Evaluation of human exposure to electromagnetic fields from short range devices (SRDs) in various applications over the frequency range 0 GHz to 300 GHz -- Part 1: Fields produced by devices used for electronic article surveillance, radio frequency identification and similar systems

This part of IEC 62369 presents procedures for the evaluation of human exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from devices used in electronic article surveillance (EAS), radio frequency identification (RFID) and similar applications. It adopts a staged approach to facilitate compliance assessment. The first stage (Stage 1) is a simple measurement against the appropriate derived reference values. Stage 2 is a more complex series of measurements or calculations, coupled with analysis techniques. Stage 3 requires detailed modelling and analysis for comparison with the basic restrictions. When assessing any device, the most appropriate method for the exposure situation may be used. At the time of writing this International Standard, electronic article surveillance, radio frequency identification and similar systems do not normally operate at frequencies below 1 Hz or above 10 GHz. EMF exposure guidelines and standards can cover a wider range of frequencies, so clarification on the required range is included as part of the evaluation procedures. The devices covered by this document normally have non-uniform field patterns. Often these devices have a very rapid reduction of field strength with distance and operate under nearfield conditions where the relationship between electric and magnetic fields is not constant. This, together with typical exposure conditions for different device types, is detailed in Annex A. Annex B contains comprehensive information to assist with numerical modelling of the exposure situation. It includes both homogeneous and anatomical models as well as the electrical properties of tissue.

Ermittlung der Exposition von Personen gegenüber elektromagnetischen Feldern im Frequenzbereich 0 Hz bis 300 GHz durch Geräte mit kurzer Reichweite für verschiedene Anwendungen -- Teil 1: Felder, die durch Geräte erzeugt werden, die zur elektronischen Artikelüberwachung, Hochfrequenz-Identifizierung und für ähnliche Anwendungen verwendet werden

Evaluation de l'exposition humaine aux champs électromagnétiques produits par les dispositifs radio à courte portée dans la plage de fréquence 0 GHz à 300 GHz -- Partie 1: Champs produits par les dispositifs utilisés pour la surveillance électronique des objets, l'identification par radiofréquence et les systèmes similaires

La CEI 62369-1:2008 présente des procédures d'évaluation de l'exposition humaine aux champs électromagnétiques (EMF) produits par les appareils utilisés dans les dispositifs de détection électronique d'objets (EAS), d'identification radio fréquence (RFID) et dans les applications similaires. Elle adopte une approche par étapes pour faciliter l'évaluation de conformité. La première étape (étape 1) est une simple mesure comparée aux valeurs de référence déduites appropriées. L'étape 2 est une série de mesures ou de calculs plus complexes, couplés aux techniques d'analyse. L'étape 3 exige une modélisation et une analyse détaillées pour la comparaison aux restrictions de base. Lors de l'évaluation de tout dispositif, la méthode la plus appropriée à la situation d'exposition peut être mise en oeuvre. Au moment de la rédaction de la présente norme internationale, les matériels électroniques de surveillance, d'identification par radio fréquence et autres systèmes similaires ne mettent pas en uvre des fréquences inférieures à 1 Hz ou supérieures à 10 GHz. Les recommandations et les normes relatives à l'exposition aux champs EM peuvent couvrir une étendue de fréquence plus large, aussi une identification claire de l'étendue requise fait partie des procédures d'évaluation. Les dispositifs couverts par ce document produisent normalement des champs non uniformes. Souvent l'intensité des champs produits par ces dispositifs diminue très rapidement en fonction de la distance. Ces produits fonctionnent dans des conditions de champ proche où le rapport entre champs électriques et magnétiques n'est pas constant. Ceci, ainsi que les conditions d'exposition typique pour différents types de dispositifs, est détaillé à l'Annexe A. L'Annexe B contient des informations détaillées pouvant aider à appréhender la situation d'exposition avec des modèles numériques. Elles incluent les modèles homogènes et les modèles anatomiques ainsi que les propriétés électriques des tissus. La CEI 62369-1:2008 ne donne pas de limites. Des limites peuvent être obtenues dans des recommandations relatives à l'exposition de l'homme publiées séparément. Différentes recommandations et valeurs limites peuvent s'appliquer dans différentes régions. Sont usuellement en relation avec les recommandations, les méthodes de sommations sur des grandes étendues de fréquence et pour des expositions à des sources multiples. Celles-ci doivent être utilisées. Une méthode simplifiée pour la sommation de sources multiples est donnée en Annexe C. Du fait qu'elle est simplificatrice et qu'elle surestime l'exposition, cette méthode a été utilisée avec précautions; cependant elle est un guide pratique quand les résultats d'évaluations différentes sont exprimés en diverses unités de mesure qui ne sont pas compatibles. Les recommandations pour traiter les incertitudes de l'évaluation peuvent différer entre les pays et régions. L'Annexe D apporte des informations sur les deux méthodes les plus communes.

Vrednotenje izpostavljenosti ljudi elektromagnetnim sevanjem kratkega dosega (SRD) na različnih področjih uporabe v frekvenčnem območju od 0 GHz do 300 GHz - 1. del: Sevanja naprav, ki se uporabljajo za elektronski nadzor blaga, radiofrekvenčno razpoznavanje in podobne sisteme (IEC 62369-1:2008)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
18-Aug-2009
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
14-Jul-2009
Due Date
18-Sep-2009
Completion Date
19-Aug-2009

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 62369-1:2009
01-september-2009
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SIST EN 50357:2002
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65' QDUD]OLþQLKSRGURþMLKXSRUDEHYIUHNYHQþQHPREPRþMXRG*+]GR
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Evaluation of human exposure to electromagnetic fields from short range devices (SRDs)

in various applications over the frequency range 0 GHz to 300 GHz -- Part 1: Fields

produced by devices used for electronic article surveillance, radio frequency identification

and similar systems
Ermittlung der Exposition von Personen gegenüber elektromagnetischen Feldern im

Frequenzbereich 0 Hz bis 300 GHz durch Geräte mit kurzer Reichweite für verschiedene

Anwendungen -- Teil 1: Felder, die durch Geräte erzeugt werden, die zur elektronischen

Artikelüberwachung, Hochfrequenz-Identifizierung und für ähnliche Anwendungen
verwendet werden

Evaluation de l'exposition humaine aux champs électromagnétiques produits par les

dispositifs radio à courte portée dans la plage de fréquence 0 GHz à 300 GHz -- Partie 1:

Champs produits par les dispositifs utilisés pour la surveillance électronique des objets,

l'identification par radiofréquence et les systèmes similaires
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 62369-1:2009
ICS:
13.280 Varstvo pred sevanjem Radiation protection
SIST EN 62369-1:2009 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 62369-1:2009
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 62369-1:2009
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 62369-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
March 2009
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 33.050 Supersedes EN 50357:2001
English version
Evaluation of human exposure to electromagnetic fields
from short range devices (SRDs) in various applications
over the frequency range 0 GHz to 300 GHz -
Part 1: Fields produced by devices used for electronic article surveillance,
radio frequency identification and similar systems
(IEC 62369-1:2008)
Evaluation de l'exposition humaine Ermittlung der Exposition
aux champs électromagnétiques von Personen gegenüber
produits par les dispositifs radio elektromagnetischen Feldern
à courte portée dans la plage im Frequenzbereich 0 GHz bis 300 GHz
de fréquence 0 GHz à 300 GHz - durch Geräte mit kurzer Reichweite
Partie 1: Champs produits für verschiedene Anwendungen -
par les dispositifs utilisés pour Teil 1: Felder, die durch Geräte erzeugt
la surveillance électronique des objets, werden, die zur elektronischen
l'identification par radiofréquence Artikelüberwachung,
et les systèmes similaires Hochfrequenz-Identifizierung und für
(CEI 62369-1:2008) ähnliche Anwendungen verwendet werden
(IEC 62369-1:2008)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2009-03-01. CENELEC members are bound to comply

with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard

the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified

to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the

Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Central Secretariat: avenue Marnix 17, B - 1000 Brussels

© 2009 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 62369-1:2009 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 62369-1:2009
EN 62369-1:2009 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of the International Standard IEC 62369-1:2008, prepared by IEC TC 106, Methods for the

assessment of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with human exposure, was

submitted to the Unique Acceptance Procedure and was approved by CENELEC as EN 62369-1 on

2009-03-01 without any modification.
This European Standard supersedes EN 50357:2001.
The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2010-03-01
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
with the EN have to be withdrawn (dow) 2012-03-01
__________
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 62369-1:2008 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 61566 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61566:1997 (not modified).
IEC 62209-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62209-1:2006 (not modified).
IEC 62311 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62311:2008 (modified).
ISO/IEC 17025 NOTE Harmonized as EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 (not modified).
__________
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 62369-1:2009
IEC 62369-1
Edition 1.0 2008-08
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Evaluation of human exposure to electromagnetic fields from short range
devices (SRDs) in various applications over the frequency range 0 GHz
to 300 GHz –
Part 1: Fields produced by devices used for electronic article surveillance,
radio frequency identification and similar systems
Evaluation de l'exposition humaine aux champs électromagnétiques produits
par les dispositifs radio à courte portée dans la plage de fréquence 0 GHz
à 300 GHz –
Partie 1: Champs produits par les dispositifs utilisés pour la surveillance
électronique des objets, l'identification par radiofréquence et les systèmes
similaires
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX
ICS 33.050 ISBN 2-8318-9969-9
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 62369-1:2009
– 2 – 62369-1 © IEC:2008
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................5

INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................7

1 Scope...............................................................................................................................8

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................9

3 Terms, definitions, and abbreviations ...............................................................................9

3.1 Quantities................................................................................................................9

3.2 Constants................................................................................................................9

3.3 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................10

4 Measurements and calculations for equipment evaluation ..............................................15

4.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................15

4.2 Evaluation against reference values ......................................................................16

4.2.1 General .....................................................................................................16

4.2.2 Direct measurement for comparison against reference values ...................16

4.2.3 Spatial measurements for comparison against reference values ................17

4.2.4 Modelling and analysis including field non-uniformity.................................17

4.3 Specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements.......................................................24

4.3.1 General .....................................................................................................24

4.3.2 Internal electric field strength measurements.............................................24

4.3.3 Internal temperature measurements ..........................................................25

4.3.4 Calorimetric measurements of heat transfer ..............................................26

4.3.5 Phantom models and fluid .........................................................................26

4.4 Numerical evaluations for comparison against basic restrictions............................26

4.4.1 General .....................................................................................................26

4.4.2 Evaluations using homogeneous models ...................................................26

4.4.3 Special case of inductive near-field exposure 100 kHz to 50 MHz..............28

4.4.4 Frequencies > 50 MHz...............................................................................29

4.4.5 Localised SAR (100 kHz to 10 GHz) ..........................................................29

4.5 Evaluations using non-homogeneous models for comparison against basic

restrictions ............................................................................................................30

4.5.1 General .....................................................................................................30

4.5.2 Anatomical body models............................................................................30

4.5.3 Calculation/modelling method....................................................................31

4.5.4 Position of the body in relation to the unit under evaluation .......................31

4.6 Measurement of limb and touch currents ...............................................................31

5 Measurements for field monitoring..................................................................................32

5.1 General .................................................................................................................32

5.2 Field measurements ..............................................................................................32

5.2.1 Measurement where persons spend significant periods of time..................32

5.2.2 Detailed measurements for non-transitory exposure ..................................32

5.3 Additional evaluation .............................................................................................32

6 Exposure from sources with multiple frequencies or complex waveforms........................33

7 Exposure from multiple sources......................................................................................33

8 Uncertainty.....................................................................................................................34

8.1 General .................................................................................................................34

8.2 Evaluating uncertainties ........................................................................................34

8.2.1 Individual uncertainties..............................................................................34

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 62369-1:2009
62369-1 © IEC:2008 – 3 –

8.2.2 Combining uncertainties ............................................................................35

8.3 Examples of typical uncertainty components .........................................................35

8.3.1 Measurement.............................................................................................35

8.3.2 Numerical calculation ................................................................................35

8.4 Overall uncertainties .............................................................................................35

9 Evaluation report ............................................................................................................35

Annex A (informative) Characteristics of equipment .............................................................37

Annex B (informative) Information for numerical modelling...................................................47

Annex C (informative) A simplified method for summation of multiple sources .....................67

Annex D (informative) Uncertainty .......................................................................................70

Bibliography..........................................................................................................................71

Figure 1 – General torso grid ................................................................................................19

Figure 2 – General head grid ................................................................................................19

Figure 3 – Single floor standing antenna...............................................................................20

Figure 4 – Dual floor standing antenna .................................................................................20

Figure 5 – Single floor antenna .............................................................................................21

Figure 6 – Single ceiling antenna..........................................................................................21

Figure 7 – Combined floor and ceiling antennas....................................................................22

Figure 8 – “Walk-through” loop antenna ................................................................................22

Figure 9 – Counter or desk mounted antenna .......................................................................23

Figure 10 – Vertical, wall or frame mounted antenna.............................................................23

Figure 11 – Hand-held antenna.............................................................................................24

Figure 12 – Disk model .........................................................................................................28

Figure 13 – Cubic model .......................................................................................................28

Figure 14 – Spheroid model ..................................................................................................28

Figure A.1 – Example of exit mounted equipment showing detection range...........................40

Figure A.2 – Example of aisle mounted equipment................................................................40

Figure A.3 – Inductive coupling.............................................................................................42

Figure A.4 – Electromagnetic coupling ..................................................................................42

Figure A.5 – Capacitive coupling...........................................................................................42

Figure A.6 – Overview of an RFID system.............................................................................44

Figure B.1 – Current induced in a loop..................................................................................47

Figure B.2 – Disk model........................................................................................................51

Figure B.3 – Disk model used for validations ........................................................................51

Figure B.4 – Cubic model......................................................................................................52

Figure B.5 – Cubic model example showing current induced in 3 dimensions.......................53

Figure B.6 – Prolate spheroid ...............................................................................................54

Figure B.7 – Helmholtz coils and prolate spheroid.................................................................55

Figure B.8 – 60 cm by 30 cm prolate spheroid results (magnetic field) ..................................56

Figure B.9 – 60 cm by 30 cm prolate spheroid results (induced current density) ...................56

Figure B.10 – 120 cm by 60 cm prolate spheroid results (magnetic field) ..............................57

Figure B.11 – 120 cm by 60 cm prolate spheroid results (induced current density)................57

Figure B.12 – 160 cm by 80 cm prolate spheroid results (magnetic field) ..............................58

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 62369-1:2009
– 4 – 62369-1 © IEC:2008

Figure B.13 – 160 cm by 80 cm prolate spheroid results (induced current density)................58

Figure B.14 – Homogeneous human shape body model........................................................60

Figure B.15 – Homogeneous human shape (induced current) ...............................................60

Figure B.16 – Homogeneous hand model..............................................................................61

Figure B.17 – Approximate conductivities for LF homogeneous body modelling ...................66

Table 1 – Dimensions and distances for Figures 1 to 11 .......................................................18

Table 2 – Dimensions and distances for simplified body shapes ...........................................27

Table 3 – Maximum total evaluation uncertainties .................................................................35

Table A.1 – Frequency ranges and typical system characteristics .........................................43

Table A.2 – Example frequency bands and their applications................................................43

Table B.1 – Disk model dimensions for Figure B.2 ................................................................51

Table B.2 – Cubic disk model dimensions for Figure B.4.......................................................52

Table B.3 – Prolate spheroid dimensions for Figure B.6........................................................54

Table B.4 – Summary of results ............................................................................................59

Table B.5 – Examples of anatomical models .........................................................................62

Table B.6 – Conductivity of tissue types................................................................................64

Table B.7 – Relative permittivity of tissue types ....................................................................65

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 62369-1:2009
62369-1 © IEC:2008 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
___________
EVALUATION OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS
FROM SHORT RANGE DEVICES (SRDS) IN VARIOUS APPLICATIONS
OVER THE FREQUENCY RANGE 0 GHz to 300 GHz –
Part 1: Fields produced by devices used for electronic article
surveillance, radio frequency identification and similar systems
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with an IEC Publication.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62369-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 106:

Methods for the assessment of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with

human exposure.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
106/156/FDIS 106/159/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 62369-1:2009
– 6 – 62369-1 © IEC:2008

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The list of all parts of IEC 62369 series, published under the title Evaluation of human

exposure to electromagnetic fields from short range devices (SRDs) in various applications

over the frequency range 0 GHz to 300 GHz, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the maintenance result date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in

the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be

• reconfirmed;
• withdrawn;
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 62369-1:2009
62369-1 © IEC:2008 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

Electromagnetic fields interact with the human body and other biological systems through a

number of physical mechanisms. The main mechanisms of interaction are based on nervous

system effects and heating. These effects are dependent on frequency and are defined by

biologically relevant quantities. Based on these scientifically established health effects, there

are international, regional and sometimes national exposure requirements. These are set as

basic restrictions on quantities, which are not necessarily directly measurable, and contain

high safety factors to ensure a high level of protection. These quantities may be determined

either by calculation for each case, or by measuring a reference value that has a pre-derived

relationship to them, usually under worst-case, far-field conditions. Respect of the reference

value will ensure respect of the relevant basic restriction, except in some specific near field

situations which would normally be identified or highlighted within the applicable exposure

guidelines. If the measured quantity exceeds the reference value, it does not necessarily

follow that the basic restriction is also exceeded. Under those circumstances, more detailed

evaluation techniques will be necessary which are specific to that type of equipment and

exposure.

This document is part of a multi-part standard covering the evaluation of human exposure to

electromagnetic fields from short range devices (SRDs) in various applications over the

frequency range from 0 GHz to 300 GHz.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 62369-1:2009
– 8 – 62369-1 © IEC:2008
EVALUATION OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS
FROM SHORT RANGE DEVICES (SRDS) IN VARIOUS APPLICATIONS
OVER THE FREQUENCY RANGE 0 GHz to 300 GHz –
Part 1: Fields produced by devices used for electronic article
surveillance, radio frequency identification and similar systems
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62369 presents procedures for the evaluation of human exposure to

electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from devices used in electronic article surveillance (EAS), radio

frequency identification (RFID) and similar applications. It adopts a staged approach to

facilitate compliance assessment. The first stage (Stage 1) is a simple measurement against

the appropriate derived reference values. Stage 2 is a more complex series of measurements

or calculations, coupled with analysis techniques. Stage 3 requires detailed modelling and

analysis for comparison with the basic restrictions. When assessing any device, the most

appropriate method for the exposure situation may be used.

At the time of writing this International Standard, electronic article surveillance, radio

frequency identification and similar systems do not normally operate at frequencies below

1 Hz or above 10 GHz. EMF exposure guidelines and standards can cover a wider range of

frequencies, so clarification on the required range is included as part of the evaluation

procedures.

The devices covered by this document normally have non-uniform field patterns. Often these

devices have a very rapid reduction of field strength with distance and operate under near-

field conditions where the relationship between electric and magnetic fields is not constant.

This, together with typical exposure conditions for different device types, is detailed in

Annex A.

Annex B contains comprehensive information to assist with numerical modelling of the

exposure situation. It includes both homogeneous and anatomical models as well as the

electrical properties of tissue.

This International Standard does not include limits. Limits can be obtained from separately

published human exposure guidelines. Different guidelines and limit values may apply in

different regions. Linked into the guidelines are usually methods for summation across wider

frequency ranges and for multiple exposure sources. These shall be used. A simplified

method for summation of multiple sources is contained in Annex C. This has to be used with

care as it is simplistic and will overestimate the exposure; however it is useful as a guide,

when the results of different evaluations are in different units of measure which are not

compatible.

Different countries and regions have different guidelines for handling the uncertainties from

the evaluation. Annex D provides information on the two most common methods.

A bibliography at the end of this standard provides general information as well as useful l

information for the measurement of electromagnetic fields. See [1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6] .

Similar national or international standards may be used as an alternative.
———————
Figures between brackets refer to the bibliography.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 62369-1:2009
62369-1 © IEC:2008 – 9 –
2 Normative references
None.
3 Terms, definitions, and abbreviations
The internationally accepted SI units are used throughout this document.
3.1 Quantities
Quantity Symbol Unit Dimension
Magnetic flux density B tesla (Vs/m) T
Electric flux density D coulomb per square metre Cm
Electric field strength E volt per metre Vm
Frequency fhertz Hz
Magnetic field strength H ampere per metre Am
Current density J ampere per square metre Am
Power density S watt per square metre Wm
Specific absorption rate SAR watt per kilogram Wkg
Temperature Tkelvin K
Permittivity farad per metre Fm
Wavelength metre m
Permeability henry per metre Hm
Mass density kilogram per cubic metre kgm
Electric conductivity siemens per metre Sm
3.2 Constants
Physical constant Symbol Magnitude
8 –1
Velocity of light in free space c 2,998 × 10 ms
–12 –1
Permittivity of free space
ε 8
...

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