Nanotechnologies - Guidelines for the management and disposal of waste from the manufacturing and processing of manufactured nano-objects

This document provides guidelines for all waste management activities from the manufacturing and processing of manufactured nano-objects.
The guidelines apply to all actors in the waste management chain, namely MNO manufacturers, MNO modifiers, as well as waste disposal companies and carriers and consignees of WMP-MNOs.
This document does not intend to provide guidelines on the management and disposal of nanocomposites, waste derived from consumer products containing nano-objects or waste containing only naturally occurring or incidental nano-objects. Also excluded from the scope are any waste from non-nanoscale materials resulting from the manufacturing and processing of MNOs.

Nanotechnologien - Leitfaden für die Handhabung und Entsorgung des Abfalls von hergestellten und verarbeiteten Nano-Objekten

Dieses Dokument stellt Richtlinien für alle Abfallmanagementtätigkeiten ab der Herstellung und Verarbeitung von industriell hergestellten Nanoobjekten zur Verfügung.
Die Richtlinien gelten für alle Akteure in der Abfallmanagementkette, und zwar MNO Hersteller, MNO Modifizierer, Abfallentsorgungs-und Transportunternehmen sowie Frachtempfänger von WMP MNO.
Dieses Dokument dient nicht dazu Richtlinien für die Verwaltung und Entsorgung von Nanokompositen, von Abfällen aus Konsumgütern, die Nano-Objekte enthalten, oder von Abfällen, die nur natürlich vorkommende oder zufällige Nano-Objekte enthalten, aufzustellen. Auch Abfälle aus nicht nanoskaligen Materialien, die bei der Herstellung und Verarbeitung von MNO entstehen, liegen außerhalb des Anwendungsbereiches.

Nanotechnologies - Lignes directrices pour la gestion et le traitement des déchets issus de la fabrication et la transformation des nano-objets manufacturés

Le présent document donne des recommandations applicables à toutes les activités de gestion des déchets issus de la fabrication et de la transformation de nano-objets manufacturés.
Ces recommandations s’appliquent à tous les acteurs de la chaîne de gestion des déchets, c’est-à-dire les fabricants de MNO, les modificateurs de MNO ainsi que les sociétés et transporteurs d’élimination des déchets et les destinataires des WMP-MNO.
Le présent document n’est pas destiné à fournir des recommandations pour la gestion et l’élimination des nanocomposites, des déchets issus de produits de grande consommation contenant des nano-objets, ou des déchets contenant uniquement des nano-objets apparaissant naturellement ou incidentels. Sont également exclus du domaine d’application tous les déchets provenant de matériaux à l’échelle non-nanométrique résultant de la fabrication et de la transformation de MNO.

Nanotehnologija - Smernice za ravnanje z odpadki in njihovo odstranjevanje pri proizvodnji in predelavi proizvedenih nanopredmetov

Ta dokument vsebuje smernice za vse dejavnosti ravnanja z odpadki, od proizvodnje do predelave proizvedenih nanopredmetov.
Smernice veljajo za vse udeležence v verigi ravnanja z odpadki, in sicer proizvajalce proizvedenih nanopredmetov, modifikatorje proizvedenih nanopredmetov in podjetja za odstranjevanje odpadkov ter prevoznike in prejemnike proizvedenih nanopredmetov v verigi ravnanja z odpadki.
Ta dokument ne zagotavlja smernic za upravljanje in odstranjevanje nanokompozitov, odpadkov iz potrošniških izdelkov, ki vsebujejo nanopredmete, ali odpadkov, ki vsebujejo samo naravne ali naključne nanopredmete. Iz področja uporabe tega dokumenta so izključeni tudi odpadki iz ne-nanomaterialov, ki nastanejo pri proizvodnji in predelavi proizvedenih nanopredmetov.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Aug-2018
Publication Date
07-Jan-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
03-Jan-2019
Due Date
10-Mar-2019
Completion Date
08-Jan-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17275:2019
01-marec-2019
Nanotehnologija - Smernice za ravnanje z odpadki in njihovo odstranjevanje pri
proizvodnji in predelavi proizvedenih nanopredmetov
Nanotechnologies - Guidelines for the management and disposal of waste from the
manufacturing and processing of manufactured nano-objects
Nanotechnologien - Leitfaden für die Handhabung und Entsorgung des Abfalls von
hergestellten und verarbeiteten Nano-Objekten

Nanotechnologies - Lignes directrices pour la gestion et le traitement des déchets issus

de la fabrication et la transformation des nano-objets manufacturés
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TS 17275:2018
ICS:
07.120 Nanotehnologije Nanotechnologies
13.030.01 Odpadki na splošno Wastes in general
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17275:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 17275:2019
CEN/TS 17275
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
December 2018
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
ICS 07.120
English Version
Nanotechnologies - Guidelines for the management and
disposal of waste from the manufacturing and processing
of manufactured nano-objects

Nanotechnologies - Lignes directrices pour la gestion Nanotechnologien - Leitfaden für die Handhabung und

et l'élimination des déchets issus de la fabrication et la Entsorgung des Abfalls von hergestellten und

transformation des nano-objets manufacturés verarbeiteten Nano-Objekten

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 28 September 2018 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to

submit their comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS

available promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in

parallel to the CEN/TS) until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TS 17275:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ............................................................................................................................................. 4

Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .......................................................................................................................................................... 8

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................... 8

4 Abbreviations .......................................................................................................................................15

5 Regulatory framework ......................................................................................................................16

6 General environmental and waste management .....................................................................16

7 Risk assessment and management ...............................................................................................19

8 Waste tracking .....................................................................................................................................20

9 Classification of waste .......................................................................................................................20

10 Pre-disposal procedures of WMP-MNOs by companies producing and processing

MNOs ........................................................................................................................................................23

11 Transport and storage of WMP-MNOs .........................................................................................26

12 Selection of disposal and treatment routes for WMP-MNOs ...............................................28

13 Management of WMP-MNOs during waste disposal ...............................................................37

14 Accident management plan .............................................................................................................43

Annex A (informative) European legislation including the treaty, relevant for waste ...........45

A.1 European waste related legislation ..............................................................................................45

A.2 Packaging Labelling (CLP) ...............................................................................................................47

A.3 Regulation (EU) No 528/2012 Biocidal products ....................................................................48

A.4 REACH Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 .......................................................................................48

A.5 Directive 1999/92/EC Explosive atmospheres ........................................................................48

A.6 Other regulations not referenced in the document: ...............................................................48

A.7 National legislation.............................................................................................................................49

A.8 International treaty ............................................................................................................................49

Annex B (informative) Tools for source reduction of production waste .....................................50

B.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................50

B.2 Organizational waste prevention approaches .........................................................................50

B.2.1 Strategic planning ..................................................................................................................................50

B.2.2 Implementation of a waste prevention programme .................................................................51

B.2.3 Good housekeeping ...............................................................................................................................52

B.3 Technical and science-based source reduction approaches ...............................................53

Annex C (informative) CLP hazard classes and categories ................................................................55

C.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................55

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Annex D (informative) Indication of applicability of 850 ˚C and 1 100 ˚C incineration

processes for MNOs ............................................................................................................................ 57

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................................................... 59

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European foreword

This document (CEN/TS 17275:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 352

“Nanotechnologies”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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Introduction

Innovation in nanotechnology is linked with commercial developments that use nanomaterials to deliver

new products or services to the market. In recent years, nanotechnology has moved from the research

laboratory to the manufacturing plant and into consumer products. Manufactured nano-objects (MNOs)

can be incorporated in products to enhance their performance and create new properties. In the process

of making such products, using them or disposing them at the end of their life, MNOs may be released and

come in contact with humans and the environment. As of yet, MNO producers and the scientific

community do not have a complete understanding of whether nanomaterials, particularly MNOs pose a

risk to the health of workers, consumers and the environment. It is thought that some MNOs may pose a

hazard to human health and the environment.

Nanomaterials include nano-objects and nanostructured materials. Nano-objects may be naturally

occurring, incidental [CEN ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.10], engineered or manufactured

[CEN ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.9]. In general, naturally occurring and incidental nano-objects are emitted

into the atmosphere by natural process or as a by-product of a process (for example welding fume,

combustion fume). Engineered nano-objects (ENOs) or MNOs, a very specific class of nanomaterials, are

sometimes incorporated in products to achieve new or enhanced / improved properties, which are only

attainable with nanotechnology. In some cases, they may be substituted for highly toxic substances, may

lead to waste reduction, or may extend the longevity of a product.

MNOs may have distinct physicochemical properties as a result of their nanoscale formulation. Thus, they

may exhibit hazards and risks to human health and to the environment distinct from those presented by

non-nanoscale materials. There is therefore a need for specific guidance on the assessment and

management of the human health and environmental hazards and risks associated with the management

and disposal of waste from the manufacturing and processing of manufactured nano-objects

(WMP-MNOs).

The manufacturing of MNOs and their incorporation in products may involve multi-stage processes,

including primary synthesis, precipitation, sorting, chemical or physical separation and purification, as

well as incorporation in intermediate products.

Each process in the manufacturing chain may generate process wastes, residues and diffuse release of

MNOs or their aggregates and agglomerates. Process wastes may result from:

— making more or buying more than necessary (for example overproduction, large batches or excess

items that remain in stock);

— making batches that are not at the correct specification or requirements of the customer; and

— making batches with expired specifications or requirements.

Diffuse release means the (unintended) release of chemicals to air, groundwater and soil, which occur in

a diffuse way due to processes such as migration or dispersing, and which should be avoided. Diffuse

emissions can be controlled via, for example, waste collection and adequate waste treatment, where

MNOs will be either eliminated or accumulated in a controlled system.
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In general, WMP-MNOs are expected to be in a powder form, in a liquid suspension and /or contaminated

items. Nano-objects resulting from the manufacturing and processing of MNOs can be classified in two

categories:

— nano-objects having the same physical and chemical identity as the final intended nano-object

production batch, which are generated during manufacturing and processing;

— nano-objects being production residues or being the result of a non-conformed batch production

(production refuse). Their physico-chemical characteristics may be known, partially known or

unknown due to unintended transformation processes.

Powder-form and liquid WMP-MNOs can be composed purely of nano-objects and non-nanoscale

particles.

The industry involved in nanotechnology and nanomaterials is a linear network as illustrated in Figure 1.

It involves organizations ranging from raw material producers (suppliers of MNOs), modifiers (producers

of semi-products obtained by modifying the composition or the surface of MNOs), to formulators and

users of nanomaterials (who incorporate MNOs or semi-products in finished products, resulting in

nanostructured materials or nanocomposites).
Figure 1 — Overview of the nanotechnology and nanomaterials industry
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Disposal routes for non-nanoscale materials are well known and well-regulated in all EU member states

by national and the EU directives. It is not the intention of this document to lead on this. This document

serves as a guideline to the safe waste management of WMP-MNOs and provides guidelines for all waste

management activities from the manufacturing and processing of MNOs as illustrated in Figure 1 by the

dotted lines.

This Technical Specification (TS) aims to provide guidance for all waste management activities associated

with the manufacturing and processing of MNOs including the management of process waste, residues

and diffuse emissions of MNOs and takes into account the uncertainties in this emerging technology and

the potential for human and environmental exposure.
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1 Scope

This document provides guidelines for all waste management activities from the manufacturing and

processing of manufactured nano-objects.

The guidelines apply to all actors in the waste management chain, namely MNO manufacturers, MNO

modifiers, as well as waste disposal companies and carriers and consignees of WMP-MNOs.

This document does not intend to provide guidelines on the management and disposal of

nanocomposites, waste derived from consumer products containing nano-objects or waste containing

only naturally occurring or incidental nano-objects. Also excluded from the scope are any waste from

non-nanoscale materials resulting from the manufacturing and processing of MNOs.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 12457-1:2002, Characterisation of waste - Leaching - Compliance test for leaching of granular waste

materials and sludges - Part 1: One stage batch test at a liquid to solid ratio of 2 l/kg for materials with high

solid content and with particle size below 4 mm (without or with size reduction)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1 Nanotechnologies general terms
3.1.1
engineered nano-object
nano-object (3.1.6) designed for specific purpose or function
[SOURCE: CEN ISO/TS 80004-2:2017, 4.1]
3.1.2
incidental nano-object
nano-object (3.1.6) generated as an unintentional by-product of a process

Note 1 to entry: The process includes manufacturing, biotechnological or other processes.

[SOURCE: CEN ISO/TS 80004-2:2017, 4.3]
3.1.3
manufactured nano-object

nano-object (3.1.6) intentionally produced to have selected properties or composition

[SOURCE: CEN ISO/TS 80004-2:2017, 4.2]
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3.1.4
nanocomposite
solid comprising a mixture of two or more phase-separated materials, one or more
being nanophase (2.12 of CEN ISO/TS 80004-1:2015)

Note 1 to entry: Gaseous nanophases are excluded [they are covered by nanoporous material (3.4 of

CEN ISO/TS 80004-1:2015)].

Note 2 to entry: Materials with nanoscale (3.1.7) phases formed by precipitation alone are not considered to be

nanocomposite materials.
[SOURCE: CEN ISO/TS 80004-4:2011, 3.2]
3.1.5
nanomaterial

material with any external dimension in the nanoscale (3.1.7) or having internal structure or surface

structure in the nanoscale

Note 1 to entry: This generic term is inclusive of nano-object (3.1.6) and nanostructured material (3.1.8).

Note 2 to entry: See also definitions 2.8 to 2.10 of CEN ISO/TS 80004-1:2015.
[SOURCE: CEN ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.4]
3.1.6
nano-object

discrete piece of material with one, two or three external dimensions in the nanoscale (3.1.7)

Note 1 to entry: The second and third external dimensions are orthogonal to the first dimension and to each other.

[SOURCE: CEN ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.5]
3.1.7
nanoscale
length range approximately from 1 nm to 100 nm

Note 1 to entry: Properties that are not extrapolations from larger sizes are predominantly exhibited in this length

range.
[SOURCE: CEN ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.1]
3.1.8
nanostructured material
material having internal nanostructure (3.1.9) or surface nanostructure

Note 1 to entry: This definition does not exclude the possibility for a nano-object (3.1.6) to have internal structure

or surface structure. If external dimension(s) are in the nanoscale (3.1.7), the term nano-object is recommended.

[SOURCE: CEN ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.7]
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3.1.9
nanostructure

composition of inter-related constituent parts in which one or more of those parts is a nanoscale (3.1.7)

region

Note 1 to entry: A region is defined by a boundary representing a discontinuity in properties.

[SOURCE: CEN ISO/TS 80004-1:2015, 2.6]
3.2 Waste general terms
3.2.1
ash
solid residue of effectively complete combustion
[SOURCE: ISO 29464:2017, 3.2.20]
3.2.2
flue gas

gaseous product of combustion including excess air and particulate matter in form of aerosols

Note 1 to entry: Adapted from EN ISO 13705:2012, 3.1.31.
3.2.3
groundwater

water which is being held in, and can usually be recovered from, an underground formation

[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 41]
3.2.4
intermediate products

output from a unit process that is input to other unit processes that require further transformation within

the system
[SOURCE: EN ISO 14050:2010, 6.2.1]
3.2.5
landfill

waste disposal site for the deposit of waste on to or into land under controlled or regulated conditions

[SOURCE: ISO 15270:2008, 3.18]
3.2.6
leachate
liquid that has percolated through solid wastes
[SOURCE: ISO/TR 14685:2001, 2.29]
3.2.7
contaminant
pollutant

substance (solid, liquid or gas) that negatively affects the intended use of a fluid

[SOURCE: ISO 29464:2017, 3.1.8]
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3.2.8
residue
material left over from consumption or a process
[SOURCE: ISO 6707-1:2017, 3.8.12]
3.2.9
sedimentation

process of settling and deposition, under the influence of gravity, of suspended matter carried by water

or wastewater
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 62]
3.2.10
sewage
domestic wastewater
water-borne wastes of a community
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 65]
3.2.11
sludge

accumulated settled solids separated from various types of water as a result of natural or artificial

processes
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 67]
3.2.12
surface water
water which flows over, or rests on, the surface of a land mass
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 74]
3.2.13
waste
substances or objects with the holder intends or is required to dispose of

Note 1 to entry: This definition is taken from the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of

Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal (22 March 1989), but is not confined in this International Standard to

hazardous waste.
[SOURCE: EN ISO 14040:2006, 3.35]
unneeded or useless matter which is to be discarded
[SOURCE: ISO 18309:2014, 3.6]
3.2.14
waste treatment

chemical or physical processing, or both, of waste for interim or ultimate disposal

Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 12749-3:2015, 3.7.12.
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3.2.15
waste management

all administrative and operational activities involved in the handling, pretreatment, treatment,

conditioning, transport, material storage, and disposal of waste
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 12749-3:2015, 3.7.7.
3.3 Waste management terms
3.3.1
consignor

party which, by contract with a carrier, consigns or sends goods with the carrier, or has them conveyed

by him
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 24533:2012, 2.13]
3.3.2
carrier

person or organization, which owns and/or operates a transport means, engaged in the transportation

of passengers or property by land, rail, air or water
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 24533:2012, 2.7]
3.4 Waste treatment terms
3.4.1
aerobic condition
descriptive of a condition in which dissolved oxygen is present
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 5]
3.4.2
anaerobic condition

descriptive of a condition in which dissolved oxygen, nitrate and nitrite are absent

[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 6]
3.4.3
centrifugation
partial removal of water from wastewater sludge by centrifugal force
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 11]
3.4.4
chemical treatment
process involving the addition of chemicals to achieve a specific result
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 12]
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3.4.5
chemical coagulation

process of adding a chemical (the coagulant) which causes the destabilization and aggregation of

dispersed colloidal material into flocs
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 13]
3.4.6
filtration

treatment process whereby water is passed through a porous layer of material in order to remove

particulate matter
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 36]
3.4.7
flocculation

formation of large separable particles by aggregation of small particles; the process is usually assisted by

mechanical, physical, chemical or biological means
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 38]
3.4.8
flotation

raising of suspended matter in water to the surface, for example by the entrainment of a gas on the

suspended matter
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 39]
3.4.9
incineration

controlled burning of waste products or other combustible materials in an incinerator or similar

apparatus
[SOURCE: ISO 16165:2013, 2.11.1]
3.4.10
incinerator

device constructed for the purpose of disposing of materials through thermal oxidation

[SOURCE: ISO 16165:2013, 2.11.2]
3.4.11
reverse osmosis

flow of water through a membrane from a more concentrated to a less concentrated solution, as a result

of applying pressure to the more concentrated solution in excess of the normal osmotic pressure

[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 61]
3.4.12
sedimentation

process of settling and deposition, under the influence of gravity, of suspended matter carried by water

or wastewater
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-1:2004, 62]
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3.5 Waste analysis terms
3.5.1
electrokinetic potential
zeta potential

difference in electric potential between that at the slipping plane and that of the bulk liquid

Note 1 to entry: Electrokinetic potential is expressed in volts.
[SOURCE: ISO 13099-1:2012, 2.1.8]
3.6 Health and safety general terms
3.6.1
harm

injury or damage to the health of people, or damage to property or the environment

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 51:2014, 3.1]
3.6.2
risk

combination of the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that harm

Note 1 to entry: The probability of occurrence includes the exposure to a hazardous situation (3.4), the occurrence

of a hazardous event (3.3) and the possibility to avoid or limit the harm.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 51:2014, 3.9]
3.6.3
safety
freedom from risk (3.6.2) which is not tolerable
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 51:2014, 3.14]
3.6.4
tolerable risk

level of risk (3.6.2) that is accepted in a given context based on the current values of society

Note 1 to entry: For the purposes of this Guide, the terms “acceptable risk” and “tolerable risk” are considered to

be synonymous.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC Guide 51:2014, 3.15]
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4 Abbreviations
For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviations apply.
APF Assigned Protection Factor
BAT Best Available Techniques
BEP Best Environmental Practice
BFs Bag Filters
BOD Biochemical Oxygen Demand
BREF Best Available Techniques Reference Document
CLP Classification Labelling and Packaging
CMTR carcinogens, mutagens, teratogens and reproductive toxicants
CNTs Carbon Nanotubes
COD Chemical Oxygen Demand
EMAS Eco-Management and Audit Scheme
EMS Environmental Management Systems
ENO Engineered Nano-Object
ESPs Electrostatic precipitators
EWC European Waste Catalogue
FFP Filtering Face Piece
FGC Flue Gas Conditioning
HDPE High-Density Polyethylene
IBC Intermediate Bulk Container
MNO Manufactured Nano-Object
MWCNT Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes
NOAA nano-objects, and their agglomerates and aggregates greater than 100nm
PPE Personal Protective Equipment
PM Particulate matter
(Q)SAr Quantitative Structure–Activity relationship
R&D Research and Development
RPE Respiratory Protective Equipment
STOT Specific target organ toxicity
STW Sewage Treatment Works
WAC Waste Acceptance Criteria
WFD Waste Framework Directive
WI Waste Incineration
WMP-MNO Waste from the Manufacturing and Processing of Manufactured Nano-Objects
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 17275:2019
CEN/TS 17275:2018 (E)
5 Regulatory framework

This clause aims to provide guidelines for manufacturers or modifiers of MNOs, companies handling

WMP-MNOs during transport or storage and companies pre-treating or treating WMP-MNOs.

There is currently no regulatory provision specific to the waste management of nanomaterials and MNOs

in Europe but other regulatory frameworks apply. Nanomaterials in general and MNOs in particular are

part of chemicals regulation and waste management leading to compliance requirement under all existing

regulations. Annex A provides a map of the regulatory framework and inform the reader of the main

European relevant regulations.
6 General environmental and waste management
6.1 General

This clause is predominantly aimed at proving guidelines to manufacturers or modifiers of MNOs.

6.2 General environmental management

The adoption of environmental management systems (EMS) has been proven to ensure improved

practices and outcomes with regards to ensuring the safety of workers and the environment across all

lifecycle stages of products.

The most widely used EMSs in Europe are the Regulation (EC) No 1221/2009 of the European Parliament

and of the Council of 25 November 2009 on the voluntary participation by organisations in a Community

eco-management and audit scheme (EMAS) [1] and EN ISO 14001:2015 [2]. EMAS references ISO

standards, which provides an environmental management framework and guidelines for

implementation.

Risk assessment and risk management underpin sound environmental management and further details

are provided in Clause 7.

Waste management forms a sub-activity of environmental management and should therefore ideally be

considered within the context of an overarching EMS.

Best Available Techniques (BAT) Reference Document (BREF) and Best Environmental Practice (BEP)

for waste treatment of chemical substances are relevant and can provide useful guidance for the

reduction of MNOs release in wa
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