dossier in order to demonstrate the fitness

for intended use of the new cement. For this purpose, CEN/TC 51 has prepared this CEN Technical

Report.
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1 Scope

This CEN Technical Report provides guidance for the procedure to be followed in order to support the

European standardization of new cements that are not covered by an existing European Standard.

The term “new cement” has been used in this document to describe its primary focus; however, this

same guideline procedure may be used for other products to be standardized by CEN/TC 51.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 197-1, Cement — Part 1: Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements

EN 197-2, Cement — Part 2: Conformity evaluation
EN 206, Concrete — Specification, performance, production and conformity
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 197-1, EN 197-2 and EN 206

apply.
4 Procedure of application and standardization of a new cement
4.1 General information on standardization processes
For general information on the process of European product standardization, see
http://boss.cen.eu/Pages/default.aspx.
4.2 Classification of new cements

The procedure to be followed in order to support the European standardization of a new cement

depends on the type of the cement, i.e. on the question whether the new cement is similar to cements

that already have been standardized by CEN/TC 51. Following this principle, new cements can be

classified in the following three categories:

1) Category 1: cement from a new combination of traditional and well-tried constituents;

2) Category 2: cement basically corresponding to cement types defined in existing standards but

containing one or more new constituents;

3) Category 3: cement differing substantially from those types defined in existing standards, e.g.

produced with a new kind of clinker or based on different physicochemical phases/principles.

Cement of category 2 should be similar to common cements, i.e. its hydration should be based on the

formation of calcium silicate hydrates (CSH).
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4.3 General criteria for the assessment of new cements

The general requirements for assessing new cements differ depending on their classification according

to 4.2; these requirements should be fulfilled before CEN/TC 51 considers the possibility of European

standardization of a new cement:

— for cements of category 1, the mechanical, physical and chemical performances listed in 5.3 as well

as durability related characteristics described in 5.4.3 should be assessed, taking into account the

intended use of the cement.

— for cements of category 2, in addition to the requirements for cement of category 1, the potential

environmental and health impacts of end-use construction products that incorporate the cement

should be assessed as described in 5.4.4 and 5.4.5, respectively.

— for cements of category 3, in addition to the requirements for cement of category 2, also relevant

practical experience should be gained under conditions approved by CEN/TC 51, e.g. through an

ETA or another comparable procedure, for assessing the fitness for the intended use prior to

identifying the general criteria, amongst other things, for the possibility of European

standardization.

The categorization of new cements and the corresponding requirements are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1 — Categorization of new cements and the corresponding requirements
Category 1 Category 2 Category 3
Cement from a new Cement containing a minor Cement differing substantially

combination of constituents amount of one or more new from those types defined in

according to EN 197–1 constituents existing standards
Assessment of
mechanical, physical and chemical performances
Assessment of
durability related characteristics
Assessment of influence on
environmental performance
Assessment of
possible health impact
Relevant practical experience
gained under approved
conditions prior to
European standardization
4.4 Application for the standardization of a new cement
4.4.1 General

An application for the standardization of a new cement should be presented to CEN/TC 51 for approval

using, as the basis of, the CEN form for a New Work Item (NWI) proposal (see

http://boss.cen.eu/Pages/default.aspx) and a dossier (4.4.2). The dossier may be submitted with the

application where considered by the applicant to be complete, alternatively initial proposals for testing

procedures etc. may accompany the application (see 4.4.2).
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4.4.2 The dossier and its contents

The dossier should provide the necessary information, especially to demonstrate the fitness for

intended use of the new cement, i.e. in particular the following:
— definition and, where applicable, name and/or brand name of the product;

— intended use of the product including assumed working life of construction products made using

the product;
— specific terms used for the product;

— information on patents and other intellectual property rights (IPR) that may be relevant for the

standardization of the new cement;
— proposal concerning the categorization of the new cement according to 4.2;

— constituents of the product, for new constituents appropriate criteria for their characterization;

— description of the manufacturing process;
— packaging, transport and storage of the product;

— methods for the identification and testing of the product and its constituents, i.e. applicable testing

standards and/or other test methods including equipment necessary for the testing laboratories;

— name and qualifying criteria for the competence of laboratories assigned to carry out the tests;

— results of tests carried out;

— proposal concerning the system for assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVCP

system) and the conformity criteria for the new cement.

The applicant is free to introduce – as a first step – the description of the product together with a

proposal for the testing procedures (including all relevant testing conditions, see provisions given in

5.4) and for the laboratories (including qualification) designated to be assigned with the tests. This is

recommended in particular for the testing of durability related characteristics. After approval of the

proposal, the risk is lower that testing results are not accepted afterwards by CEN/TC 51.

Testing should be undertaken by competent laboratories. As a rule, the laboratories involved in the

testing procedures should be accredited according to EN ISO/IEC 17025 for all testing methods to be

used. If this is not or not completely possible, it is strongly recommended that the laboratories involved

in the testing are approved by CEN/TC 51 on the basis of the information on the competence of the

laboratory to be supplied by the applicant before undertaking the testing.
4.5 Evaluation and decision by CEN/TC 51

The evaluation of an application, and the dossier submitted by the applicant, and any decision to begin

the standardization process for a new cement, are in the sole responsibility of CEN/TC 51.

The discussion and evaluation of the dossier will always be on a case-by-case basis. In this regard,

distinction should be made between cements for normal structural application in construction and

cements designed and produced intentionally for a specific use.

CEN/TC 51 may task one or more of its Working Groups and/or ask other CEN Technical Committees to

contribute to the discussion and to the evaluation process.
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The following aspects will be considered by CEN/TC 51 during the evaluation process:

— classification of the new cement according to 4.2 and its intended use;
— characteristics of the new cement which are relevant to its fitness for use;

— methods for the verification and assessment of the relevant product characteristics, i.e. test

procedures proposed in the dossier to demonstrate the fitness for the intended use of the new

cement;
— qualification of the testing laboratory/laboratories;
— test results;

— AVCP system and associated rules for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance

of the new cement proposed in the dossier.
5 Assessment of fitness for use
5.1 Meaning of “fitness for use”

“Fitness for (the intended) use” of a construction product means that the product has such

characteristics that the works in which it is to be incorporated can, if properly designed and built,

— satisfy the basic requirements for construction works when and where such works are subject to

regulations containing such requirements and

— be fit for their intended use, account being taken of economy and in this connection satisfy the basic

requirements for construction works for an economically reasonable working life, if normally

maintained.

Therefore, it is necessary that the intended use of the new cement be clearly defined in the dossier.

5.2 Elements of the assessment of fitness for use

The assessment of the fitness of a new cement for its intended use should include the following:

— the identification of the characteristics of the new cement which are relevant to its fitness for use;

— the establishment of methods for the verification and assessment of the relevant product

characteristics and the expression of the respective product performances;
— the demonstration of practical experiences for cement of category 3.
5.3 Characteristics of the new cement which are relevant to its fitness for use

The product characteristics given in Table 2 may be relevant to the fitness for use of the new cement.

It should be stated and explained in detail in the dossier which of the characteristics are relevant and

which are not, taking into account the intended use and the classification of the cement in a category

according to 4.2. If other product characteristics not listed in Table 2 are relevant to the fitness for use

of the new cement, this should in addition be stated and explained in the dossier.

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Table 2 — Product characteristics of a new cement that may be relevant to its fitness for use

Mentioned in
Product harmonized
Test references Notes
characteristics European Standards
Constituents and EN 197–1, See 5.4.2
composition EN 413–1,
EN 459–1, EN 13282–
2, EN 14216,
EN 14647, EN 15368,
EN 15743
Compressive strength EN 197–1, EN 196–1 Requirements expressed in terms of
(early) EN 413–1, strength classes and limits
EN 459–1, EN 13282–
1, EN 13282–2,
EN 14216, EN 14647,
EN 15743
Compressive strength EN 197–1, EN 196–1 Requirements expressed in terms of
(standard) EN 413–1, strength classes and limits
EN 459–1, EN 13282–
1, EN 13282–2,
EN 14216, EN 15368,
EN 15743
Initial setting time EN 197–1, EN 196–3 Requirements expressed in terms of
EN 413–1, or lower limits
EN 459–1, EN 13282– EN 413–2
1, EN 13282–2,
EN 14216, EN 14647,
EN 15368,
EN 15743
Final setting time EN 413–1, EN 196–3 Requirements expressed in terms of
EN 459–1 or upper limits
EN 413–2
Soundness (expansion) EN 197–1, EN 196–3 Requirements expressed in terms of
EN 413–1, or upper limits
EN 459–1, EN 13282– EN 459–2
1, EN 13282–2,
EN 14216, EN 15368,
EN 15743
Penetration depth of EN 459–1 EN 459–2 Requirement expressed in terms of limits
fresh mortar
Air content of fresh EN 413–1, EN 413–2 Requirement expressed in terms of upper
mortar EN 459–1, EN 15368, or limits
EN 459–2

Water retention of fresh EN 413–1, EN 15368, EN 413–2 Requirements expressed in terms of

mortar lower limits
Colour EN 12878
Density EN 196–6
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Mentioned in
Product
harmonized
Test references Notes
characteristics European Standards
Fineness EN 413–1, EN 196–6 Requirement expressed in terms of upper
EN 459–1, EN 13282– or limits
1, EN 13282–2, EN 459–2
EN 15368, or
ISO 9277

Particle size distribution EN 459–1, EN 459–2 Requirement expressed in terms of limits

Heat of hydration EN 197–1, EN 14216, EN 196–8 Requirements expressed in terms of

EN 15743 or upper limits
EN 196–9
SO content EN 197–1, EN 196–2 Requirements expressed in terms of
EN 413–1, or upper limits
EN 459–1, EN 13282– EN 459–2
1, EN 13282–2,
EN 14216, EN 14647,
EN 15368,
EN 15743

Insoluble residue EN 197–1, EN 14216, EN 196–2 Requirements expressed in terms of

EN 15743 upper limits

Loss on ignition EN 197–1, EN 14216, EN 196–2 Requirements expressed in terms of

EN 15743 upper limits
Chloride content EN 197–1, EN 196–2 Requirements expressed in terms of
EN 413–1, EN 14216, upper limits
EN 14647,
EN 15743
Sulphide content EN 14647 EN 196–2 Requirements expressed in terms of
upper limits
Alkali content EN 14647 EN 196–2 Requirements expressed in terms of
upper limits
Alumina content EN 14647 EN 196–2 Requirement expressed in terms of limits
C A in clinker EN 197–1 EN 196–2 Requirements expressed in terms of
upper limits
Free calcium oxide EN 451–1
(CaO)
Reactive calcium oxide EN 196–2
Reactive silicon dioxide EN 196–2
Water-soluble EN 196–10 See Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 [11]
chromium (VI) of the European Parliament and of the
Council (“REACH”), Annex XVII, entry 47
Total organic carbon EN 13639
(TOC)
Total carbon (TC) EN 13639
Pozzolanicity EN 197–1, EN 196–5 Requirements expressed in terms of
EN 14216 limits
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Mentioned in
Product
harmonized
Test references Notes
characteristics European Standards
Available lime EN 459–1 EN 459–2 Requirement expressed in terms of lower
limits
Reactivity of unslaked EN 459–1 EN 459–2 Requirement expressed in terms of upper
lime limits
Durability EN 197–1, See 5.4.3
EN 413–1,
EN 459–1, EN 13282–
1, EN 13282–2,
EN 14216, EN 14647,
EN 15368,
EN 15743
Release of dangerous EN 197–1, EN 13282– See 5.4.4
substances 1, EN 13282–2,
EN 14216,
EN 15743
Possible health impact See 5.4.5

Only harmonized European Standards prepared by CEN/TC 51 are listed in this column.

The test method for the determination of C3A content of clinker from an analysis of the final cement is under development

in CEN/TC 51. Until the test method is finalised the C A content of clinker should be determined on the basis of the

analysis of clinker as part of the manufacturer's Factory Production Control.

5.4 Methods for the assessment and verification of the relevant product characteristics

5.4.1 General

All product characteristics of the new cement relevant to its fitness for use should be verified by

competent laboratories. The samples should be taken and prepared according to EN 196-7. As a rule,

the methods given as “Test references” in Table 2 should be used. It is important that this include the

basic conditions specified for the test procedures, e.g. pre-treatment, storage, curing conditions,

temperature etc. However, due to the product characteristics of the cement or its constituents or its

intended use, it may be necessary to modify test methods or to use other test methods. In these cases,

the reasons for modification or for substitution of the test methods should be stated in the dossier.

The assessment of the product characteristics “Constituents and composition”, “Durability”, “Release of

dangerous substances” and “Possible health impact” is described in more detail in 5.4.2, 5.4.3, 5.4.4 and

5.4.5.
5.4.2 Constituents and composition of the cement

The composition of the new cement, i.e. the composition limits of all cement constituents, and the

characteristics of its constituents should be stated in the dossier particularly with regard to the

categorization of the new cement (see 4.2 and 4.3).

The fulfilment of the stated composition limits of the new cement should be demonstrated by

quantitative determination of the constituents according to CEN/TR 196-4 or by quantitative phase

analysis by means of X-ray diffraction or by other suitable methods. The choice of the method(s) for the

quantitative analysis should be described and justified in the dossier.

The fulfilment of the requirements on “main constituents” according to EN 197-1 should be

demonstrated for these cement constituents, following the provisions given in EN 197-1.

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New constituents, i.e. constituents not listed as cement constituent in EN 197-1, should be characterized

and described in detail. As a rule, for each new constituent the characteristics given in Table 3 should be

described by use of the methods also given in Table 3. However, if the determination of one or more

characteristics of the new constituent(s) as given in Table 3 is not necessary or if the methods given are

not considered suitable and need to be modified or replaced by other methods, this should be stated

and explained in detail in the dossier. If further characteristics of the new constituent(s) are relevant to

their applicability or to the fitness for use of the new cement, they should be stated and explained in the

dossier, and the respective tests should be carried out by competent laboratories.

Table 3 — Characterization of constituents
Product characteristics Test reference
Loss on ignition EN 196–2
CO and H O content EN 196–2
2 2
Main elements (SiO , Al O , TiO , Fe O , Mn O , EN 196–2
2 2 3 2 2 3 2 3
P O , CaO, MgO, Na O, K O)
2 5 2 2
Sulfate content (SO ) EN 196–2
Sulphide content (S ) EN 196–2
Chloride content (Cl ) EN 196–2
Free calcium oxide (CaO) EN 451–1
Insoluble residue EN 196–2
Reactive calcium oxide (CaO) EN 196–2
Reactive silicon dioxide (SiO ) EN 196–2
Elemental silicon (Si) ISO 9286
Clay content EN 933–9
Quantitative phase analysis X-ray diffraction
Glassy material content Polarized light microscopy
X-ray diffraction
Minor and trace elements CEN/TR 16045
Total organic carbon content (TOC) EN 13639
Total carbon content (TC) EN 13639
Density EN 196–6
Fineness EN 196–6 or ISO 9277
Colour EN 12878
5.4.3 Durability aspects

Durability relates to the concrete, mortar, grout and other construction products made from cement

according to the application rules valid in the place of use with regard to the intended use of the cement.

However, for the purpose of the standardization of a new cement, mortar and/or concrete tests should

be performed in each case to assess the influence of the new cement on durability.

As a rule, the influence of the new cement on the following durability related characteristics of

concrete/mortar should be determined:
— long-term stability;
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