Space product assurance - High-reliability soldering for surface-mount and mixed technology

This Standard defines the technical requirements and quality assurance provisions for the manufacture and verification of high-reliability electronic circuits based on surface mounted device (SMD) and mixed technology.
The Standard defines acceptance and rejection criteria for high-reliability manufacture of surface-mount and mixed-technology circuit assemblies intended to withstand normal terrestrial conditions and the vibrational g loads and environment imposed by space flight.
The proper tools, correct materials, design and workmanship are covered by this document. Workmanship standards are included to permit discrimination between proper and improper work.
The assembly of leaded devices to through-hole terminations and general soldering principles are covered in ECSS-Q-ST-70-08.
Requirements related to printed circuit boards are contained in ECSS-Q-ST-70 10, ECSS-Q-ST-70-11 and ECSS-Q-ST-70-12 . The mounting and supporting of devices, terminals and conductors prescribed herein applies to assemblies at PCB level designed to continuously operate over the mission within the temperature limits of -55 C to +85 C.
For temperatures outside this normal range, special design, verification and qualification testing is performed to ensure the necessary environmental survival capability.
Special thermal heat sinks are applied to devices having high thermal dissipation (e.g. junction temperatures of 110 C, power transistors) in order to ensure that solder joints do not exceed 85 C.
Verification of SMD assembly processes is made on test vehicles (surface mount verification samples). Temperature cycling ensures the operational lifetime for spacecraft. However, mechanical testing only indicates SMD reliability as it is unlikely that the test vehicle represents every flight configuration.
This Standard does not cover the qualification and acceptance of the EQM and FM equipment with surface-mount and mixed-technology.
The qualification and acceptance tests of equipment manufactured in accordance with this Standard are covered by ECSS-E-ST-10-03.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project, in accordance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Hochzuverlässiges Löten von Oberflächen-Befestigungen und gemischte Technologien

Assurance produit spatiale - Soudure haute fiabilité pour technologies à montage de surface et mixte

Zagotavljanje kakovosti proizvodov v vesoljski tehniki - Visoka zanesljivost spajkanja za površinsko montažo in mešano tehnologijo

Ta standard opredeljuje tehnične zahteve in določbe za zagotavljanje kakovosti za proizvodnjo in preverjanje visoko zanesljivih elektronskih vezij na podlagi površinsko montiranih elementov (SMD) in mešane tehnologije.
Standard določa merila za sprejem ali zavrnitev za visoko zanesljivo proizvodnjo površinsko montiranih sestavov vezij z mešano tehnologijo, ki naj bi prenesli običajne zemeljske pogoje in vibracijske obremenitve zaradi pospeška ter okolje, ki jih povzročijo vesoljski poleti.
Ta dokument obravnava ustrezna orodja, pravilne materiale, zasnovo in izvedbo. Izvedbeni standardi so vključeni, da se omogoči ločevanje med primernim in neprimernim delom.
Sestav osvinčenih elementov, terminali z luknjo in splošna načela spajkanja so zajeti v standardu ECSS-Q-ST-70-08.
Zahteve v zvezi s ploščami tiskanih vezij so podane v standardih ECSS-Q-ST-70 10, ECSS-Q-ST-70-11 in ECSS-Q-ST-70-12. Nameščanje in podpiranje komponent, terminalov in prevodnikov iz tega standarda se uporablja za sestave, namenjene delovanju v okviru temperaturnega razpona –55 C do +85 C.
Pri temperaturah zunaj tega običajnega razpona se izvede posebno preskušanje zasnove, preverjanja in kvalifikacij, da se zagotovi potrebna okoljska zmožnost preživetja.
Posebni toplotni ponori se uporabljajo za naprave z visokim toplotnim odvajanjem (npr. temperature stika 110 C, močnostni tranzistor), da se zagotovi, da spojeni spoji ne presežejo 85 C.
Preverjanje postopkov sestavov površinsko montiranih elementov se izvaja na testnih plovilih (vzorci preverjanja površinske montaže). Ciklične temperaturne spremembe zagotavljajo operativno življenjsko dobo vesoljskega plovila. Vendar pa mehansko preskušanje podaja samo zanesljivost površinsko montiranih elementov, saj je malo verjetno, da testno plovilo predstavlja konfiguracijo vsakega leta.
Ta standard ne zajema kvalifikacije in sprejemljivosti opreme EQM in FM s površinsko montažo in mešano tehnologijo.
Kvalifikacijski in sprejemljivostni preskusi opreme, izdelane v skladu s tem standardom, so obravnavani v standardu ECSS-E-ST-10-03.
Ta standard se lahko prilagodi posameznim lastnostim in omejitvam vesoljskega projekta v skladu s standardom ECSS-S-ST-00.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Public Enquiry End Date
05-Sep-2018
Publication Date
13-May-2019
Withdrawal Date
08-Sep-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
09-Sep-2021
Due Date
02-Oct-2021
Completion Date
09-Sep-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16602-70-38:2019
01-julij-2019
Zagotavljanje kakovosti proizvodov v vesoljski tehniki - Visoka zanesljivost
spajkanja za površinsko montažo in mešano tehnologijo
Space product assurance - High-reliability soldering for surface-mount and mixed
technology

Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Hochzuverlässiges Löten von Oberflächen-Befestigungen

und gemischte Technologien

Assurance produit spatiale - Soudure haute fiabilité pour technologies à montage de

surface et mixte
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16602-70-38:2019
ICS:
25.160.50 Trdo in mehko lotanje Brazing and soldering
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST EN 16602-70-38:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 16602-70-38:2019
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SIST EN 16602-70-38:2019
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 16602-70-38
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
April 2019
ICS 25.160.50; 49.140
English version
Space product assurance - High-reliability soldering for
surface-mount and mixed technology

Assurance produit des projets spatiaux - Soudure Raumfahrtproduktsicherung - Hochzuverlässiges

haute fiabilité pour technologies à montage de surface Löten von Oberflächen-Befestigungen und gemischte

et mixte Technologien
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 5 October 2018.

CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for

giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical

references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to

any CEN and CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany,

Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,

Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. EN 16602-70-38:2019 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
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EN 16602-70-38:2019 (E)
Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................. 11

Introduction .............................................................................................................. 12

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................... 15

2 Normative references ........................................................................................... 16

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .......................................................... 18

3.1 Terms from other standards .................................................................................... 18

3.2 Terms specific to the present standard ................................................................... 18

3.3 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................... 20

3.4 Nomenclature ......................................................................................................... 21

3.4.1 Formal verbs ............................................................................................. 21

4 Principles of reliable soldered connections ....................................................... 22

5 Process identification document (PID) ............................................................... 23

5.1 General ................................................................................................................... 23

5.1.1 Purpose .................................................................................................... 23

5.1.2 Document preparation ............................................................................... 23

5.1.3 <> .............................................................................................. 23

5.1.4 Approval .................................................................................................... 23

5.1.5 SMT contact person .................................................................................. 24

5.2 <> ........................................................................................................... 24

5.3 Process identification document updating ............................................................... 24

6 Preparatory conditions ........................................................................................ 25

6.1 Calibration .............................................................................................................. 25

6.2 Facility cleanliness .................................................................................................. 25

6.3 Environmental conditions ........................................................................................ 25

6.4 Precautions against static charges ......................................................................... 25

6.5 Lighting requirements ............................................................................................. 25

6.6 Equipment and tools ............................................................................................... 25

6.6.1 Brushes ..................................................................................................... 25

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6.6.2 Cutters and Pliers ..................................................................................... 26

6.6.3 Bending tools ............................................................................................ 26

6.6.4 Clinching tools ........................................................................................... 26

6.6.5 Insulation strippers .................................................................................... 26

6.6.6 Soldering tools .......................................................................................... 26

6.6.7 Soldering irons and resistance soldering equipment ................................. 26

6.6.8 <> .............................................................................................. 26

6.6.9 Solder baths for degolding and pretinning ................................................. 26

6.7 Soldering machines and equipment ........................................................................ 27

6.7.1 General ..................................................................................................... 27

6.7.2 Dynamic wave-solder machines ................................................................ 27

6.7.3 Condensation (vapour phase) reflow machines ......................................... 28

6.7.4 Hot gas reflow machines ........................................................................... 28

6.7.5 <> .............................................................................................. 28

6.7.6 Convection and radiation reflow systems .................................................. 28

6.7.7 Other equipment for reflow soldering ........................................................ 29

6.8 Ancillary equipment ................................................................................................ 29

6.8.1 General ..................................................................................................... 29

6.8.2 Solder deposition equipment ..................................................................... 29

6.8.3 Automatic device placement equipment .................................................... 29

6.8.4 <> .............................................................................................. 29

6.8.5 Cleanliness testing equipment .................................................................. 30

6.8.6 Magnification aids ..................................................................................... 30

6.8.7 X-ray inspection equipment ....................................................................... 30

6.8.8 Metallographic equipment ......................................................................... 30

7 Material selection ................................................................................................. 31

7.1 General ................................................................................................................... 31

7.2 Solder ..................................................................................................................... 31

7.2.1 Form ......................................................................................................... 31

7.2.2 Composition .............................................................................................. 31

7.2.3 Solder paste .............................................................................................. 31

7.2.4 Maintenance of paste purity ...................................................................... 33

7.3 Flux ........................................................................................................................ 33

7.3.1 Rosin based flux ....................................................................................... 33

7.3.2 Corrosive acid flux..................................................................................... 33

7.3.3 Flux controls for wave-soldering equipment .............................................. 33

7.4 Solvents .................................................................................................................. 33

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7.5 Flexible insulation materials .................................................................................... 34

7.6 Terminals ................................................................................................................ 34

7.7 Wires ...................................................................................................................... 34

7.8 Printed circuit substrates......................................................................................... 34

7.8.1 <> .............................................................................................. 34

7.8.2 <> .............................................................................................. 34

7.8.3 <> .............................................................................................. 34

7.8.4 <> .............................................................................................. 34

7.8.5 <> .............................................................................................. 35

7.8.6 <> .............................................................................................. 35

7.9 Devices ................................................................................................................... 35

7.9.1 General ..................................................................................................... 35

7.9.2 <> .............................................................................................. 36

7.9.3 Moisture sensitive devices ........................................................................ 36

7.9.4 <> .............................................................................................. 36

7.10 Adhesives, encapsulants and conformal coatings ................................................... 36

8 Preparation for soldering ..................................................................................... 38

8.1 Preparation of devices and terminals ...................................................................... 38

8.1.1 Preparation of wires and terminals ............................................................ 38

8.1.2 Preparation of surfaces to be soldered ...................................................... 38

8.1.3 Degolding and pretinning of conductors .................................................... 38

8.1.4 Alloying of pure tin finish ........................................................................... 38

8.2 Preparation of solder bit .......................................................................................... 39

8.3 Handling ................................................................................................................. 39

8.4 Storage ................................................................................................................... 39

8.5 Baking of PCBs and moisture sensitive devices ..................................................... 39

9 Mounting of devices prior to soldering .............................................................. 40

9.1 General requirements ............................................................................................. 40

9.2 Lead bending and cutting requirements .................................................................. 40

9.3 Mounting of terminals to PCBs................................................................................ 40

9.4 Lead attachment to through holes ........................................................................... 40

9.5 Mounting of devices to terminals ............................................................................. 40

9.6 Mounting of through hole connectors to PCBs ........................................................ 40

9.7 Surface mount requirements ................................................................................... 41

9.7.1 General ..................................................................................................... 41

9.7.2 Stress relief ............................................................................................... 41

9.7.3 Registration of devices and footprints ....................................................... 42

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9.7.4 Lead forming ............................................................................................. 42

9.7.5 Mounting devices in solder paste .............................................................. 42

9.7.6 Leadless devices ...................................................................................... 43

9.7.7 Leaded devices ......................................................................................... 43

9.7.8 <> .............................................................................................. 43

9.7.9 Stacking and bonding of heavy devices .................................................... 43

10 Attachment of conductors to terminals, solder cups and cables .................. 45

11 Soldering to printed circuit boards ................................................................... 46

11.1 General ................................................................................................................... 46

11.2 <> ........................................................................................................... 46

11.3 Solder applications to PCBs ................................................................................... 46

11.4 Wicking ................................................................................................................... 46

11.5 Soldering of SMDs .................................................................................................. 46

11.5.1 General requirements ............................................................................... 46

11.5.2 End-capped and end-metallized devices ................................................... 47

11.5.3 Bottom terminated chip devices ................................................................ 49

11.5.4 Cylindrical and square end-capped devices .............................................. 50

11.5.5 Castellated chip carrier devices................................................................. 52

11.5.6 Flat pack and Gull-wing leaded devices with round, rectangular,

ribbon leads .............................................................................................. 53

11.5.7 Devices with “J” leads ............................................................................... 54

11.5.8 Area array devices .................................................................................... 54

11.5.9 Devices with ribbon terminals without stress relief .................................... 56

11.5.10 L-Shape inwards devices .......................................................................... 57

11.5.11 Stacked modules devices with leads protruding vertically from bottom...... 58

11.5.12 Leaded device with plane termination ....................................................... 59

11.5.13 Moulded magnetics ................................................................................... 59

11.6 <> ........................................................................................................... 60

11.7 <> ........................................................................................................... 60

11.8 <> ........................................................................................................... 60

12 Cleaning of PCB assemblies ............................................................................. 61

12.1 General ................................................................................................................... 61

12.2 Ultrasonic cleaning ................................................................................................. 61

12.3 Monitoring for cleanliness ....................................................................................... 61

13 Final inspection .................................................................................................. 62

13.1 General ................................................................................................................... 62

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13.2 Acceptance criteria ................................................................................................. 62

13.3 Visual rejection criteria ............................................................................................ 63

13.4 X-ray rejection criterion ........................................................................................... 65

13.5 Warp and twist of populated boards ........................................................................ 65

13.6 Inspection records .................................................................................................. 65

14 Verification procedure........................................................................................ 66

14.1 General ................................................................................................................... 66

14.2 Verification by similarity .......................................................................................... 68

14.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 68

14.2.2 Conditions for similarity ............................................................................. 69

14.3 Verification programme ........................................................................................... 71

14.4 Electrical testing of devices ..................................................................................... 75

14.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 75

14.5 Vibration and shock ................................................................................................ 78

14.6 Temperature cycling test......................................................................................... 78

14.7 Microsection ........................................................................................................... 79

14.7.1 Microsection facilities ................................................................................ 79

14.7.2 Microsectioning ......................................................................................... 79

14.8 <> ........................................................................................................... 95

14.9 Special verification testing for hermetic ceramic area array packages .................... 95

14.9.1 <> .............................................................................................. 95

14.9.2 <> .............................................................................................. 95

14.9.3 General ..................................................................................................... 95

14.9.4 Evaluation of capability samples ............................................................... 98

14.9.5 Verification ................................................................................................ 98

14.10 Verification acceptance and rejection criteria .......................................................... 99

14.11 Approval of verification ......................................................................................... 108

14.12 Withdrawal of approval status ............................................................................... 108

14.13 Conditions for delta verification ............................................................................. 108

14.14 Verification of cleanliness ..................................................................................... 111

14.15 Verification approval procedure ............................................................................ 111

14.15.1 Request for verification ........................................................................... 111

14.15.2 Technology sample ................................................................................. 111

14.15.3 Audit of assembly processing .................................................................. 111

14.15.4 Verification programme ........................................................................... 112

14.15.5 Final verification review ........................................................................... 112

14.15.6 Certification approval of assembly line .................................................... 112

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15 Quality assurance ............................................................................................. 113

15.1 General ................................................................................................................. 113

15.2 Data ...................................................................................................................... 113

15.3 Nonconformance .................................................................................................. 113

15.4 Calibration ............................................................................................................ 113

15.5 Traceability ........................................................................................................... 113

15.6 Workmanship standards ....................................................................................... 113

15.7 Inspection ............................................................................................................. 114

15.8 Operator and inspector training and certification ................................................... 114

15.9 Quality records ..................................................................................................... 114

16 <> ............................... 115

Annex A (informative) <> ..................................................................... 116

Annex B (informative) <

Annex H>> .......................................................................................................... 117

Annex C (informative) <> ..................................................................... 118

Annex D (informative) Example of an SMT audit report ..................................... 119

Annex E (informative) Additional information .................................................... 128

E.1 <> ......................................................................................................... 128

E.2 Melting temperatures and choice .......................................................................... 128

Annex F (normative) Process Identification Document (PID) - DRD ................. 129

F.1 DRD identification ................................................................................................. 129

F.1.1 Requirement identification and source document .................................... 129

F.1.2 Purpose and objective ............................................................................. 129

F.2 Expected response ............................................................................................... 129

F.2.1 Scope and content .................................................................................. 129

F.2.2 Special remarks ...................................................................................... 131

Annex G (normative) Verification programme report - DRD .............................. 132

G.1 DRD identification ................................................................................................. 132

G.1.1 Requirement identification and source document .................................... 132

G.1.2 Purpose and objective ............................................................................. 132

G.2 Expected response ............................................................................................... 132

G.2.1 Scope and content .................................................................................. 132

G.2.2 Special remarks ...................................................................................... 133

Annex H (normative) SMT summary table - DRD ................................................ 134

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H.1 DRD identification ................................................................................................. 134

H.1.1 Requirement identification and source document .................................... 134

H.1.2 Purpose and objective ............................................................................. 134

H.2 Expected response ............................................................................................... 134

H.2.1 Scope and content .................................................................................. 134

H.2.2 Special remarks ...................................................................................... 134

Annex I (informative) Visual and X-ray workmanship standards ...................... 136

I.1 Workmanship illustrations for standard SMDs ....................................................... 136

I.1.1 Chip components .................................................................................... 136

I.1.2 MELF components .................................................................................. 139

I.1.3 Gull-wing leaded devices with round, rectangular, ribbon shape ............. 140

I.1.4 “J” leaded devices ................................................................................... 142

I.1.5 L-shape Inward leaded component ......................................................... 144

I.1.6 LCC devices............................................................................................ 144

I.1.7 Miscellaneous soldering defects.............................................................. 145

I.2 Workmanship illustrations for ball grid array devices ............................................. 146

I.3 Workmanship illustrations for column grid array devices ....................................... 148

Bibliography ..........................................
...

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