This document addresses the design process of a collocation and the basic contents of collocation design process which include considerations, initial collocation strategy design, simulation evaluation of collocation strategy, optimal collocation strategy selection and collocation agreement. This document gives guidelines for multi-geo spacecraft collocation, and it applies in particular to multi-geo constellation.

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This document provides a framework with which to assess, reduce, and control the potential risks that spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages (referred to hereinafter as "space vehicles") pose to people and the environment when those space vehicles re-enter the Earth's atmosphere and impact the Earth's surface. It is intended to be applied to the planning, design, and review of space vehicle missions for which controlled or uncontrolled re-entry is inevitable. This document is applicable to following objects in assessing their risk to the ground: a) objects re-entering from orbit in conformance with ISO 24113; b) launch vehicles (including payloads, other objects separated during the ascent phase, etc.) that are mentioned in flight safety activities under ISO 14620‑2[1]; and c) interplanetary spacecraft returning to Earth. This document complements ISO 14620‑1 and ISO 17666. This document is not applicable to spacecraft containing nuclear power sources[2]. NOTE 1 This document does not apply to Space Transportation Systems with wings and control functions intended for targeted landing. NOTE 2 Useful background information for this document is available in ISO 24113.

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ISO 23041:2018 establishes standards, current guidelines and uniform procedures to minimize duplication of effort between the customer, the agency, participating nations and the emerging commercial space community. This document provides recommended practices for the development of space operations and support documentation, which should facilitate the sharing and exchange of beneficial information between organizations involved with space operations. This document establishes a common interface to simplify space operations planning and reduce the effort needed to learn and work with new space programmes and support organizations.

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ISO 27852:2016 describes a process for the estimation of orbit lifetime for spacecraft, launch vehicles, upper stages and associated debris in LEO-crossing orbits. It also clarifies the following: a) modelling approaches and resources for solar and geomagnetic activity modelling; b) resources for atmosphere model selection; c) approaches for spacecraft ballistic coefficient estimation.

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ISO 16679:2015 provides relative motion analysis elements after LV/SC separation, including analysis input, analysis principle, analysis method and analysis output. It is applicable to the mission design and verification for the prediction of relative motion after LV/SC separation. This International Standard focuses on the relative motion between the objects involved in one launch mission. It does not cover the issues about the collision avoidance between newly launched objects and on-orbit ones.

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ISO/TR 11233:2014 prescribes the manner in which orbit determination and estimation techniques are to be described so that parties can plan operations with sufficient margin to accommodate different individual approaches to orbit determination and estimation. ISO/TR 11233:2014 does not require the exchange of orbit data nor does it prescribe a method of performing orbit determination. It only prescribes the information that shall accompany such data so that collaborating satellite owners/operators understand the similarities and differences between their independent orbit determination processes. All satellite owners/operators are entitled to a preferred approach to physical approximations, numerical implementation, and computational execution of orbit determination and estimation of future states of their satellites. Mission demands should determine the architecture (speed of execution, required precision, etc.). ISO/TR 11233:2014 will enable stakeholders to describe their techniques in a manner that is uniformly understood. Implementation details that can have proprietary or competitive advantage need not be revealed.

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ISO 14625:2007 specifies the general characteristics, performance, design, test, safety, reliability, maintainability and quality requirements for ground support equipment (GSE) and systems intended for use at launch, landing or retrieval-site installations, or other locations that are the responsibility of the launch, landing and retrieval site. ISO 14625:2007 does not specify how to design GSE, but establishes the minimum requirements to provide simple, robust, safe, reliable, maintainable and cost-effective GSE. ISO 14625:2007 is applicable to the design of non-flight hardware and software used to support the operations of transporting, receiving, handling, assembly, inspection, test, checkout, service, launch and recovery of space vehicles and payloads at the launch, landing or retrieval sites. As such, the requirements of ISO 14625:2007 are optional for hardware used only at the manufacturing, development or test sites prior to arrival at the launch, landing or retrieval sites. However, if such GSE is temporarily used at a launch, landing or retrieval site, for whatever reason, conformity with all the safety-related requirements of ISO 14625:2007 is a minimum requirement for the GSE.

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ISO 15860:2006 covers gases (air, nitrogen, helium, and argon) compressed up to 40 MPa used in systems and units of space vehicle launch and technical complexes. ISO 15860:2006 determines compressed gas impurities (mechanical impurities, water vapour, oil, and foreign gases) content measurement methods. It can be used by countries and firms participating in the development, redesign, modernization, and maintenance of space vehicle launch sites and technical complexes.

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ISO 15859-12:2004 specifies limits for the composition of carbon dioxide (CO2) and establishes the sampling and test requirements applicable for the verification of the carbon dioxide composition. ISO 15859-12:2004 is applicable to composition, sampling, and test methods for carbon dioxide intended for purging and pressurization in both space systems flight hardware and ground support facilities, systems, and equipment. ISO 15859-12:2004 may be applied to carbon dioxide influents. Carbon dioxide may be of the gaseous or liquid type. ISO 15859-12:2004 is applicable to any sampling operation required to ensure that, when the fluid enters the launch vehicle or spacecraft, the fluid composition complies with the limits provided hereafter or with any technical specification agreed to for a particular use.

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ISO 15859-9:2004 specifies limits for the composition of argon (Ar) and establishes the sampling and test requirements applicable for the verification of the argon (Ar) composition. ISO 15859-9:2004 is applicable to argon, used for purging and pressurization of space systems as well as in both flight hardware and ground facilities, systems, and equipment, of Type I (gaseous) and Type II (liquid) ISO 15859-9:2004 is applicable to influents only within the specified limits herein. ISO 15859-9:2004 is applicable to any sampling operation required to ensure that, when the fluid enters the launch vehicle or spacecraft, the fluid composition complies with the limits provided hereafter or with any technical specification agreed to for a particular use.

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ISO 15859-8:2004 specifies limits for the composition of kerosine and establishes the sampling and test requirements applicable for the verification of the kerosine composition. ISO 15859-8:2004 is applicable to kerosine propellants sampling and test methods for used in both flight hardware and ground support facilities, systems, and equipment. ISO 15859-8:2004 may be applied to influent or effluent kerosine. ISO 15859-8:2004 is applicable to any sampling operation required to ensure that, when the fluid enters the launch vehicle or spacecraft, the fluid composition complies with the limits provided hereafter or with any technical specification agreed to for a particular use.

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ISO 15859-7:2004 specifies limits for the composition and physical properties of anhydrous hydrazine (N2H4) and establishes the sampling and test requirements applicable for the verification of the anhydrous hydrazine composition. ISO 15859-7:2004 is applicable to anhydrous hydrazine propellant, intended for use as fuel in propellant systems of space systems as well as in both flight hardware and ground facilities, systems, and equipment, of grades: standard [normal production and quality control (suitable for most uses)], monopropellant [normal product with strict control of specified impurities (to be specified only for monopropellant catalytic engines where extended life of the catalyst is desired)] and high purity (special production with strict control of specified impurities). ISO 15859-7:2004 is applicable to influents only within the specified limits herein. Hydrazine may be of the liquid type. ISO 15859-7:2004 is applicable to any sampling operation required to ensure that, when the fluid enters the launch vehicle or spacecraft, the fluid composition complies with the limits provided hereafter or with any technical specification agreed to for a particular use.

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ISO 15859-11:2004 specifies limits for the composition of ammonia (NH3) and establishes the sampling and test requirements applicable for the verification of the ammonia composition. ISO 15859-11:2004 is applicable to sampling and test methods for ammonia used in both flight hardware and ground support facilities, systems, and equipment. ISO 15859-11:2004 is applicable to ammonia influents only within the specified limits herein. ISO 15859-11:2004 is applicable to any sampling operation required to ensure that, when the fluid enters the launch vehicle or spacecraft, the fluid composition complies with the limits provided hereafter or with any technical specification agreed to for a particular use.

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ISO 15859-13:2004 specifies limits for the composition of breathing air and establishes the sampling and test requirements applicable for the verification of the breathing air composition. ISO 15859-13:2004 is applicable to sampling and test methods for breathing air intended for purging and pressurization of space systems as well as flight hardware and ground support facilities, systems, and equipment. ISO 15859-13:2004 may be applied to influent breathing air. ISO 15859-13:2004 is applicable to any sampling operation required to ensure that, when the fluid enters the launch vehicle or spacecraft, the fluid composition complies with the limits provided hereafter or with any technical specification agreed to for a particular use.

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ISO 15859-10:2004 specifies limits for the composition of water and establishes the sampling and test requirements applicable for the verification of the water composition. ISO 15859-10:2004 is applicable to only potable water and high-purity demineralized or deionized water, used for cooling and servicing of space systems as well as both flight hardware and ground servicing, system, and equipment, of Type HP (high purity) and Type P [potable (drinking)]. It is not applicable to other types of water that may be provided to a space system. ISO 15859-10:2004 is applicable to influents only within the specified limits herein. ISO 15859-10:2004 is applicable to any sampling operation required to ensure that, when the fluid enters the launch vehicle or spacecraft, the fluid composition complies with the limits provided hereafter or with any technical specification agreed to for a particular use.

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ISO 15859-3:2004 specifies limits for the composition of nitrogen and establishes the sampling and test requirements applicable for the verification of nitrogen composition. ISO 15859-3:2004 is applicable to nitrogen, used in both flight hardware and ground facilities, systems and equipment, of the following types and grades of nitrogen: Type I, gaseous (Grade A: purging/pressurizing, Grade B: crew breathing, Grade C, Grade F, Grade J) and Type II, liquid (Grade A: purging/pressurizing, Grade B: crew breathing, Grade C, Grade F). ISO 15859-3:2004 is applicable to influents only within the specified limits. ISO 15859-3:2004 is applicable to any sampling operation required to ensure that, when the fluid enters the launch vehicle or spacecraft, the fluid composition complies with the limits provided hereafter or with any technical specification agreed to for a particular use.

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ISO 15859-6:2004 specifies limits for the composition of monomethylhydrazine and establishes the sampling and test requirements applicable for the verification of the monomethylhydrazine (MMH) composition. ISO 15859-6:2004 is applicable to monomethylhydrazine propellant, used as a fuel in propellant systems of space systems as well as in both flight hardware and ground facilities, systems, and equipment, of Grade A (98,0 % pure) and Grade F (98,5 % pure). ISO 15859-6:2004 is applicable to influents only within the specified limits herein. ISO 15859-6:2004 is applicable to any sampling operation required to ensure that, when the fluid enters the launch vehicle or spacecraft, the fluid composition complies with the limits provided hereafter or with any technical specification agreed to for a particular use.

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ISO 15859-2:2004 specifies limits for the composition of hydrogen and establishes the sampling and test requirements applicable for the verification of the hydrogen composition. ISO 15859-2:2004 is applicable to hydrogen used in both flight hardware and ground facilities, systems and equipment, of the following types and grades: Type I, gaseous (Grade A: fuel, Grade F: fuel) and Type II, liquid (Grade A: fuel, Grade F: fuel). ISO 15859-2:2004 is applicable to influents only to the extent specified. ISO 15859-2:2004 is applicable to any sampling operation required to ensure that, when the fluid enters the launch vehicle or spacecraft, the fluid composition complies with the limits provided hereafter or with any technical specification agreed to for a particular use.

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ISO 15859-5:2004 specifies limits for the chemical composition and physical properties of nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4)-based propellants and establishes the sampling and test requirements applicable for the verification of the nitrogen tetroxide composition. ISO 15859-5:2004 is applicable to N2O4-based propellants, used as oxidizers in propellant systems of space systems as well as in both flight hardware and ground facilities, systems, and equipment, of types NTO (N2O4 with red-brown colour), MON-1 (N2O4 and NO with green colour), MON-3 (N2O4 and NO with green colour), MON-10 (N2O4 and NO with green colour) and MON-25 (N2O4 and NO with green colour) as well as grades standard (no iron requirement) and low-iron (0,5 microgram per gram or 1,0 microgram per gram iron maximum). ISO 15859-5:2004 is applicable to influents only within the specified limits herein. ISO 15859-5:2004 is applicable to any sampling operation required to ensure that, when the fluid enters the launch vehicle or spacecraft, the fluid composition complies with the limits provided hereafter or with any technical specification agreed to for a particular use.

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ISO 15859-4:2004 specifies limits for the composition of helium and establishes the sampling and test requirements applicable for the verification of the helium composition. ISO 15859-4:2004 is applicable to helium, used in both flight hardware and ground facilities, systems and equipment, of the following types and grades:Type I, gaseous (Grade A: purging and pressurizing helium, Grade F: purging and pressurizing helium, Grade J: purging and pressurizing helium) and Type II, liquid (Grade A: purging and pressurizing helium, Grade F: purging and pressurizing helium). ISO 15859-4:2004 is applicable to influents only within the specified limits. ISO 15859-4:2004 is applicable to any sampling operation required to ensure that, when the fluid enters the launch vehicle or spacecraft, the fluid composition complies with the limits provided hereafter or with any technical specification agreed to for a particular use.

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ISO 15859-1:2004 specifies the limit values for the composition of oxygen and establishes the sampling and test requirements applicable for the verification of the oxygen composition. ISO 15859-1:2004 is applicable to oxygen used in both flight hardware and ground facilities, systems and equipment, of the following types and grades: Type I, gaseous (Grade A: standard, purging/pressurization, Grade CB: crew breathing, Grade F: fuel-cell) and Type II, liquid (Grade A: oxidize, Grade B: oxidizer, Grade F: fuel-cell). ISO 15859-1:2004 is applicable to influents only to the extent specified herein. ISO 15859-1:2004 is applicable to any sampling operation required to ensure that, when the fluid enters the launch vehicle or spacecraft, the fluid composition complies with the limits provided hereafter or with any technical specification agreed for a particular use.

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ISO 14950:2003 defines the essential properties pertaining to the operation of unmanned spacecraft and defines requirements and guidelines for spacecraft on-board functions in order to enable a specified ground segment to operate the spacecraft in any nominal or predefined contingency situation.

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ISO 14952-4:2003 provides requirements related to rough-cleaning processes used to prepare parts and components for precision cleaning. It identifies precleaning processes that can be used for ground support equipment, launch vehicles and spacecraft. Rough cleaning removes contaminants such as weld scale, heat-treat scale, corrosion, oxide films, oils, grease, shop soil, fuel and carbon deposits. Rough cleaning is considered a normal shop process and usually does not require special environmental controls, packaging, handling or storage beyond accepted good practice. ISO 14952-4:2003 is applicable equally to ground support equipment, launch vehicles and spacecraft.

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ISO 14952-1:2003 defines the basic terms for use in cleaning processes for equipment and components used in space fluid systems. It is applicable to terms used in the description of processes for the cleaning, analysis and verification of fluid systems used in ground support equipment, launch vehicles and spacecraft.

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ISO 14952-5:2003 provides guidance related to processes used to dry parts and components that have been subjected to solvent-based or water-based cleaning processes, and identifies drying processes that can be used for equipment that has been cleaned for use in ground support equipment, launch vehicles and spacecraft. Vacuum drying can be used to remove entrapped fluids from intricate parts when normal purging methods have been found to be ineffective.

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ISO 14952-6:2003 specifies precision-cleaning processes for parts, components and systems used in flight-critical fluid applications. It can be used on equipment for ground support equipment, launch vehicles and spacecraft. ISO 14952-6:2003 identifies precision-cleaning processes and procedures that can be used on parts and components used in fluid systems and is applicable equally to ground support equipment, launch vehicles and spacecraft.

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ISO 14952-3:2003 provides sampling and analytical test methods to validate the cleanliness levels of parts and components that have been precision cleaned, and identifies processes that may be used for the verification of cleanliness in ground support equipment, launch vehicles and spacecraft. ISO 14952-3:2003 is used to sample and verify the level of cleanliness of parts and components that have been precision cleaned and applies equally to parts, components and systems in ground support equipment, launch vehicles and spacecraft.

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ISO 14952-2:2003 defines the cleanliness levels used in the cleaning, analysis, and verification procedures for space fluid systems. It establishes a common nomenclature for use in describing cleanliness levels for equipment used in ground support equipment, launch vehicles and spacecraft. ISO 14952-2:2003 is used to specify the cleanliness level of fluid system components and equipment used in space systems. It is applicable equally to ground support equipment, launch vehicles and spacecraft.

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ISO 14619:2003 specifies the procedure for preparing and carrying out space experiments and processing the resulting data, and applies to both manned and unmanned space systems, excluding exploratory rockets with associated probes. It may be tailored to the specific needs of different kinds of experiments and their carrier space vehicles.

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ISO/TR 17400:2003 is applicable to new projects and programs and to redesigned and upgraded launch pad and integration sites. ISO/TR 17400:2003 establishes the testing phases, goals, and general aspects for launch space complexes and complexes for assembly and tests of a vehicle and spacecraft and the associated equipment that, after successful testing, will be ready for launch vehicle processing and launch. ISO/TR 17400:2003 may be applicable to the creation of international launch pad and integration sites. At creation of new launching space complexes and complexes for assembly and tests of a vehicle and spacecraft (or at their modernization) within the framework of one country, the rules established by that country may be applied.

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This International Standard defines the general criteria for the development of flight-to-ground umbilical systems used by a space system. The criteria specified herein is limited to the service arms or equivalent mechanisms, umbilical carriers and plates, couplings, connectors, withdrawal and retract devices, handling mechanisms and control systems for mechanisms.

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ISO 27852:2011 describes a process for the estimation of orbit lifetime for satellites, launch vehicles, upper stages and associated debris in LEO-crossing orbits. ISO 27852:2011 also clarifies the modelling approaches and resources for solar and geomagnetic activity modelling; the resources for atmosphere model selection; and an approach for satellite ballistic coefficient estimation.

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ISO 17399:2003 defines all generic requirements for manned space flight vehicle/habitat structures and flight crew training or simulation facilities and the related equipment that directly interfaces with manned space system flight crew members. ISO 17399:2003 covers the field of human factors as they relate to the space environment and space habitats. These man-systems integration requirements apply to space system launch, re-entry, on-orbit and extraterrestrial environments. The requirements specified in ISO 17399:2003 are applicable to any manned space flight programme.

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