Basic standard on measurement and calculation procedures for human exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (0 Hz - 300 GHz)

European standard establishes the procedures and methodology on measurement and calculation of quantities associated with the assessment of human exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields in the frequency range from 0 Hz to 300 GHz. It deals with quantities that can be measured or calculated in free space, notably electric and magnetic field strength and includes the measurement and calculation of quantities inside the body that forms the basis for protection guidelines.
In particular the standard provides information on
− definitions and terminology,
− characteristics of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields,
− measurement of exposure quantities,
− instrumentation requirements,
− methods of calibration,
− measurement techniques and procedures for evaluating exposure,
− calculation methods for exposure assessment.
The object of this standard is to establish a common reference for the assessment of electrical equipment in relation to human exposure from non-ionising electromagnetic fields.

Grundnorm zu Mess- und Berechnungsverfahren der Exposition von Personen in elektrischen, magnetischen und elektromagnetischen Feldern (0 Hz bis 300 GHz)

Norme de base pour les procédures de mesures et de calculs pour l'exposition des personnes aux champs électriques, magnétiques et électromagnétiques (0 Hz - 300 GHz)

Osnovni standard za merjenje in izračunavanje izpostavljenosti ljudi električnim, magnetnim in elektromagnetnim poljem (0 Hz–300 GHz)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Mar-2018
Publication Date
28-Apr-2021
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
15-Apr-2021
Due Date
20-Jun-2021
Completion Date
29-Apr-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 50413:2021
01-junij-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 50413:2009
SIST EN 50413:2009/A1:2014

Osnovni standard za merjenje in izračunavanje izpostavljenosti ljudi električnim,

magnetnim in elektromagnetnim poljem (0 Hz–300 GHz)
Basic standard on measurement and calculation procedures for human exposure to
electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (0 Hz - 300 GHz)
Grundnorm zu Mess- und Berechnungsverfahren der Exposition von Personen in
elektrischen, magnetischen und elektromagnetischen Feldern (0 Hz bis 300 GHz)
Norme de base pour les procédures de mesures et de calculs pour l'exposition des
personnes aux champs électriques, magnétiques et électromagnétiques (0 Hz - 300
GHz)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 50413:2019
ICS:
13.280 Varstvo pred sevanjem Radiation protection
17.220.20 Merjenje električnih in Measurement of electrical
magnetnih veličin and magnetic quantities
33.100.01 Elektromagnetna združljivost Electromagnetic compatibility
na splošno in general
SIST EN 50413:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 50413:2021
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SIST EN 50413:2021
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 50413
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
October 2019
ICS 17.200.20; 33.100.01 Supersedes EN 50413:2008 and all of its amendments
and corrigenda (if any)
English Version
Basic standard on measurement and calculation procedures for
human exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields
(0 Hz - 300 GHz)

Norme de base pour les procédures de mesures et de Grundnorm zu Mess- und Berechnungsverfahren der

calculs pour l'exposition des personnes aux champs Exposition von Personen in elektrischen, magnetischen und

électriques, magnétiques et électromagnétiques (0 Hz - 300 elektromagnetischen Feldern (0 Hz bis 300 GHz)

GHz)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2019-09-23. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 50413:2019 E
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SIST EN 50413:2021
EN 50413:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ............................................................................................................................................ 4

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions .......................................................................................................................... 6

4 General ................................................................................................................................................. 12

4.1 General remarks.................................................................................................................................. 12

4.2 Exposure assessment approaches .................................................................................................. 12

4.3 Characterization of the field source.................................................................................................. 12

4.4 Static and low frequency fields ......................................................................................................... 13

4.5 High frequency range ......................................................................................................................... 13

4.6 Multiple frequency fields and multiple sources .............................................................................. 13

5 Assessment of human exposure by measurement ......................................................................... 13

5.1 General remarks.................................................................................................................................. 13

5.2 Electromagnetic field measurement ................................................................................................. 14

5.2.1 Measurement instrumentation .......................................................................................................... 14

5.2.2 Measurement protocol ....................................................................................................................... 15

5.3 Body current measurement ............................................................................................................... 17

5.4 Contact current measurement ........................................................................................................... 17

5.5 SAR measurement .............................................................................................................................. 17

5.6 Uncertainty of measurement ............................................................................................................. 18

5.7 Calibration ........................................................................................................................................... 19

5.7.1 Low frequency range .......................................................................................................................... 19

5.7.2 High frequency range ......................................................................................................................... 19

6 Assessment of exposure by calculation .......................................................................................... 19

6.1 Low frequency ..................................................................................................................................... 19

6.2 High frequency .................................................................................................................................... 19

6.3 Uncertainty of calculation .................................................................................................................. 20

7 Assessment report ............................................................................................................................. 20

7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 20

7.2 Items to be recorded in the assessment report ............................................................................... 20

7.2.1 Assessment method ........................................................................................................................... 20

7.2.2 Presentation of the measurement results ........................................................................................ 20

7.2.3 Presentation of the calculation results ............................................................................................ 21

Annex A (informative) Uncertainty assessment for the measurement of EMF ........................................ 22

A.1 Steps in establishing an uncertainty budget ................................................................................... 22

A.1.1 Selection of uncertainty contributions ............................................................................................. 22

A.1.2 Classes of uncertainty contributions ............................................................................................... 22

A.1.3 Probability distribution and standard uncertainty of each contribution ...................................... 23

A.1.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 23

A.1.3.2 Normal .................................................................................................................................................. 23

A.1.3.3 Rectangular ......................................................................................................................................... 23

A.1.3.4 U-shaped .............................................................................................................................................. 23

A.1.3.5 Triangular ............................................................................................................................................ 24

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Combined standard uncertainty ....................................................................................................... 24

A.1.4

A.1.4.1 Sensitivity coefficients ....................................................................................................................... 24

A.1.4.2 Correlated input quantities ................................................................................................................ 24

A.1.4.3 Combined standard uncertainty ....................................................................................................... 25

A.1.5 Expanded uncertainty ........................................................................................................................ 25

A.2 Examples for uncertainty budgets .................................................................................................... 25

A.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 25

A.2.2 Example of an uncertainty budget for field strength measurement using a system with antenna

and spectrum analyser ....................................................................................................................... 25

A.2.3 Example of an uncertainty budget for field strength measurement using a broadband

measurement system ......................................................................................................................... 26

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 27

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SIST EN 50413:2021
EN 50413:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 50413:2019) has been prepared by CLC/TC 106X “Electromagnetic fields in the human

environment”.
The following dates are fixed:
• latest date by which this document has to be (dop) 2020-09-23
implemented at national level by publication of
an identical national standard or by
endorsement
• latest date by which the national standards (dow) 2022-09-23
conflicting with this document have to be
withdrawn

This document supersedes EN 50413:2008 and all of its amendments and corrigenda (if any).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights.

CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CENELEC by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association.
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EN 50413:2019 (E)
1 Scope

This document provides general methods for measurement and calculation of quantities associated with human

exposure to electromagnetic fields in the frequency range from 0 Hz to 300 GHz. It is intended specifically to be used

for the assessment of emissions from products and comparison of these with the exposure limits for the general public

given in Council Recommendation 1999/519/EC, and those given for workers in Directive 2013/35/EU, as appropriate.

It also is intended to be used for assessment of human exposure to electromagnetic fields in the workplace to

determine compliance with the requirements of Directive 2013/35/EU.

This standard deals with quantities that can be measured or calculated external to the body, notably electric and

magnetic field strength or power density, and includes the measurement and calculation of quantities inside the body

that form the basis for protection guidelines. In particular the standard provides information on:

— definitions and terminology,
— characteristics of electromagnetic fields,
— measurement of exposure quantities,
— instrumentation requirements,
— methods of calibration,
— measurement techniques and procedures for evaluating exposure,
— calculation methods for exposure assessment.

Where an applicable electromagnetic field standard specific to a product or technology exists it is expected to be used

rather than this document. EN 62311:—, Table 1 gives a list of relevant standards.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes

requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest

edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Council Recommendation 1999/519/EC of 12 July 1999, on the limitation of exposure of the general public to

electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz), Official Journal, L199, of 1999-7-30, p.59-70

Directive 2013/35/EU of 26 June 2013, on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of

workers to the risks arising from physical agents (electromagnetic fields). Official Journal, L179, of 2013-6-29, p. 1–

EN 61786-1:2014, Measurement of DC magnetic, AC magnetic and AC electric fields from 1 Hz to 100 kHz with regard

to exposure of human beings - Part 1: Requirements for measuring instruments (IEC 61786-1:2013)

EN 62232:2017, Determination of RF field strength, power density and SAR in the vicinity of radiocommunication base

stations for the purpose of evaluating human exposure (IEC 62232:2017)

EN 62311:—, Assessment of electronic and electrical equipment related to human exposure restrictions for

electromagnetic fields (0 Hz - 300 GHz) (IEC 62311:—)

ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008, Uncertainty of measurement – Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in

measurement (GUM:1995)
Under preparation. Stage at time of Formal Vote: FprEN 62311:2019.
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3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
action level

operational levels established for the purpose of simplifying the process of demonstrating the compliance with relevant

ELVs or, where appropriate, to take relevant protection or prevention measures specified in this Directive

[SOURCE: Directive 2013/35/EU]
3.2
antenna

device that serves as a transducer between a guided wave for example in a coaxial cable and a free space wave, or

vice versa
3.3
basic restriction

restriction on exposure to electromagnetic fields that is based directly on established health effects and biological

considerations
[SOURCE: Council Recommendation 1999/519/EC, modified]
3.4
contact current

current flowing into the body resulting from contact with a conductive object in an electromagnetic field

Note 1 to entry: The contact current is expressed in ampere (A).
3.5
current density

current per unit cross-sectional area flowing inside the human body as a result of direct exposure to electromagnetic

fields

Note 1 to entry: The current density is expressed in ampere per metre squared (A/m ).

3.6
electric flux density

vector quantity obtained at a given point by adding the electric polarization P to the product of the electric field strength

E and the permittivity of free space ε0:
D = ε0 E + P

Note 1 to entry: Electric flux density is expressed in coulombs per metre squared (C/m ).

Note 2 to entry: In vacuum, the electric flux density is at all points equal to the product of the electric field strength and the

permittivity of free space: D = ε E.
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3.7
electric field strength

vector field quantity E which exerts a force F equal to the product of E and the electric charge Q of the particle on any

charged particle at rest:
F = q E
Note 1 to entry: Electric field strength is expressed in volt per metre (V/m).
[SOURCE: IEV 121-11-18]
3.8
electromagnetic fields
EMF

static electric, static magnetic and time-varying electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields with frequencies up to

300 GHz
[SOURCE: Directive 2013/35/EU]
3.9
exposure

phenomenon occurring whenever and wherever a person is subjected to external electromagnetic fields or to contact

current
[SOURCE: EN 50499:—]
3.10
exposure level
value of the quantity used to assess exposure
3.11
exposure limits

guideline or restriction values on exposure that are given in international or national standards, guidelines or directives

on human exposure to electromagnetic fields

Note 1 to entry: For Directive 2013/35/EU, the exposure limits are the action levels and the exposure limit values and also the

other specific requirements in that Directive to avoid other risks related to workplace exposure to electromagnetic fields.

[SOURCE: EN 50499:—]
3.12
exposure limit value (ELV)

limits on exposure to electromagnetic fields which are based on biophysical and biological considerations, in particular

on the basis of scientifically well-established short-term and acute direct effects, i.e. thermal effects and electrical

stimulation of tissues

Note 1 to entry: Compliance with these limits will ensure that workers exposed to electromagnetic fields are protected against

known adverse health effects (from Directive 2013/35/EU).
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3.13
far-field region

region of the electromagnetic field of an antenna wherein the predominant components of the field are those which

represent a propagation of energy and wherein the angular field distribution is essentially independent of the distance

from the antenna

Note 1 to entry: In the far field region, all the components of the electromagnetic field decrease in inverse proportion to the

distance from the antenna.

Note 2 to entry: For a broadside antenna having a maximum overall dimension D which is large compared to the wavelength λ,

the far field region is commonly taken to exist at distances greater than 2D /λ, from the antenna in the direction of maximum

radiation.
[SOURCE: IEV 712-02-02]
3.14
high frequency fields
electromagnetic fields of frequency 10 MHz ≤ f ≤ 300 GHz
3.15
impedance of free space

square root of the free space permeability µ divided by the permittivity of free space ε for a plane wave,

0 0
Z=≈≈120πΩ 377Ω
3.16
intermediate frequency fields
electromagnetic fields of frequency 100 kHz ≤ f ≤ 10 MHz
3.17
isotropic

qualifies a physical medium or technical device where the relevant properties are independent of the direction

3.18
induced current

current induced inside the body as a result of direct exposure to electromagnetic fields

Note 1 to entry: Induced current is expressed in ampere (A).
3.19
low frequency field
electromagnetic field of frequency 1Hz ≤ f < 100 kHz
3.20
magnetic flux density

vector field quantity which exerts on any charged particle having velocity v a force F equal to the product of the vector

product v x B and the electric charge q of the particle:
F = q (v × B)

Note 1 to entry: The magnitude of the magnetic flux density is expressed in Tesla (T).

[SOURCE: IEV 121-11-19, modified]
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3.21
magnetic field strength

vector quantity obtained at a given point by subtracting the magnetization M from the magnetic flux density B divided

by the permeability of free space μ :
HM−
Note 1 to entry: Magnetic field strength is expressed in ampere per metre (A/m).

Note 2 to entry: In a vacuum, the magnetic field strength is at all points equal to the magnetic flux density divided by the

permeability of free space: H = B / μ0.
3.22
modulation

process of modifying the amplitude, phase and/or frequency of a periodic waveform in order to convey information

3.23
near-field region

region generally in proximity to an antenna or other radiating structure, in which the electric and magnetic fields do not

have a substantially plane-wave character, but vary considerably from point to point

Note 1 to entry: The near-field region is further subdivided into the reactive near-field region, which is closest to the radiating

structure and that contains most or nearly all of the stored energy, and the radiating near-field region where the radiation field

predominates over the reactive field, but lacks substantial plane-wave character and is complex in structure.

3.24
permeability

property of a material which defines the relationship between magnetic flux density B and magnetic field strength H

Note 1 to entry: It is commonly used as the combination of the permeability of free space (µ ) and the relative permeability for

specific materials (µ ):
µ µµ
where
µ is the relative permeability of the material
µ is the permeability of vacuum
Note 2 to entry: The permeability is expressed in henry per metre (H/m)
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3.25
permittivity

property of a dielectric material, e.g., biological tissue, defined by the electric flux density D divided by the electric field

strength E:
ε = ε ε = D / E
r 0
where
ε is the relative permittivity of the material
ε is the permittivity of vacuum
Note 1 to entry: The permittivity is expressed in farads per metre (F/m).
3.26
phantom

simplified model of the human body or body part composed of materials with dielectric properties close to the organic

tissue
3.27
power density
power per unit area normal to the direction of electromagnetic wave propagation
Note 1 to entry: The power density is expressed in Watts per square m (W/m ).

Note 2 to entry: For plane waves the power density (S), electric field strength (E) and magnetic field strength (H) are related by

the impedance of free space Z :
S Z H EH

Note 3 to entry: Although many survey instruments indicate power density units, the actual quantities measured are E or H, or

the square of those quantities.
3.28
probe

input device of a measuring instrument, generally made as a separate unit, which transforms the measured input value

to a suitable output value
= ==
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3.29
reference level

provided for practical exposure assessment purposes to determine whether the basic restrictions are likely to be

exceeded

Note 1 to entry: Some reference levels are derived from relevant basic restrictions using measurement and/or computational

techniques, and some address perception and adverse indirect effects of exposure to EMF.

Note 2 to entry: In any particular exposure situation, measured or calculated values can be compared with the appropriate

reference level. Compliance with the reference level will ensure compliance with the relevant basic restriction. If the measured or

calculated value exceeds the reference level, it does not necessarily follow that the basic restriction will be exceeded. However,

whenever a reference level is exceeded it is necessary to test compliance with the relevant basic restriction and to determine

whether additional protective measures are necessary.
[SOURCE: Council Recommendation 1999/519/EC]
3.30
root-mean-square value
RMS

effective value or the value associated with joule heating, of a periodic

electromagnetic wave, obtained by taking the square root of the mean of the squared value of a function

Note 1 to entry: Although many survey instruments in the high frequency range indicate RMS, the actual quantity measured is

root-sum-square (RSS) (equivalent field strength).
[SOURCE: EN 62311:—]
3.31
specific absorption rate
SAR

time derivative of the incremental electromagnetic energy (dW) absorbed by (dissipated in) an incremental mass (dm)

contained in a volume element (dV) of given mass density (ρ):
  
d dW d dW
SAR
  
dt dm dt ρ dV
  
Note 1 to entry: SAR is expressed in watts per kilogram (W/kg)
Note 2 to entry: SAR can be calculated by:
σ E
SAR=
where
E RMS value of the electric field strength in the tissue in V/m;
σ conductivity of body tissue in S/m;
density of body tissue in kg/m ;
3.32
static and quasi-static field
electromagnetic field of frequency f < 1 Hz
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3.33
unperturbed field

field that exists in a space in the absence of a person or an object that could influence the field

Note 1 to entry: The field values measured or calculated with a person or object present could differ considerably.

4 General
4.1 General remarks

Electromagnetic fields can have direct and indirect effects on the human body. Depending on the frequency of the

fields, these can be effects on the nervous system in the low frequency range and thermal effects in the high frequency

range. Besides these direct effects there exist several indirect effects such as the occurrence of contact currents or

the possible influence on the intended operation of active medical implants.

The Council Recommendation 1999/519/EC provides basic restrictions and derived reference levels for exposure of

the general public.

The Directive 2013/35/EU provides exposure limit values and derived action level for exposures in the workplace.

The basic restrictions given in the Recommendation, and the exposure limit values given in the Directive are in both

cases expressed in terms of quantities that are mostly not directly measurable: for example induced currents density

or internal electric field strength for low frequency electromagnetic fields, specific absorption rate (SAR) for higher

frequency fields.

The reference levels given in the Recommendation, and the action levels given in the Directive, are derived from these

and are expressed in terms of quantities that are measurable: including electric field strength, magnetic field strength,

contact current and limb induced current.

Exposure assessments may be based either on the reference levels (action levels), or on the basic restriction

(exposure limit value) taking account of specific characteristics of the particular field source or device being assessed.

The range for low frequency measurements is from 1 Hz up to 100 kHz. The range for intermediate frequency

measurement is from 100 kHz to 10 MHz and the range for high frequency measurements is from 10 MHz up to

300 GHz.

NOTE The underlying physiological effects of electromagnetic fields on the human body have no sharp frequency limit value

to distinguish between stimulation and thermal effects; this also shows up in the selection of the measurement equipment

necessary.
4.2 Exposure assessment approaches

In general, either calculation or measurement procedures can be used for the assessment of exposure. In specific

circumstances there may be advantages of using one or the other of these.
4.3 Characterization of the field source

To make meaningful measurements or calculations, the behaviour and characteristics (for example frequency, time-

variability of emission, input power) of the source of exposure (field or current) shall be determined and the operation

of the measurement equipment understood. Irrespective of the type of signal, time domain measurement may be used.

This can be especially helpful for non-sinusoidal, very fast, and pulsed
...

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