Paper, board and pulps -- General requirements for the competence of laboratories authorized for the issue of optical reference transfer standards of level 3

This document provides both general requirements and specific requirements (Annex A) for laboratories
seeking to become “Authorized Laboratories (ALs)” and to maintain their Authorized Laboratory status
for the issue of optical reference transfer standards of level 3. This document follows the requirements
and adopts the format of ISO/IEC 17025, with the aims of:
a) establishing and maintaining international optical reference transfer standards of level 2 (IR2)
traceable to an international optical reference primary standard of level 1 (IR1) maintained by a
standardizing laboratory;
b) distributing traceability required to achieve inter-laboratory agreement in the results of test
methods specified in International Standards for optical properties of paper, board or pulp;
c) participating in the design and development of new methods and international harmonization of
procedures.
When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered by this document, such as
sampling and the design/development of new methods, the requirements of those clauses do not apply.
This document is for use by specified laboratories authorized to issue optical reference transfer
standards in developing their management system for quality, administrative and technical operations.
Laboratory customers, regulatory authorities and accreditation bodies can also use it in confirming or
recognizing the competence of laboratories.
NOTE It might be necessary to explain or interpret certain requirements in this document to ensure that
the requirements are applied in a consistent manner. Guidance for consistent application can be obtained from
Technical Committee ISO/TC 6.

Papiers, cartons et pâtes -- Exigences générales concernant la compétence des laboratoires autorisés pour la délivrance des étalons de référence de transfert optique de niveau 3

ISO 4094:2017 sp�cifie � la fois les exigences g�n�rales et les exigences sp�cifiques (Annexe A) pour les laboratoires souhaitant devenir des �laboratoires agr��s� (AL) et conserver leur statut de laboratoires agr��s pour la d�livrance d'�talons de r�f�rence de transfert optiques de niveau 3. Le pr�sent document suit les exigences et adopte le format de l'ISO/IEC 17025, dans le but:
a) d'�tablir et de maintenir des �talons de r�f�rence de transfert optiques internationaux de niveau 2 (IR2) pouvant �tre reli�s � un �talon primaire de r�f�rence optique international de niveau 1 (IR1) maintenu par un laboratoire de r�f�rence;
b) de diffuser la tra�abilit� requise pour obtenir une concordance interlaboratoires des r�sultats lors de l'utilisation de m�thodes d'essai sp�cifi�es dans des Normes internationales relatives aux propri�t�s optiques des papiers, cartons ou p�tes;
c) de participer � la conception et au d�veloppement de nouvelles m�thodes et � l'harmonisation des proc�dures � l'�chelle internationale.
Lorsqu'un laboratoire ne proc�de pas � une ou plusieurs des activit�s trait�es dans le pr�sent document, telles que l'�chantillonnage et la conception/le d�veloppement de nouvelles m�thodes, les exigences des articles concern�s ne s'appliquent pas.
ISO 4094:2017 est destin� � �tre utilis� par les laboratoires mandat�s autoris�s � d�livrer des �talons de r�f�rence de transfert optiques qui �laborent leur syst�me de management pour la qualit� et les activit�s administratives et techniques. Il peut �galement �tre utilis� par les clients des laboratoires, les autorit�s r�glementaires et les organismes d'accr�ditation pour confirmer ou reconna�tre la comp�tence des laboratoires.
NOTE Il pourrait se r�v�ler utile d'expliquer ou d'interpr�ter certaines exigences du pr�sent document afin d'assurer que les exigences sont appliqu�es de mani�re coh�rente. Des lignes directrices pour une application coh�rente peuvent �tre obtenues aupr�s du comit� technique ISO/TC 6.

Papir, karton, lepenka in vlaknine - Splošne zahteve za usposobljenost laboratorijev, ki so pooblaščeni za izdajanje optičnih referenčnih standardov na stopnji 3

Ta dokument podaja tako splošne zahteve kot posebne zahteve (dodatek A) za laboratorije, ki želijo postati »pooblaščeni laboratoriji (AL)« in status pooblaščenega laboratorija ohraniti za izdajanje optičnih referenčnih standardov na stopnji 3. Ta dokument upošteva zahteve in sprejema obliko standarda ISO/IEC 17025 z namenom:
a) vzpostavitve in vzdrževanja mednarodnih optičnih referenčnih standardov na stopnji 2 (IR2) s sledljivostjo do mednarodnega optičnega referenčnega standarda na stopnji 1 (IR1), ki ga vzdržuje laboratorij za standardizacijo;
b) porazdelitve sledljivosti, ki je potrebna za doseganje medlaboratorijskega sporazuma glede rezultatov preskusnih metod, določenih v mednarodnih standardih za optične lastnosti papirja, kartona, lepenke in vlaknin;
c) sodelovanja pri oblikovanju in razvoju novih metod ter mednarodnem usklajevanju postopkov.
Če laboratorij ne izvaja ene ali več dejavnosti, zajete v tem dokumentu, na primer vzorčenja in oblikovanja/razvoja novih metod, se zahteve teh točk ne uporabljajo.
Ta dokument je namenjen za določene laboratorije, pooblaščene za izdajanje optičnih referenčnih standardov pri razvijanju svojega sistema vodenja kakovosti ter upravnih in tehničnih operacij. Uporabljajo ga lahko tudi odjemalci laboratorija, zakonodajni organi in akreditacijski organi pri potrjevanju ali priznavanju usposobljenosti laboratorijev.
OPOMBA: Določene zahteve tega dokumenta bo morda treba pojasniti ali razložiti, da se zagotovi njihova dosledna uporaba. Smernice za dosledno uporabo so na voljo pri tehničnem odboru ISO/TC 6.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
19-Dec-2018
Publication Date
05-Dec-2018
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
06-Dec-2018
Due Date
10-Feb-2019
Completion Date
06-Dec-2018

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 4094
Third edition
2017-12
Paper, board and pulps — General
requirements for the competence of
laboratories authorized for the issue
of optical reference transfer standards
of level 3
Papiers, cartons et pâtes — Exigences générales concernant la
compétence des laboratoires autorisés pour la délivrance des étalons
de référence de transfert optique de niveau 3
Reference number
ISO 4094:2017(E)
ISO 2017
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 4094:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 4094:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Management requirements for Authorized Laboratories ......................................................................................... 3

4.1 Organization .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.2 Management system .......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3 Document control ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.3.2 Document approval and issue .............................................................................................................................. 5

4.3.3 Document changes ......................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Review of requests, tenders and contracts ..................................................................................................................... 6

4.5 Subcontracting of calibrations................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.6 Purchasing services and supplies ........................................................................................................................................... 7

4.7 Service to the customer ................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.8 Complaints .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

4.9 Control of nonconforming testing and/or calibration work ........................................................................... 8

4.10 Improvement ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.11 Corrective action ................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.11.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.11.2 Cause analysis .................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.11.3 Selection and implementation of corrective actions ........................................................................ 9

4.11.4 Monitoring of corrective actions ........................................................................................................................ 9

4.11.5 Additional audits.............................................................................................................................................................. 9

4.12 Preventive action ................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.13 Control of records ..............................................................................................................................................................................10

4.13.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

4.13.2 Technical records..........................................................................................................................................................10

4.14 Internal audits ......................................................................................................................................................................................11

4.15 Management reviews .....................................................................................................................................................................11

5 Technical requirements .............................................................................................................................................................................12

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.2 Personnel ..................................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.3 Accommodation and environmental conditions ....................................................................................................13

5.4 Test and calibration methods and method validation .......................................................................................14

5.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................14

5.4.2 Selection of methods .................................................................................................................................................14

5.4.3 Laboratory-developed methods ......................................................................................................................14

5.4.4 Non-standard methods ...........................................................................................................................................15

5.4.5 Validation of methods ........................................................................................................................................... ....15

5.4.6 Estimation of uncertainty of measurement ...........................................................................................16

5.4.7 Control of data ................................................................................................................................................................16

5.5 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................................17

5.6 Measurement traceability ..........................................................................................................................................................18

5.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................18

5.6.2 Specific requirements – calibration ..............................................................................................................18

5.6.3 Reference standards and reference materials .....................................................................................18

5.7 Proficiency testing and inter-laboratory comparisons .....................................................................................19

5.8 Sampling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................19

5.9 Handling of test and calibration items ............................................................................................................................19

5.10 Assuring the quality of test and calibration results .............................................................................................20

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 4094:2017(E)

5.11 Reporting the results ......................................................................................................................................................................20

5.11.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................20

5.11.2 Test reports and calibration certificates ..................................................................................................21

5.11.3 Test reports........................................................................................................................................................................21

5.11.4 Calibration certificates.............................................................................................................................................22

5.11.5 Opinions and interpretations .................. ...........................................................................................................22

5.11.6 Electronic transmission of results .................................................................................................................22

5.11.7 Format of reports and certificates .................................................................................................................22

5.11.8 Amendments to test reports and calibration certificates ..........................................................23

Annex A (normative) Specific requirements for laboratories authorized to issue optical

property reference transfer standards of level 3 ............................................................................................................24

Annex B (informative) ISO/TC 6 measurement quantities and standards included in the

scope of this standard ..................................................................................................................................................................................28

Annex C (informative) Example of certificate of compliance as an Authorized Laboratory

meeting the requirements of this document .......................................................................................................................29

Annex D (informative) Table of contents for Authorized Laboratory biennial report ..................................30

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................32

iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 4094:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 6, Paper, board and pulps.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 4094:2005). This version underwent

major changes and now follows the requirements and adopts the format of ISO/IEC 17025.

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 4094:2017(E)
Introduction

The main objectives of standardization of testing methods are to create the means by which comparable

results can be obtained on different occasions, with different instruments and in different laboratories,

and to control the processes that determine the acceptability of a product. Most testing methods for

paper, board and pulps are linked by some type of reference standards to which the numerical results

are to be related. In many cases, the comparison is made by means of readily available instruments of

appropriate accuracy: for example, a balance with certified weights, a chronometer, a calibrated length-

measuring device such as a micrometer, etc. However, in certain instances, the relation to the reference

standard may not be obvious, or there may be practical problems in measuring particular properties;

the test method should therefore include additional instructions for ensuring reasonable accuracy of the

results. This may be accomplished with the aid of transfer standards, when the results are related either

to certain properties of a unique reference standard, or to results obtained at specified laboratories

entrusted with the performance of certain delicate measurements. Standardizing Laboratories and

Authorized Laboratories act as links in supplying the transfer standards required.

The acceptance of testing and calibration results between countries will be facilitated if specified

laboratories authorized to issue optical reference transfer standards comply with this document or if

they obtain accreditation from bodies which have entered into mutual recognition agreements with

equivalent bodies in other countries using this document.

The use of this document will facilitate cooperation between specified laboratories authorized to issue

optical reference transfer standards and other bodies, and assist in the exchange of information and

experience, and in the harmonization of calibration standards and procedures.

A laboratory’s fulfilment of the requirements of this document means the laboratory meets both the

general and specific technical competence requirements, and the management system requirements

that are necessary for it to consistently deliver technically valid results.
vi © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 4094:2017(E)
Paper, board and pulps — General requirements for the
competence of laboratories authorized for the issue of
optical reference transfer standards of level 3
1 Scope

This document provides both general requirements and specific requirements (Annex A) for laboratories

seeking to become “Authorized Laboratories (ALs)” and to maintain their Authorized Laboratory status

for the issue of optical reference transfer standards of level 3. This document follows the requirements

and adopts the format of ISO/IEC 17025, with the aims of:

a) establishing and maintaining international optical reference transfer standards of level 2 (IR2)

traceable to an international optical reference primary standard of level 1 (IR1) maintained by a

standardizing laboratory;

b) distributing traceability required to achieve inter-laboratory agreement in the results of test

methods specified in International Standards for optical properties of paper, board or pulp;

c) participating in the design and development of new methods and international harmonization of

procedures.

When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered by this document, such as

sampling and the design/development of new methods, the requirements of those clauses do not apply.

This document is for use by specified laboratories authorized to issue optical reference transfer

standards in developing their management system for quality, administrative and technical operations.

Laboratory customers, regulatory authorities and accreditation bodies can also use it in confirming or

recognizing the competence of laboratories.

NOTE It might be necessary to explain or interpret certain requirements in this document to ensure that

the requirements are applied in a consistent manner. Guidance for consistent application can be obtained from

Technical Committee ISO/TC 6.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 17000, Conformity assessment — Vocabulary and general principles

ISO 2469, Paper, board and pulps — Measurement of diffuse radiance factor (diffuse reflectance factor)

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 17000 and ISO 2469 and

the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 4094:2017(E)
3.1
Standardizing Laboratory

laboratory of a national metrology institute (NMI) or designated institute (DI) that complies with the

requirements of the International Committee of Weights and Measures (CIPM) Mutual Recognition

Arrangement (MRA) for international recognition of its capabilities to maintain in safe custody, or

otherwise realize the international reference standard of level 1 (notation IR1) (3.4), to transfer the

traceability of IR1 (3.4) to level 2 (notation IR2) (3.5)

Note 1 to entry: These internationally recognized calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs) of NMIs

and DIs that are signatories to the CIPM MRA are published in the key comparison database, maintained by the

Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM).
3.2
Authorized Laboratory

laboratory complying with the general requirements of this document and other specific requirements

(Annex A) that transfers the traceability of international reference standards of level 2 (notation IR2)

(3.5) to level 3 (notation IR3) (3.6)
3.3
Authorized Laboratory requirements

set of specified requirements to be fulfilled in order to establish or maintain authorized status

3.4
international reference standard level 1
IR1

primary optical reference standard, the perfect reflecting diffuser, the ideal diffuser exhibiting isotropic

diffuse reflection with a reflectance equal to 1, used for calibration of optical transfer standards

Note 1 to entry: Reflectance is defined as the ratio of the reflected to the incident radiation.

3.5
international reference standard level 2
IR2

secondary optical reference transfer standard for the certification of level 3 (IR3) (3.6) standards or

for the calibration of instruments, consisting of a material certified against an international reference

standard of level 1 (3.4) by a Standardizing Laboratory (3.1), as specified in the relevant International

Standard

Note 1 to entry: This document refers to two types of IR2: a non-fluorescent IR2, whose spectral reflectance

factors have been determined by a Standardizing Laboratory in relation to the IR1; and a fluorescent IR2,

whose total spectral radiance factors corresponding to a specified CIE illuminant have been determined by a

Standardizing Laboratory. A non-fluorescent IR2 is used to calibrate the photometric scale of an Authorized

Laboratory’s reference instrument, and a fluorescent IR2 standard is used to adjust the UV level of an Authorized

Laboratory’s reference instrument.
3.6
international reference standard level 3
IR3

tertiary optical reference transfer standard consisting of a material certified against an international

reference standard of level 2 (3.5) by an Authorized Laboratory (3.2), as specified in the relevant

International Standard, and used by a testing laboratory for the calibration of instruments

Note 1 to entry: This document refers to two types of IR3: a non-fluorescent IR3, whose spectral reflectance factors

have been determined by an Authorized Laboratory in relation to the non-fluorescent IR2; and a fluorescent IR3,

whose calibration values have been determined by an Authorized Laboratory in relation to the fluorescent IR2.

A non-fluorescent IR3 is used to calibrate the photometric scale of a testing laboratory’s instrument. A testing

laboratory uses a fluorescent IR3 to adjust the UV level of the testing laboratory’s instrument.

2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 4094:2017(E)
3.7
peer review

name given to judgement of scientific merit by other scientists working in, or close to, the field in

question

Note 1 to entry: For a laboratory to be formally authorized for the dissemination of international reference

standards of level 3 (IR3) (3.6), the assessment of its compliance with the requirements of this document and

other relevant ISO TC6 standards is carried out by peer review by one or more technical managers of the existing

Authorized Laboratories or their designates.
3.8
testing laboratory
laboratory that calibrates testing instrumentation with an IR3

Note 1 to entry: A testing laboratory cannot issue international reference standards.

Table 1 — Organization of laboratories
Laboratory Activity Standard issued
Standardizing Laboratory Maintains IR1 (level 1 standard) Level 2 standard (IR2)
Evaluates IR2 against IR1
Authorized Laboratory Evaluates IR3 against IR2 Level 3 standard (IR3)

Testing Laboratory Calibrates test instrumentation with IR3 No international reference standard issued

4 Management requirements for Authorized Laboratories
4.1 Organization

4.1.1 It is the responsibility of the Authorized Laboratory to carry out its testing and calibration

activities in such a way as to meet the requirements of this document and to satisfy the needs of the

customer to continue to maintain its status as an “Authorized Laboratory”.

4.1.2 The management system shall cover work carried out in the laboratory’s facilities.

4.1.3 If the Authorized Laboratory is part of an organization performing activities other than testing

and/or calibration, the responsibilities of key personnel in the organization that have an involvement

or influence on the testing and/or calibration activities of the Authorized Laboratory shall be defined in

order to identify potential conflicts of interest.

4.1.3.1 Where an Authorized Laboratory is part of a larger organization, the organizational

arrangements shall be such that departments having conflicting interests, such as production, commercial

marketing or financing, do not adversely influence the laboratory's compliance with the requirements of

this document.

4.1.3.2 If the Authorized Laboratory wishes to be recognized as a third-party laboratory, it shall be

able to demonstrate that it is impartial and that it and its personnel are free from any undue commercial,

financial and other pressures which might influence their technical judgement. The third-party testing or

calibration laboratory shall not engage in any activities that may endanger the trust in its independence

of judgement and integrity in relation to its testing or calibration activities.
4.1.4 The Authorized Laboratory shall

a) have managerial and technical personnel who, irrespective of other responsibilities, have

the authority and resources needed to carry out their duties, including the implementation,

maintenance and improvement of the management system, and to identify the occurrence of

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 4094:2017(E)

departures from the management system or from the procedures for performing tests and/or

calibrations, and to initiate actions to prevent or minimize such departures (see also 5.2);

b) have arrangements to ensure that its management and personnel are free from any undue internal

and external commercial, financial and other pressures and influences that may adversely affect

the quality of their work;

c) have policies and procedures to ensure the protection of its customers' confidential information

and proprietary rights, including procedures for protecting the electronic storage and transmission

of results;

d) have policies and procedures to avoid involvement in any activities that would diminish confidence

in its competence, impartiality, judgement or operational integrity;

e) define the organization and management structure of the Authorized Laboratory, its place in any

parent organization, and the relationships between quality management, technical operations and

support services;

f) specify the responsibility, authority and interrelationships of all personnel who manage, perform

or verify work affecting the quality of the tests and/or calibrations;

g) provide adequate supervision of testing and calibration staff, including trainees, by persons

familiar with methods and procedures, the purpose of each test and/or calibration, and with the

assessment of the test or calibration results;

h) have technical management which has overall responsibility for the technical operations and the

provision of the resources needed to ensure the required quality of laboratory operations;

i) appoint a member of staff as quality manager (however named) who, irrespective of other duties and

responsibilities, shall have defined responsibility and authority for ensuring that the management

system related to quality is implemented and followed at all times; the quality manager shall have

direct access to the highest level of management at which decisions are made on laboratory policy

or resources;
j) appoint deputies for key managerial personnel (s
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 4094:2019
01-januar-2019
1DGRPHãþD
SIST ISO 4094:2011
3DSLUNDUWRQOHSHQNDLQYODNQLQH6SORãQH]DKWHYH]DXVSRVREOMHQRVW
ODERUDWRULMHYNLVRSRREODãþHQL]DL]GDMDQMHRSWLþQLKUHIHUHQþQLKVWDQGDUGRYQD
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Paper, board and pulps -- General requirements for the competence of laboratories

authorized for the issue of optical reference transfer standards of level 3
Papiers, cartons et pâtes -- Exigences générales concernant la compétence des

laboratoires autorisés pour la délivrance des étalons de référence de transfert optique de

niveau 3
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 4094:2017
ICS:
85.020 Postopki v proizvodnji papirja Paper production processes
SIST ISO 4094:2019 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 4094:2019
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 4094:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 4094
Third edition
2017-12
Paper, board and pulps — General
requirements for the competence of
laboratories authorized for the issue
of optical reference transfer standards
of level 3
Papiers, cartons et pâtes — Exigences générales concernant la
compétence des laboratoires autorisés pour la délivrance des étalons
de référence de transfert optique de niveau 3
Reference number
ISO 4094:2017(E)
ISO 2017
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 4094:2019
ISO 4094:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 4094:2019
ISO 4094:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Management requirements for Authorized Laboratories ......................................................................................... 3

4.1 Organization .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.2 Management system .......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3 Document control ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.3.2 Document approval and issue .............................................................................................................................. 5

4.3.3 Document changes ......................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Review of requests, tenders and contracts ..................................................................................................................... 6

4.5 Subcontracting of calibrations................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.6 Purchasing services and supplies ........................................................................................................................................... 7

4.7 Service to the customer ................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.8 Complaints .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

4.9 Control of nonconforming testing and/or calibration work ........................................................................... 8

4.10 Improvement ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.11 Corrective action ................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.11.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.11.2 Cause analysis .................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.11.3 Selection and implementation of corrective actions ........................................................................ 9

4.11.4 Monitoring of corrective actions ........................................................................................................................ 9

4.11.5 Additional audits.............................................................................................................................................................. 9

4.12 Preventive action ................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.13 Control of records ..............................................................................................................................................................................10

4.13.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

4.13.2 Technical records..........................................................................................................................................................10

4.14 Internal audits ......................................................................................................................................................................................11

4.15 Management reviews .....................................................................................................................................................................11

5 Technical requirements .............................................................................................................................................................................12

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.2 Personnel ..................................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.3 Accommodation and environmental conditions ....................................................................................................13

5.4 Test and calibration methods and method validation .......................................................................................14

5.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................14

5.4.2 Selection of methods .................................................................................................................................................14

5.4.3 Laboratory-developed methods ......................................................................................................................14

5.4.4 Non-standard methods ...........................................................................................................................................15

5.4.5 Validation of methods ........................................................................................................................................... ....15

5.4.6 Estimation of uncertainty of measurement ...........................................................................................16

5.4.7 Control of data ................................................................................................................................................................16

5.5 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................................17

5.6 Measurement traceability ..........................................................................................................................................................18

5.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................18

5.6.2 Specific requirements – calibration ..............................................................................................................18

5.6.3 Reference standards and reference materials .....................................................................................18

5.7 Proficiency testing and inter-laboratory comparisons .....................................................................................19

5.8 Sampling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................19

5.9 Handling of test and calibration items ............................................................................................................................19

5.10 Assuring the quality of test and calibration results .............................................................................................20

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SIST ISO 4094:2019
ISO 4094:2017(E)

5.11 Reporting the results ......................................................................................................................................................................20

5.11.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................20

5.11.2 Test reports and calibration certificates ..................................................................................................21

5.11.3 Test reports........................................................................................................................................................................21

5.11.4 Calibration certificates.............................................................................................................................................22

5.11.5 Opinions and interpretations .................. ...........................................................................................................22

5.11.6 Electronic transmission of results .................................................................................................................22

5.11.7 Format of reports and certificates .................................................................................................................22

5.11.8 Amendments to test reports and calibration certificates ..........................................................23

Annex A (normative) Specific requirements for laboratories authorized to issue optical

property reference transfer standards of level 3 ............................................................................................................24

Annex B (informative) ISO/TC 6 measurement quantities and standards included in the

scope of this standard ..................................................................................................................................................................................28

Annex C (informative) Example of certificate of compliance as an Authorized Laboratory

meeting the requirements of this document .......................................................................................................................29

Annex D (informative) Table of contents for Authorized Laboratory biennial report ..................................30

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................32

iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 4094:2019
ISO 4094:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 6, Paper, board and pulps.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 4094:2005). This version underwent

major changes and now follows the requirements and adopts the format of ISO/IEC 17025.

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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SIST ISO 4094:2019
ISO 4094:2017(E)
Introduction

The main objectives of standardization of testing methods are to create the means by which comparable

results can be obtained on different occasions, with different instruments and in different laboratories,

and to control the processes that determine the acceptability of a product. Most testing methods for

paper, board and pulps are linked by some type of reference standards to which the numerical results

are to be related. In many cases, the comparison is made by means of readily available instruments of

appropriate accuracy: for example, a balance with certified weights, a chronometer, a calibrated length-

measuring device such as a micrometer, etc. However, in certain instances, the relation to the reference

standard may not be obvious, or there may be practical problems in measuring particular properties;

the test method should therefore include additional instructions for ensuring reasonable accuracy of the

results. This may be accomplished with the aid of transfer standards, when the results are related either

to certain properties of a unique reference standard, or to results obtained at specified laboratories

entrusted with the performance of certain delicate measurements. Standardizing Laboratories and

Authorized Laboratories act as links in supplying the transfer standards required.

The acceptance of testing and calibration results between countries will be facilitated if specified

laboratories authorized to issue optical reference transfer standards comply with this document or if

they obtain accreditation from bodies which have entered into mutual recognition agreements with

equivalent bodies in other countries using this document.

The use of this document will facilitate cooperation between specified laboratories authorized to issue

optical reference transfer standards and other bodies, and assist in the exchange of information and

experience, and in the harmonization of calibration standards and procedures.

A laboratory’s fulfilment of the requirements of this document means the laboratory meets both the

general and specific technical competence requirements, and the management system requirements

that are necessary for it to consistently deliver technically valid results.
vi © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 4094:2019
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 4094:2017(E)
Paper, board and pulps — General requirements for the
competence of laboratories authorized for the issue of
optical reference transfer standards of level 3
1 Scope

This document provides both general requirements and specific requirements (Annex A) for laboratories

seeking to become “Authorized Laboratories (ALs)” and to maintain their Authorized Laboratory status

for the issue of optical reference transfer standards of level 3. This document follows the requirements

and adopts the format of ISO/IEC 17025, with the aims of:

a) establishing and maintaining international optical reference transfer standards of level 2 (IR2)

traceable to an international optical reference primary standard of level 1 (IR1) maintained by a

standardizing laboratory;

b) distributing traceability required to achieve inter-laboratory agreement in the results of test

methods specified in International Standards for optical properties of paper, board or pulp;

c) participating in the design and development of new methods and international harmonization of

procedures.

When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered by this document, such as

sampling and the design/development of new methods, the requirements of those clauses do not apply.

This document is for use by specified laboratories authorized to issue optical reference transfer

standards in developing their management system for quality, administrative and technical operations.

Laboratory customers, regulatory authorities and accreditation bodies can also use it in confirming or

recognizing the competence of laboratories.

NOTE It might be necessary to explain or interpret certain requirements in this document to ensure that

the requirements are applied in a consistent manner. Guidance for consistent application can be obtained from

Technical Committee ISO/TC 6.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 17000, Conformity assessment — Vocabulary and general principles

ISO 2469, Paper, board and pulps — Measurement of diffuse radiance factor (diffuse reflectance factor)

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 17000 and ISO 2469 and

the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST ISO 4094:2019
ISO 4094:2017(E)
3.1
Standardizing Laboratory

laboratory of a national metrology institute (NMI) or designated institute (DI) that complies with the

requirements of the International Committee of Weights and Measures (CIPM) Mutual Recognition

Arrangement (MRA) for international recognition of its capabilities to maintain in safe custody, or

otherwise realize the international reference standard of level 1 (notation IR1) (3.4), to transfer the

traceability of IR1 (3.4) to level 2 (notation IR2) (3.5)

Note 1 to entry: These internationally recognized calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs) of NMIs

and DIs that are signatories to the CIPM MRA are published in the key comparison database, maintained by the

Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM).
3.2
Authorized Laboratory

laboratory complying with the general requirements of this document and other specific requirements

(Annex A) that transfers the traceability of international reference standards of level 2 (notation IR2)

(3.5) to level 3 (notation IR3) (3.6)
3.3
Authorized Laboratory requirements

set of specified requirements to be fulfilled in order to establish or maintain authorized status

3.4
international reference standard level 1
IR1

primary optical reference standard, the perfect reflecting diffuser, the ideal diffuser exhibiting isotropic

diffuse reflection with a reflectance equal to 1, used for calibration of optical transfer standards

Note 1 to entry: Reflectance is defined as the ratio of the reflected to the incident radiation.

3.5
international reference standard level 2
IR2

secondary optical reference transfer standard for the certification of level 3 (IR3) (3.6) standards or

for the calibration of instruments, consisting of a material certified against an international reference

standard of level 1 (3.4) by a Standardizing Laboratory (3.1), as specified in the relevant International

Standard

Note 1 to entry: This document refers to two types of IR2: a non-fluorescent IR2, whose spectral reflectance

factors have been determined by a Standardizing Laboratory in relation to the IR1; and a fluorescent IR2,

whose total spectral radiance factors corresponding to a specified CIE illuminant have been determined by a

Standardizing Laboratory. A non-fluorescent IR2 is used to calibrate the photometric scale of an Authorized

Laboratory’s reference instrument, and a fluorescent IR2 standard is used to adjust the UV level of an Authorized

Laboratory’s reference instrument.
3.6
international reference standard level 3
IR3

tertiary optical reference transfer standard consisting of a material certified against an international

reference standard of level 2 (3.5) by an Authorized Laboratory (3.2), as specified in the relevant

International Standard, and used by a testing laboratory for the calibration of instruments

Note 1 to entry: This document refers to two types of IR3: a non-fluorescent IR3, whose spectral reflectance factors

have been determined by an Authorized Laboratory in relation to the non-fluorescent IR2; and a fluorescent IR3,

whose calibration values have been determined by an Authorized Laboratory in relation to the fluorescent IR2.

A non-fluorescent IR3 is used to calibrate the photometric scale of a testing laboratory’s instrument. A testing

laboratory uses a fluorescent IR3 to adjust the UV level of the testing laboratory’s instrument.

2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 4094:2019
ISO 4094:2017(E)
3.7
peer review

name given to judgement of scientific merit by other scientists working in, or close to, the field in

question

Note 1 to entry: For a laboratory to be formally authorized for the dissemination of international reference

standards of level 3 (IR3) (3.6), the assessment of its compliance with the requirements of this document and

other relevant ISO TC6 standards is carried out by peer review by one or more technical managers of the existing

Authorized Laboratories or their designates.
3.8
testing laboratory
laboratory that calibrates testing instrumentation with an IR3

Note 1 to entry: A testing laboratory cannot issue international reference standards.

Table 1 — Organization of laboratories
Laboratory Activity Standard issued
Standardizing Laboratory Maintains IR1 (level 1 standard) Level 2 standard (IR2)
Evaluates IR2 against IR1
Authorized Laboratory Evaluates IR3 against IR2 Level 3 standard (IR3)

Testing Laboratory Calibrates test instrumentation with IR3 No international reference standard issued

4 Management requirements for Authorized Laboratories
4.1 Organization

4.1.1 It is the responsibility of the Authorized Laboratory to carry out its testing and calibration

activities in such a way as to meet the requirements of this document and to satisfy the needs of the

customer to continue to maintain its status as an “Authorized Laboratory”.

4.1.2 The management system shall cover work carried out in the laboratory’s facilities.

4.1.3 If the Authorized Laboratory is part of an organization performing activities other than testing

and/or calibration, the responsibilities of key personnel in the organization that have an involvement

or influence on the testing and/or calibration activities of the Authorized Laboratory shall be defined in

order to identify potential conflicts of interest.

4.1.3.1 Where an Authorized Laboratory is part of a larger organization, the organizational

arrangements shall be such that departments having conflicting interests, such as production, commercial

marketing or financing, do not adversely influence the laboratory's compliance with the requirements of

this document.

4.1.3.2 If the Authorized Laboratory wishes to be recognized as a third-party laboratory, it shall be

able to demonstrate that it is impartial and that it and its personnel are free from any undue commercial,

financial and other pressures which might influence their technical judgement. The third-party testing or

calibration laboratory shall not engage in any activities that may endanger the trust in its independence

of judgement and integrity in relation to its testing or calibration activities.
4.1.4 The Authorized Laboratory shall

a) have managerial and technical personnel who, irrespective of other responsibilities, have

the authority and resources needed to carry out their duties, including the implementation,

maintenance and improvement of the management system, and to identify the occurrence of

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST ISO 4094:2019
ISO 4094:2017(E)

departures from the management system or from the procedures for performing tests and/or

calibrations, and to initiate actions to prevent or minimize such departures (see also 5.2);

b) have arrangements to ensure that its management and personnel are free from any undue internal

and external commercial, financial and other pressures and influences that may adversely affect

the quality of their work;

c) have policies and procedures to ensure the protection of its customers' confidential information

and proprietary rights, including procedures for protecting the electronic storage and transmission

of results;

d) have policies and procedures to avoid involvement in any activities that would diminish confidence

in its competence, impartiality, judgement or operational integrity;

e) define the organization and management structure of the Authorized Laboratory, its place in any

par
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 4094
Troisième édition
2017-12
Papiers, cartons et pâtes — Exigences
générales concernant la compétence
des laboratoires autorisés pour la
délivrance des étalons de référence de
transfert optique de niveau 3
Paper, board and pulps — General requirements for the competence
of laboratories authorized for the issue of optical reference transfer
standards of level 3
Numéro de référence
ISO 4094:2017(F)
ISO 2017
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 4094:2017(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2017, Publié en Suisse

Droits de reproduction réservés. Sauf indication contraire, aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée

sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie, l’affichage sur

l’internet ou sur un Intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Les demandes d’autorisation peuvent être adressées à l’ISO à

l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.
ISO copyright office
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Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 4094:2017(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Domaine d'application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Exigences relatives au management des laboratoires agréés ............................................................................... 3

4.1 Organisation .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.2 Système de management ................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.3 Maîtrise de la documentation .................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.3.1 Généralités ............................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.3.2 Approbation et diffusion des documents ................................................................................................... 6

4.3.3 Modifications des documents ............................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Revue des demandes, appels d'offres et contrats ..................................................................................................... 7

4.5 Sous-traitance des étalonnages ................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.6 Achats de services et de fournitures .................................................................................................................................... 8

4.7 Services au client ................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.8 Réclamations ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.9 Maîtrise des travaux d'essai et/ou d'étalonnage non conformes ............................................................... 9

4.10 Amélioration ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

4.11 Action corrective ................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.11.1 Généralités ............................................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.11.2 Analyse des causes ......................................................................................................................................................10

4.11.3 Choix et mise en œuvre d'actions correctives .....................................................................................10

4.11.4 Surveillance des actions correctives ............................................................................................................10

4.11.5 Audits complémentaires ........................................................................................................................................10

4.12 Action préventive ...............................................................................................................................................................................10

4.13 Maîtrise des enregistrements..................................................................................................................................................11

4.13.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................11

4.13.2 Enregistrements techniques ...............................................................................................................................11

4.14 Audits internes .....................................................................................................................................................................................12

4.15 Revues de direction ..........................................................................................................................................................................12

5 Exigences techniques ....................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.2 Personnel ..................................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.3 Installations et conditions ambiantes ..............................................................................................................................14

5.4 Méthodes d'essai et d'étalonnage et validation des méthodes ..................................................................15

5.4.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................15

5.4.2 Choix des méthodes ...................................................................................................................................................15

5.4.3 Méthodes développées par le laboratoire ...............................................................................................16

5.4.4 Méthodes non normalisées ..................................................................................................................................16

5.4.5 Validation des méthodes ........................................................................................................................................16

5.4.6 Estimation de l'incertitude de mesure .......................................................................................................17

5.4.7 Maîtrise des données ................................................................................................................................................18

5.5 Équipements ..........................................................................................................................................................................................18

5.6 Traçabilité de la mesure ...............................................................................................................................................................20

5.6.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................20

5.6.2 Exigences spécifiques – Étalonnage .............................................................................................................20

5.6.3 Étalons de référence et matériaux de référence ................................................................................20

5.7 Essais d'aptitude et comparaisons interlaboratoires .........................................................................................20

5.8 Échantillonnage ...................................................................................................................................................................................21

5.9 Manutention des objets d'essai et d'étalonnage .....................................................................................................21

5.10 Assurer la qualité des résultats d'essai et d'étalonnage ..................................................................................22

© ISO 2017 – Tous droits réservés iii
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ISO 4094:2017(F)

5.11 Rapport sur les résultats .............................................................................................................................................................22

5.11.1 Généralités .........................................................................................................................................................................22

5.11.2 Rapports d'essai et certificats d'étalonnage .........................................................................................22

5.11.3 Rapports d'essai ............................................................................................................................................................23

5.11.4 Certificats d'étalonnage ..........................................................................................................................................23

5.11.5 Avis et interprétations .............................................................................................................................................24

5.11.6 Transmission électronique des résultats .................................................................................................24

5.11.7 Présentation des rapports et des certificats .........................................................................................24

5.11.8 Amendements aux rapports d'essai et aux certificats d'étalonnage ................................25

Annexe A (normative) Exigences spécifiques pour les laboratoires agréés autorisés à

délivrer des étalons de référence de transfert des propriétés optiques de niveau 3 ................26

Annexe B (informative) Grandeurs et normes de mesurage de l'ISO/TC 6 incluses dans le

domaine d'application de la présente norme .....................................................................................................................30

Annexe C (informative) Exemple de certificat de conformité en tant que laboratoire agréé

satisfaisant aux exigences du présent document ............................................................................................................31

Annexe D (informative) Sommaire d'un rapport biennal de laboratoire agréé ...................................................32

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................34

iv © ISO 2017 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 4094:2017(F)
Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux.

L'ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d'approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www.

iso.org/directives).

L'attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l'élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l'Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l'ISO (voir www.iso.org/brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l'ISO liés à l'évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l'adhésion

de l'ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien suivant: www.iso.org/avant-propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 6, Papiers, cartons et pâtes.

Cette troisième édition annule et remplace la deuxième édition (ISO 4094:2005). La présente

version a subi des modifications importantes et, à présent, suit les exigences et adopte le format de

l’ISO/IEC 17025.
© ISO 2017 – Tous droits réservés v
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ISO 4094:2017(F)
Introduction

Les principaux objectifs de la normalisation des méthodes d'essai sont de créer les moyens permettant

l'obtention de résultats comparables à des moments différents, en utilisant des instruments différents

et dans des laboratoires différents, et de contrôler les procédés qui déterminent l'acceptabilité d'un

produit. La plupart des méthodes d'essai pour le papier, le carton et les pâtes sont liées à un type d'étalons

de référence auquel les résultats numériques sont reliés. Dans de nombreux cas, la comparaison est

effectuée à l'aide d'instruments aisément disponibles et d'une exactitude appropriée: par exemple

une balance pourvue de masses certifiées, un chronomètre, un appareil étalonné destiné à mesurer

la longueur tel qu'un micromètre, etc. Cependant, dans certains cas, la relation à l'étalon de référence

est peu évidente ou il peut y avoir des problèmes pratiques lors du mesurage de certaines propriétés.

Il convient que la méthode d'essai inclue des instructions additionnelles afin d'assurer une exactitude

raisonnable des résultats. Cela peut être accompli à l'aide d'étalons de transfert, lorsque les résultats

sont liés soit à certaines propriétés d'un étalon de référence unique, soit à des résultats obtenus dans

des laboratoires expressément mandatés à veiller à la performance de certains mesurages délicats. Les

laboratoires de référence et les laboratoires agréés agissent comme maillons pour fournir les étalons de

transfert requis.

L'acceptation des résultats d'essai et d'étalonnage d'un pays à l'autre se trouvera facilitée si les

laboratoires mandatés autorisés à délivrer des étalons de référence de transfert optiques se conforment

au présent document ou s'ils obtiennent l'accréditation auprès d'organismes prenant part à des accords

de reconnaissance mutuelle avec des organismes équivalents utilisant le présent document dans

d'autres pays.

L'usage du présent document favorise la collaboration entre les laboratoires mandatés autorisés à

délivrer des étalons de référence de transfert optiques et d'autres organismes et contribue à l'échange

d'informations et d'expérience, ainsi qu'à l'harmonisation des normes et procédures d'étalonnage.

Le respect des exigences du présent document par un laboratoire signifie que ce dernier satisfait à

la fois aux exigences générales et spécifiques de compétence technique et aux exigences relatives

aux systèmes de management qui sont nécessaires pour qu'il délivre en permanence des résultats

techniquement valides.
vi © ISO 2017 – Tous droits réservés
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 4094:2017(F)
Papiers, cartons et pâtes — Exigences générales
concernant la compétence des laboratoires autorisés pour
la délivrance des étalons de référence de transfert optique
de niveau 3
1 Domaine d'application

Le présent document spécifie à la fois les exigences générales et les exigences spécifiques (Annexe A)

pour les laboratoires souhaitant devenir des «laboratoires agréés» (AL) et conserver leur statut de

laboratoires agréés pour la délivrance d'étalons de référence de transfert optiques de niveau 3. Le

présent document suit les exigences et adopte le format de l'ISO/IEC 17025, dans le but:

a) d'établir et de maintenir des étalons de référence de transfert optiques internationaux de niveau 2

(IR2) pouvant être reliés à un étalon primaire de référence optique international de niveau 1 (IR1)

maintenu par un laboratoire de référence;

b) de diffuser la traçabilité requise pour obtenir une concordance interlaboratoires des résultats

lors de l'utilisation de méthodes d'essai spécifiées dans des Normes internationales relatives aux

propriétés optiques des papiers, cartons ou pâtes;

c) de participer à la conception et au développement de nouvelles méthodes et à l'harmonisation des

procédures à l'échelle internationale.

Lorsqu'un laboratoire ne procède pas à une ou plusieurs des activités traitées dans le présent document,

telles que l'échantillonnage et la conception/le développement de nouvelles méthodes, les exigences des

articles concernés ne s'appliquent pas.

Le présent document est destiné à être utilisé par les laboratoires mandatés autorisés à délivrer des

étalons de référence de transfert optiques qui élaborent leur système de management pour la qualité et

les activités administratives et techniques. Il peut également être utilisé par les clients des laboratoires,

les autorités réglementaires et les organismes d'accréditation pour confirmer ou reconnaître la

compétence des laboratoires.

NOTE Il pourrait se révéler utile d'expliquer ou d'interpréter certaines exigences du présent document afin

d'assurer que les exigences sont appliquées de manière cohérente. Des lignes directrices pour une application

cohérente peuvent être obtenues auprès du comité technique ISO/TC 6.
2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants cités dans le texte constituent, pour tout ou partie de leur contenu, des

exigences du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s'applique. Pour les

références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s'applique (y compris les éventuels

amendements).
ISO/IEC 17000, Évaluation de la conformité — Vocabulaire et principes généraux

ISO 2469, Papier, carton et pâtes — Mesurage du facteur de luminance énergétique diffuse (facteur de

réflectance diffuse)
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions donnés dans l'ISO/IEC 17000 et

l'ISO 2469 ainsi que les suivants s'appliquent.
© ISO 2017 – Tous droits réservés 1
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ISO 4094:2017(F)

L'ISO et l'IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:
— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l'adresse http://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l'adresse http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
laboratoire de référence

laboratoire d'un institut national de métrologie (INM) ou d'un institut désigné (ID) satisfaisant aux

exigences de l'Accord de reconnaissance mutuelle (ARM) du Comité international des poids et mesures

(CIPM) pour la reconnaissance internationale de ses aptitudes à conserver ou préparer l'étalon de

référence international de niveau 1 (notation IR1) (3.4), afin de transférer la traçabilité de IR1 (3.4) au

niveau 2 (notation IR2) (3.5)

Note 1 à l'article: Les aptitudes en matière de mesures et d'étalonnages (CMC) reconnues à l'échelle internationale

des instituts nationaux de métrologie (INM) et des instituts désignés (ID) signataires de l'ARM du CIPM, sont

publiées dans une base de données sur les comparaisons clés, tenue à jour par le Bureau International des Poids

et Mesures (BIPM).
3.2
laboratoire agréé

laboratoire satisfaisant aux exigences générales du présent document et à d'autres exigences

spécifiques (Annexe A) qui transfère la traçabilité des étalons de référence internationaux de niveau 2

(notation IR2) (3.5) au niveau 3 (notation IR3) (3.6)
3.3
exigences relatives à un laboratoire agréé

ensemble d'exigences devant être satisfaites pour établir ou conserver le statut «agréé»

3.4
étalon de référence international de niveau 1
IR1

étalon primaire de référence optique (diffuseur parfait par réflexion), diffuseur idéal présentant une

réflexion diffuse isotrope dont la réflectance est égale à 1 et utilisé pour l'étalonnage des étalons de

transfert optique

Note 1 à l'article: La réflectance est définie comme le rapport du rayonnement réfléchi au rayonnement incident.

3.5
étalon de référence international de niveau 2
IR2

étalon secondaire de référence de transfert optique pour la certification des étalons de niveau 3 (IR3)

(3.6) ou pour l'étalonnage des appareils, consistant en un matériau certifié par rapport à un étalon de

référence international de niveau 1 (3.4) par un laboratoire de référence (3.1), comme spécifié dans la

Norme internationale pertinente

Note 1 à l'article: Le présent document fait référence à deux types d'IR2: un IR2 non fluorescent dont les

facteurs de réflectance spectrale ont été déterminés par un laboratoire de référence par rapport à l'IR1; et un

IR2 fluorescent dont les facteurs de luminance énergétique totale spectrale, correspondant à un illuminant

CIE spécifié, ont été déterminés par un laboratoire de référence. Un étalon IR2 non fluorescent est utilisé pour

étalonner l'échelle photométrique d'un appareil de référence de laboratoire agréé et un étalon IR2 fluorescent est

utilisé pour régler la teneur en UV d'un appareil de référence de laboratoire agréé.

2 © ISO 2017 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 4094:2017(F)
3.6
étalon de référence international de niveau 3
IR3

étalon tertiaire de référence de transfert optique consistant en un matériau certifié par rapport à un

étalon de référence international de niveau 2 (3.5) par un laboratoire agréé (3.2), comme spécifié dans la

Norme internationale pertinente, et utilisé par un laboratoire d'essai pour étalonner ses appareils

Note 1 à l'article: Le présent document fait référence à deux types d'IR3: un IR3 non fluorescent dont les facteurs

de réflectance spectrale ont été déterminés par un laboratoire agréé par rapport à l'IR2 non fluorescent, et un

IR3 fluorescent IR3 dont les valeurs d'étalonnage ont été déterminées par un laboratoire agréé par rapport à

l'IR2 fluorescent. Un IR3 non fluorescent est utilisé pour étalonner l'échelle photométrique d'un appareil de

laboratoire d'essai. Un laboratoire d'essai utilise un IR3 fluorescent pour régler la teneur en UV d'un appareil de

laboratoire d'essai.
3.7
examen par des pairs

nom attribué au jugement de la valeur scientifique par d'autres scientifiques travaillant dans le domaine

considéré ou dans un domaine proche

Note 1 à l'article: Pour qu'un laboratoire soit formellement autorisé à diffuser des étalons de référence

internationaux de niveau 3 (IR3) (3.6), sa conformité aux exigences du présent document et d'autres normes

pertinentes élaborées par le comité technique TC 6 de l'ISO est évaluée par le biais d'un examen par des pairs

réalisé par un ou plusieurs responsables techniques, ou leurs représentants, des laboratoires agréés existants

3.8
laboratoire d'essai
laboratoire d'essai qui étalonne les appareils d'essai avec un IR3

Note 1 à l'article: Un laboratoire d'essai ne peut pas délivrer d'étalons de référence internationaux.

Tableau 1 — Organisation des laboratoires
Laboratoire Activité Étalon émis

Laboratoire de référence Maintient l'IR1 (étalon de niveau 1) Étalon de niveau 2 (IR2)

Évalue l'IR2 par rapport à l'IR1
Laboratoire agréé Évalue l'IR3 par rapport à l'IR2 Étalon de niveau 3 (IR3)

Laboratoire d'essai Étalonne les appareils d'essai avec l'IR3 Aucun étalon de référence international

émis
4 Exigences relatives au management des laboratoires agréés
4.1 Organisation

4.1.1 Il incombe au laboratoire agréé d'exécuter ses activités d'essai et d'étalonnage de façon à

satisfaire aux exigences du présent document et à répondre aux besoins de la clientèle, pour conserver

son statut de «laboratoire agréé».

4.1.2 Le système de management doit couvrir les travaux réalisés dans les installations du laboratoire.

4.1.3 Si le laboratoire agréé fait partie d'une organisation ayant des activités autres que celles relatives

aux essais et/ou étalonnages, les responsabilités du personnel clé de l'organisation qui participe aux

activités d'essai et/ou d'étalonnage du laboratoire agréé, ou qui a une influence sur ces activités, doivent

être définies afin d'identifier d'éventuels conflits d'intérêt.
© ISO 2017 – Tous droits réservés 3
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ISO 4094:2017(F)

4.1.3.1 Lorsqu'un laboratoire agréé fait partie d'une organisation plus grande, les dispositions

organisationnelles doivent être telles que les départements ayant des intérêts divergents, tels que les

départements de production, de marketing commercial ou des finances, n'aient pas d'influence négative

sur la conformité du laboratoire aux exigences du présent document.

4.1.3.2 Si le laboratoire agréé souhaite être reconnu comme laboratoire tierce partie, il doit être

à même de démontrer son impartialité et de démontrer que lui et son personnel sont libres de toutes

pressions indues, commerciales, financières et autres, susceptibles d'avoir une répercussion sur leur

jugement technique. Le laboratoire d'essais ou d'étalonnages tierce partie ne doit pas s'engager dans une

activité quelconque susceptible de compromettre la confiance en son indépendance de jugement et son

intégrité vis-à-vis de ses activités d'essai et d'étalonnage.
4.1.4 Le laboratoire agréé doit

a) avoir un personnel d'encadrement et technique qui, indépendamment de toute autre responsabilité,

dispose de l'autorité et des ressources nécessaires pour accomplir ses fonctions, y compris la mise

en œuvre, le maintien et l'amélioration du système de management, pour identifier les écarts

survenant par rapport au système de management ou aux procédures d'exécution des essais

et/ou étalonnages et pour engager des actions visant à prévenir ou à minimiser de tels écarts (voir

aussi 5.2);

b) avoir des dispositions permettant d'assurer que sa direction et son personnel ne sont sujets à aucune

pression ou influence commerciale, financière ou autre indue, interne ou externe, susceptible de

mettre en cause la qualité de leurs travaux;

c) avoir des politiques et des procédures permettant d'assurer la protection des informations

confidentielles et des droits de propriété de ses clients, y compris des procédures visant à protéger

la transmission et le stockage électroniques des résultats;
d) avoi
...

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