This document describes a procedure for the identification of single fish and fish fillets to the level of genus or species.
The identification of fish species is carried out by PCR amplification of either a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cytb) or the cytochrome c oxidase I gene (cox1, syn COI) or both, followed by sequencing of the PCR products and subsequent sequence comparison with entries in databases. The methodology allows the identification of a large number of commercially important fish species.
The decision whether the cytb or cox1 gene segment or both are used for fish identification depends on the declared fish species, the applicability of the PCR method for the fish species and the availability of comparative sequences in the public databases.
This method has been successfully validated on raw fish fillets, however, laboratory experience is available that it can also be applied to processed, e.g. cold smoked, hot smoked, salted, frozen, cooked, fried, deep-fried samples.
This document is usually unsuitable for the analysis of highly processed foods, e.g. tins of fish, with highly degraded DNA where the fragment lengths are not sufficient for amplification of the targets. Furthermore, it is not applicable for complex fish products containing mixtures of two or more fish species.

  • Technical specification
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This European Standard specifies an isotopic method to control the authenticity of vinegar. This method is applicable on acetic acid of vinegar (from wine, cider, agricultural alcohol, etc.) in order to characterise the botanical origin of acetic acid and to detect adulterations of vinegar using synthetic acetic acid or acetic acid from a non-allowed origin (together with the method described in FprEN 16466-2).
The isotopic analysis of the extracted acetic acid by 2H-NMR is based on a similar method already normalised for wine analysis [2].
The application to complex matrices made with vinegar as an ingredient, such as balsamic vinegar, is out of the scope of the inter-laboratory validation performed.

  • Standard
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