Energy performance of buildings - Method for calculation of system energy requirements and system efficiencies - Part 6-5: Explanation and justification of EN 15316-4-2, Module M3-8

This Technical Report (CEN/TR 15316-6-5) specifies details for EN 15316-4-2 and gives additional information for the application of EN 15316-4-2.

Heizungsanlagen und Wasserbasierte Kühlanlagen in Gebäuden - Verfahren zur Berechnung der Energieanforderungen und Nutzungsgrade der Anlagen - Teil 6-5: Begleitende TR zur EN 15316-4-2 (Wärmeerzeugung für die Raumheizung, Wärmepumpensysteme)

Performance énergétique des bâtiments - Méthode de calcul des besoins énergétiques et des rendements des systèmes - Partie 6-5: Explication et justification de l'EN 15316-4-2, Module M3-8

Le présent Rapport technique se rapporte à l'EN 15316-4-2 qui couvre le module M3-8.
Il contient des informations pour aider à la compréhension, l''utilisation et l’adaptation nationale correctes de l'EN 15316-4-2.
Le présent Rapport technique ne contient aucune disposition normative.

Energijske lastnosti stavb - Metoda za izračun energijskih zahtev in učinkovitosti sistema - 6-5. del: Razlaga in utemeljitev EN 15316-4-2 - Modul M3-8

To tehnično poročilo (CEN/TR 15316-6-5) določa podrobnosti za standard EN 15316-4-2 in podaja dodatne informacije za uporabo standarda EN 15316-4-2.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
09-Jan-2017
Publication Date
18-Apr-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
05-Apr-2018
Due Date
10-Jun-2018
Completion Date
19-Apr-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15316-6-5:2018
01-maj-2018

(QHUJLMVNHODVWQRVWLVWDYE0HWRGD]DL]UDþXQHQHUJLMVNLK]DKWHYLQXþLQNRYLWRVWL

VLVWHPDGHO5D]ODJDLQXWHPHOMLWHY(10RGXO0

Energy performance of buildings - Method for calculation of system energy requirements

and system efficiencies - Part 6-5: Explanation and justification of EN 15316-4-2, Module

M3-8
Heizungsanlagen und Wasserbasierte Kühlanlagen in Gebäuden - Verfahren zur
Berechnung der Energieanforderungen und Nutzungsgrade der Anlagen - Teil 6-5:
Begleitende TR zur EN 15316-4-2 (Wärmeerzeugung für die Raumheizung,
Wärmepumpensysteme)

Performance énergétique des bâtiments - Méthode de calcul des besoins énergétiques

et des rendements des systèmes - Partie 6-5: Explication et justification de l'EN 15316-4-

2, Module M3-8
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 15316-6-5:2017
ICS:
27.080 7RSORWQHþUSDONH Heat pumps
91.140.10 Sistemi centralnega Central heating systems
ogrevanja
SIST-TP CEN/TR 15316-6-5:2018 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 15316-6-5:2018
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 15316-6-5:2018
CEN/TR 15316-6-5
TECHNICAL REPORT
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
April 2017
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
ICS 91.140.10; 91.120.10
English Version
Energy performance of buildings - Method for calculation
of system energy requirements and system efficiencies -
Part 6-5: Explanation and justification of EN 15316-4-2,
Module M3-8

Performance énergétique des bâtiments - Méthode de Heizungsanlagen und Wasserbasierte Kühlanlagen in

calcul des besoins énergétiques et des rendements des Gebäuden - Verfahren zur Berechnung der

systèmes - Partie 6-5: Explication et justification de Energieanforderungen und Nutzungsgrade der

l'EN 15316-4-2, Module M3-8 Anlagen - Teil 6-9: Begleitende TR zur EN 15316-4-2
(Wärmeerzeugung für die Raumheizung,
Wärmepumpensysteme)

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 27 February 2017. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC

228.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 15316-6-5:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 7

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Symbols and abbreviations ......................................................................................................................... 8

4.1 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2 Subscripts ........................................................................................................................................................... 8

5 Information on the method ......................................................................................................................... 8

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6 Method description ........................................................................................................................................ 9

6.1 Rationale ............................................................................................................................................................ 9

6.2 Time steps ....................................................................................................................................................... 10

6.3 Assumptions ................................................................................................................................................... 10

6.4 Data input ....................................................................................................................................................... 10

6.4.1 Energy required ............................................................................................................................................ 10

6.4.2 COP and thermal capacity ......................................................................................................................... 10

6.4.3 Other parameters and coefficients ........................................................................................................ 11

6.5 Calculation methods .................................................................................................................................... 11

6.5.1 Calculation of COP and thermal capacity based on EN 14511 — Path A .................................. 11

6.5.2 Calculation of COP and thermal capacity based on EN 14825 (path B) .................................... 13

6.5.3 Time of operation of the heat pump in part load operation ......................................................... 13

6.5.4 Monthly and annual method .................................................................................................................... 13

6.5.5 Auxiliary .......................................................................................................................................................... 14

6.6 Calculation information ............................................................................................................................. 14

7 Worked out example ................................................................................................................................... 14

7.1 Description ..................................................................................................................................................... 14

7.2 Calculation details ....................................................................................................................................... 14

7.2.1 Example 1 – Path A - Hourly method based on a single reference value for COP and

thermal capacity ........................................................................................................................................... 14

7.2.2 Example 2 – Path B – Hourly method based on results at part load .......................................... 14

7.2.3 Example 3 – Annual / Monthly method ................................................................................................ 15

7.3 Remarks and comments ............................................................................................................................ 15

8 Application range ......................................................................................................................................... 15

8.1 Energy performance.................................................................................................................................... 15

8.2 Energy certificate ......................................................................................................................................... 15

8.3 Inspection ....................................................................................................................................................... 15

8.4 System complexity ....................................................................................................................................... 15

9 Regulation use ............................................................................................................................................... 15

10 Information on the accompanying spreadsheet ............................................................................... 15

11 Results of the validation tests .................................................................................................................. 15

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12 Quality issues ................................................................................................................................................. 15

Annex A (informative) Calculation flowchart – Path A ................................................................................... 16

Annex B (informative) Path A - Calculation example ...................................................................................... 17

Annex C (informative) Path B - Hourly method ................................................................................................ 31

C.1 Input data ........................................................................................................................................................ 31

C.2 – Calculation procedure ............................................................................................................................. 33

Annex D (informative) Path B – monthly/annual method ............................................................................ 35

D.1 Additional input data to Annex C ............................................................................................................ 35

D.2 Example of results ........................................................................................................................................ 36

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 39

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European foreword

This document (CEN/TR 15316-6-5:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 228

“Heating systems and water based cooling systems in buildings”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association.
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Introduction
The set of EPB standards, technical reports and supporting tools

In order to facilitate the necessary overall consistency and coherence, in terminology, approach,

input/output relations and formats, for the whole set of EPB-standards, the following documents and

tools are available:
a) a document with basic principles to be followed in drafting EPB-standards:

CEN/TS 16628:2014, Energy Performance of Buildings - Basic Principles for the set of EPB standards

[2];

b) a document with detailed technical rules to be followed in drafting EPB-standards;

CEN/TS 16629:2014, Energy Performance of Buildings - Detailed Technical Rules for the set of EPB-

standards [3];
c) the detailed technical rules are the basis for the following tools:

1) a common template for each EPB-standard, including specific drafting instructions for the

relevant clauses;

2) a common template for each technical report that accompanies an EPB standard or a cluster of

EPB standards, including specific drafting instructions for the relevant clauses;

3) a common template for the spreadsheet that accompanies each EPB standard, to demonstrate

the correctness of the EPB calculation procedures.

Each EPB-standards follows the basic principles and the detailed technical rules and relates to the

overarching EPB-standard, EN ISO 52000-1 [4].

One of the main purposes of the revision of the EPB-standards is to enable that laws and regulations

directly refer to the EPB-standards and make compliance with them compulsory. This requires that the

set of EPB-standards consists of a systematic, clear, comprehensive and unambiguous set of energy

performance procedures. The number of options provided is kept as low as possible, taking into

account national and regional differences in climate, culture and building tradition, policy and legal

frameworks (subsidiarity principle). For each option, an informative default option is provided

(Annex B).
Rationale behind the EPB technical reports

There is a risk that the purpose and limitations of the EPB standards will be misunderstood, unless the

background and context to their contents – and the thinking behind them – is explained in some detail

to readers of the standards. Consequently, various types of informative contents are recorded and made

available for users to properly understand, apply and nationally or regionally implement the EPB

standards.

If this explanation would have been attempted in the standards themselves, the result is likely to be

confusing and cumbersome, especially if the standards are implemented or referenced in national or

regional building codes.

Therefore each EPB standard is accompanied by an informative technical report, like this one, where all

informative content is collected, to ensure a clear separation between normative and informative

contents (see CEN/TS 16629 [3]):

— to avoid flooding and confusing the actual normative part with informative content,

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— to reduce the page count of the actual standard, and
— to facilitate understanding of the set of EPB standards.

This was also one of the main recommendations from the European CENSE project [5] that laid the

foundation for the preparation of the set of EPB standards.
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1 Scope
This Technical Report refers to EN 15316-4-2, covering module M3-8.

It contains information to support the correct understanding, use and national adaptation of EN 15316-

4-2.
This Technical Report does not contain any normative provision.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 15316-4-2:2017, Energy performance of buildings — Method for calculation of system energy

requirements and system efficiencies — Part 4-2: Space heating generation systems, heat pump systems,

Module M3-8-2, M8-8-2

EN 15603, Energy performance of buildings — Overall energy use and definition of energy ratings

EN ISO 7345, Thermal insulation — Physical quantities and definitions (ISO 7345)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 7345, EN 15603,

EN 15316-4-2 and the following apply.
3.1
bivalent temperature
ϑbiv;ref

outdoor temperature declared by the supplier for heating at which the declared capacity for heating

equals the part load for heating and below which the declared capacity for heating requires

supplementary capacity for heating to meet the part load for heating, expressed in degrees Celsius

Note 1 to entry: This definition corresponds to the terms of EN 14825.

Note 2 to entry: In the context of EN 15316-4-2, the bivalent temperature ϑbiv is adapted to the thermal load of

the building and is different from the EN 14825 conditions which means:

1) Input data consider temperatures, thermal capacities and COP based on the test conditions identified from

EN 14825,

2) This EN 14825 bivalent temperature ϑbiv;ref,COPref and thermal capacity data is used as part of the EN 14825

dataset to interpolate COP and capacity for each time step (operating condition) (using Path B)

3) EN 15316-4-2 determines a specific bivalent temperature for each time step (operating condition), which is

different to the Manufacturer declared value (from EN 14825 data), to determine back-up requirement

4) Practically the bivalent temperature is a fixed value declared in the input data ϑbiv and use for control of the

additional heating system when thermal capacity does not fulfill the thermal capacity required.

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4 Symbols and abbreviations
4.1 Symbols

For the purposes of this document, the symbols given in EN 15603 and in EN 15316-4-2 apply.

4.2 Subscripts

For the purposes of this document, subscripts given in EN 15603 and in EN 15316-4-2 apply.

5 Information on the method
5.1 General

The method calculates the thermal energy provided by heat pump systems for heating of domestic hot

water use.

Table 1 explains how the information and output of the calculation are used in such multiple systems.

In this case, the heat pump, including its integrated back-up system (if any) is considered as the priority

generator.
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Table 1 — Heat pump systems and interaction with other generators
Building need calculation Product data
standard COP,ϑin;ϑ ;Φ
out
QH;out;nd – QW;out;nd
Emission, distribution
standard
Σ QHWC;dis;in
Operating conditions and multiple generators and storage standards
Next generator
Priority generator
Conditions Time Φgen;H Φgen;H Φgen;sto ϑgen;in ϑgen;out;X
Time step
Heat pump and integrated back-up and storage procedure
1 Φ Φ Φ
gen;in gen;aux gen;bu
E E
H;gen;in W;H;sto;gen;out
Total delivered energy
6 Method description
6.1 Rationale

Depending of the input data provided 2 paths can be used for the calculation of the energy performance

of the heat pump generation system
Path A is based on a single reference value.
Path B is based on performances of the heat pump according to EN 14825.

Depending on the thermal power and temperature determined form the operating conditions and from

the distribution systems, the following values are calculated:
— energy delivered to the heat pump systems;
— COP (coefficient of performance);
— energy for auxiliaries;
— recoverable thermal losses.
The calculation is processed in 2 stages:
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— determination of energy used from and delivered to at full load for the non nominal operating

conditions;

— determination of energy used from and delivered to the heat pump systems at part load.

A flowchart is given in Annex A.
6.2 Time steps
Time step is typically:
— hourly;
— bin;
— monthly (or annual) based on bin approach.
6.3 Assumptions

The matrix for COP and power of the heat pump at the nominal condition is calculated at the beginning

of the calculation. It is assumed that the COP and power vary linearly within the narrowest values of the

matrix.

Energy is delivered to the distribution system at the beginning of the step time.

The energy for auxiliaries is considered as proportion of the operative time of the heat pump.

Dynamic effects due to transient thermal conditions are transformed into a time delay depending on the

type of emitters and of the temperature to be achieved at the output of the heat pump system.

Heat pump is considered operating at full load for DWH energy use.
6.4 Data input
6.4.1 Energy required

The energy and temperature requirements are issued from EN 15316-3, including thermal gains and

impact of the control system on the energy demand.

For annual and monthly method, the default energy demand for heating is based on the design

temperature of the building. The impacts of control system (reduced temperature during the night or

occupancy) and thermal gains (activity, type of building, solar gains) are introduced as weighting

factors. These weighting factors can be supersedes based on national methods, as internal gains are

assumed not to be in proportion of the external temperature and impact of the reduced temperature

increase with the external temperature.
6.4.2 COP and thermal capacity
Thermal capacity and COP are the declared values by the manufacturer.

Path A is based on a reference value for COP and thermal capacity at full load. Default values are

proposed to calculate COP and thermal capacity for any conditions at full load. If available, the user of

the method can adapt the default multiplying factors to the performance of the heat pump as for

example more than one value are available (e.g. air-to-water heat pump with a lot of values according to

EN 14511: -7/35, 2/35, 7/35, -7/55, 7/55).

User should mind that the test values of EN 14511 have not to be and are not at 100 % capacity of

inverter-controlled heat pump. That means, mostly the values at -7 °C or -15 °C are at 100 % capacity,

but the values at 2 °C, 7 °C or higher may be given at a lower capacity (e.g. 60 %). That means, the usage

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of these values shall take into consideration a quadruple of values: air temperature, flow temperature,

capacity of the heat pump and COP-value.

Correction of temperature spread under operational condition is proposed in Annex D, based on

additional information (e.g. an average mass flow and the design condition temperature spread). If this

information is not available the correction of temperature spread is neglected.
6.4.3 Other parameters and coefficients

— f is introduced as a degradation factor. The factor depends on the temperature output and

gen;R;cont;min
° °
may vary from 0,7 (65 C) to 0,95 (30 C).
ϑ − 30
h;;gen out
[-] (1)
f = 0,95−×0,25
gen;;LR cont;min
65 − 30

NOTE The influence is low as this factor only influences the energy calculation when the load ratio is lower

than a determined value LRcont;min. Global impact of energy used by the heat pump system is less than 1 % on the

annual amount of energy used by the heat pump.

— f is a factor accounting for the reduced mode of the room temperature during unoccupancy or

gen;ctrl
night (for residential is the function is activated)

— τ is a factor depending of the type of emitters at the output of the heat pump systems. The

out,em,type

factor is related to the inertia of the installation. In the case of an external buffer storage, the value

of the factor used for high inertia emitters can be considered if not accounted in the model of the

storage unit
6.5 Calculation methods
6.5.1 Calculation of COP and thermal capacity based on EN 14511 — Path A
6.5.1.1 General

Correction of temperature spread under operational condition is proposed in Annex D, based on

addtionnal information (e.g. an average mass flow and the design condition temperature spread). If this

information is not available the correction of temperature spread is neglected
6.5.1.2 Correction of COP for part load operation – Path A

The advantages of controllable heat pumps are taken into account if test values of the controllable heat

pump at maximum and minimum capacity are available.

The maximum and minimum capacity curves are valid at each flow temperature (e.g. 35 °C or 45 °C or

55 °C or 65 °C – according to EN 14511) and regard the dependency of the COP-value on source

temperature (air) and capacity of the heat pump (relative and absolute capacity).

The maximum curve is yielded when a linear interpolation and extrapolation is carried out with the test

values at maximum capacity at one flow temperature. Figure 1 shows a possible maximum capacity

curve at one flow temperature in dependency on external temperature (key 4).The minimum capacity

curve (key 3 and 4) can be obtained in dependency on available test values: method A-1 (only 1 value of

minimum curve is available) and method A-2 (more than 1 value of minimum curve is available).

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Keys
1 external temperature X Results for tests values
2 thermal capacity O additional test results
3 ON/OFF mode A test point a -7 C
4 minimum capacity for modulating mode B test point a +2 C
5 minimum capacity for modulating mode C test point a +7 C
6 ON/OFF operation of the Heat pump D test point a +12 C
7 need for additional heat generator F Temperature Operative Limit

Figure 1 — Example of construction of the thermal capacity of heat pump based on one value

Method A-1 (only 1 value of minimum curve is available): The relationship of maximum and minimum

capacity at one external temperature defines the control range at this flow temperature.

This relation is used for all values at maximum capacity curve. So the minimum capacity curve is build

up.
min;test,i
QQ× [kWh] (2)
min,,i max i
max;test,i

Method A-2 (more than 1 value of minimum curve is available): The known minimum test values are

interpolated linearly. An extrapolation is carried out according to method 1 where the closest known

test value is responsible for the relation of the minimum and maximum value.

It is assumed that the heat pump cannot deliver a controllable capacity out of the control range. That

means a second heat generator is needed about the maximum curve. Below the minimum curve an

ON/OFF-operation takes place.
Within the control range the COP-values are linearly interpolated.
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If the current flow temperature is between test flow temperatures, a linear interpolation has to be

carried out.

Zone above the maximal thermal capacity (key 7) identifies the need for an additional generator.

Table 13 of EN 15316-4-2:2017 introduces different values associated with the inertia of the emitters at

the output of the heat pump. As radiator, for example are covering a wide range of volume and weight,

the time constant τ can be adapted to local type of radiators and emitters.
out,em,type
6.5.2 Calculation of COP and thermal capacity based on EN 14825 (path B)

Path B is based on energy performance data obtained from tests according to EN 14825.

Choice is left to use the results corresponding to the climate conditions of the environment of the

building.
6.5.3 Time of operation of the heat pump in part load operation

For part load the operating time of a controllable heat pump is larger than the operating time of an one-

stage heat pump at full load. The controllable heat pump delivers a lower heating power during a longer

heating time than a one-stage heat pump.
Formula 16 delivers a sum for t and t .
H sto

Because of different control possibilities, the ‘storage’ mode may be characterised with an explicit

calculation of the time for space heating and storage in part load:
a) by the same operational conditions (part load) like space heating or;
b) by using the full capacity of the heat pump.

These both modes are separated. The following explanation describes this with case a und b.

The time of space heating mode is calculated according to:
* H ;gen;;out req
t = [h]
H ;;gen LRy
t = { t + t ;if using the same operational conditions (case a)
H H sto
t ;if using the full capacity of the heat pump (case b)
Q = { Q + Q ; if case a
H;gen;out;req H;gen;out ;req sto;gen;out;req
Q ; if case b
H;gen;out;req
tsto = { Qsto;gen;out;req/Φsto;gen;LRy ; if case a
Q /Φ ; if case b
sto;gen;out;req sto;gen;LR100
6.5.4 Monthly and annual method

The number of hours for any specific bin are based on national data, depending of the location of the

building.

As default the value for the average climate defined in EN 14825 have been introduced.

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