Surface active agents - Bio-based surfactants - Requirements and test methods

This document sets out requirements for bio-based surfactants in terms of properties, limits, application classes and test methods. It establishes the characteristics and details for assessment of bio-based surfactants as to whether they:
—   are fit for purpose in terms of performance related properties;
—   comply with the requirements regarding the health, safety and environment which apply to general surfactants;
—   are derived from a certain minimum percentage of biomass; and
—   comply with at least similar sustainability criteria as comparable (non-bio-based) surfactants.
The criteria of the regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) [11] also apply to bio-based surfactants.
NOTE   EN 16575 defines the term “bio-based” as derived from biomass and clarifies that “bio-based” does not imply “biodegradable”. In addition, “biodegradable” does not necessarily imply the use of “bio-based” material.

Grenzflächenaktive Stoffe - Bio-basierte Tenside - Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren

Dieses Dokument legt die Anforderungen für biobasierte Tenside in Bezug auf die Eigenschaften, Grenzen, Anwendungsklassen und Prüfverfahren fest. Es legt die Merkmale und Details zur Bewertung biobasierter Tenside fest, um zu bewerten ob diese:
- im Hinblick auf die leistungsbezogenen Eigenschaften geeignet sind;
- mit den Anforderungen in Bezug auf Gesundheit, Sicherheit und Umwelt übereinstimmen, die für allgemeine oberflächenaktive Substanzen gelten;
- von einer bestimmten Mindest-Prozentzahl Biomasse abgeleitet sind;
- zumindest ähnliche Nachhaltigkeitskriterien einhalten wie vergleichbare oberflächenaktive (nicht biobasierte) Substanzen.
Die Kriterien für die Regulierung bezüglich Registrierung, Bewertung, Zulassung und Beschränkung von Chemikalien (REACH) [13] gelten auch für biobasierte Tenside.
ANMERKUNG EN 16575 definiert die Bezeichnung „biobasiert“ als abgeleitet von Biomasse und macht deutlich, dass „biobasiert“ nicht „biologisch abbaubar“ impliziert. Zusätzlich impliziert „biologisch abbaubar“ nicht unbedingt die Verwendung von „biobasiertem“ Material.

Agents de surface - Tensioactifs biosourcés - Exigences et méthodes d'essais

Le présent document définit les exigences relatives aux propriétés, aux limites, aux classes d'application et aux méthodes d'essai concernant les agents tensioactifs biosourcés. Il fixe les caractéristiques et les informations permettant d'évaluer les agents tensioactifs biosourcés au regard des critères suivants :
-   aptitude à l'emploi du point de vue des propriétés en rapport avec les performances ;
-   conformité aux exigences en matière de santé, de sécurité et d'environnement, applicables aux agents tensioactifs en général ;
-   origine : pourcentage minimal donné de biomasse dont ils sont issus ;
-   conformité à des critères de durabilité au moins similaires à ceux d'agents tensioactifs (non biosourcés) comparables.
Les critères du règlement concernant l'enregistrement, l'évaluation et l'autorisation des substances chimiques, ainsi que les restrictions applicables à ces substances (REACH) [13], s'appliquent aussi aux agents tensioactifs biosourcés.
NOTE   La définition du terme « biosourcé » dans l'EN 16575 est « issu de la biomasse ». Il est à préciser que le terme « biosourcé » n'est pas synonyme de « biodégradable », la notion de « biodégradabilité » n'impliquant pas nécessairement, par ailleurs, l'utilisation de matière « biosourcée ».

Površinsko aktivne snovi - Površinsko aktivne snovi na biološki osnovi - Zahteve in preskusne metode

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
04-Nov-2018
Publication Date
12-Dec-2021
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
08-Oct-2021
Due Date
13-Dec-2021
Completion Date
13-Dec-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 17035:2022
01-januar-2022
Nadomešča:
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17035:2018
Površinsko aktivne snovi - Površinsko aktivne snovi na biološki osnovi - Zahteve
in preskusne metode
Surface active agents - Bio-based surfactants - Requirements and test methods

Grenzflächenaktive Stoffe - Bio-basierte Tenside - Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren

Agents de surface - Tensioactifs biosourcés - Exigences et méthodes d'essais
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 17035:2021
ICS:
13.020.55 Biološki izdelki Biobased products
71.100.40 Površinsko aktivna sredstva Surface active agents
SIST EN 17035:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 17035:2022
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 17035:2022
EN 17035
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
September 2021
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 71.100.40 Supersedes CEN/TS 17035:2017
English Version
Surface active agents - Bio-based surfactants -
Requirements and test methods

Agents de surface - Tensioactifs biosourcés - Exigences Grenzflächenaktive Stoffe - Bio-basierte Tenside -

et méthodes d'essais Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 8 June 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 17035:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 17035:2022
EN 17035:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Generalities on surfactants.......................................................................................................................... 7

5 Performance of surfactants ......................................................................................................................... 8

5.1 Generalities related to performance ........................................................................................................ 8

5.2 Technical performance properties ........................................................................................................... 8

5.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.2.2 Chemical composition ................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2.3 Solubility ............................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.2.4 Surface and interfacial tension .................................................................................................................. 9

5.2.5 Foaming power ................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.2.6 Wetting performance ..................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.7 Emulsion power ............................................................................................................................................ 10

6 Health, safety and environmental requirements ............................................................................. 10

7 Bio-based content ........................................................................................................................................ 10

7.1 Generalities .................................................................................................................................................... 10

7.2 Surfactant classification ............................................................................................................................ 11

7.3 Analytical approach .................................................................................................................................... 12

8 Sustainability ................................................................................................................................................. 12

9 End of life ......................................................................................................................................................... 12

10 Declaration and product labelling ......................................................................................................... 13

Annex A (informative) Sub-sampling procedure ............................................................................................. 14

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 15

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 17035:2022
EN 17035:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 17035:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 276 “Surface

active agents”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2022, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by March 2022.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes CEN/TS 17035:2017.

The new edition integrates the recommendations for sub-sampling procedure and clarifies the

procedure to analyse bio-based content for not pure compound and in an aqueous solution.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association.

This document has been prepared under Mandate M/491 [12] of the European Commission, addressed

to CEN for the development of European standards for solvents and surfactants in relation to bio-based

product aspects. It has been prepared by CEN/TC 276/WG 3 “Bio-surfactants”, the secretariat of which

is held by AFNOR.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards body.

A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 17035:2022
EN 17035:2021 (E)
Introduction

Bio-based raw materials have been used for millennia in the manufacture of surfactants, e.g. the first

surfactant used by mankind, was already completely bio-based – soap. With the advent of modern

surfactants in the early 20 Century, petrochemical-based raw materials also became of interest. They

offered the opportunity to tune the surfactant properties, in a broader sense, to their various

applications.

The last decades have seen the emergence of new bio-based raw materials for surfactants. Some of the

reasons for the increased interest lie in the bio-based products’ potential benefits in relation to the

depletion of fossil resources and climate change.

Acknowledging the need for common standards for bio-based products, the European Commission

issued Mandate M/492 , resulting in a series of standards developed by CEN/TC 411, with a focus on

bio-based products other than food, feed and biomass for energy applications.

The standards of CEN/TC 411 “Bio-based products” provide a common basis on the following aspects:

— common terminology ;
— bio-based content determination;
— Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) ;
— sustainability aspects ;
— declaration tools.

It is important to understand what the term “bio-based product” covers and how it is being used. The

term “bio-based” means “derived wholly or partly from biomass”. It is essential to characterize the

amount of biomass contained in the product by, for instance, its (total) bio-based content or bio-based

carbon content.

The bio-based content of a product itself does not provide information on its environmental impact or

sustainability, which may be assessed through Life Cycle Inventory (LCI), LCA and sustainability

criteria. In addition, transparent and unambiguous communication within bio-based value chains is

facilitated by a harmonized framework for certification and declaration.

Breaking down the horizontal standards to bio-based products like bio-based surfactants, the European

Commission issued Mandate M/491 [12], resulting in standards developed by CEN/TC 276. This

document has been developed with the aim to fulfil part of the Mandate to describe the technical

requirements of bio-based surfactants. The criteria for “bio-based surfactants” published in this

document are complementary to the horizontal standards by CEN/TC 411.

1) A mandate is a standardization task embedded in European trade laws. The M/492 Mandate is addressed to

the European standardization bodies, i.e. CEN, CENELEC and ETSI, for the development of horizontal

European standards for bio-based products. The M/491 Mandate is addressed to the development of

European standards for bio-solvents and bio-surfactants.
2) EN 16575.
3) EN 16760.
4) EN 16751.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 17035:2022
EN 17035:2021 (E)

Surfactants are products which have the ability to reduce interfacial/surface tension, wet surfaces,

suspend materials or emulsify oils and fats. In Europe, thousands of producers, manufacturers and

nearly every inhabitant use surfactants every day in consumer or industrial applications. The

surfactant-producing industry is composed of mainly multinationals. Downstream users are found in

multinationals as well as SME's.

Surfactants may be produced from both fossil and renewable carbon feedstock (ref. EN 16575 -

vocabulary). The amount of crude oil used for surfactant production is, however, low with less than 1 %

of the total world's crude oil consumption.

Finally, the approach for these Technical Reports/Specifications/Standards intends to strengthen and

harmonize the reputation of “bio-based surfactants” and the confidence of the customer in this product

group.

An overview and considerations for the compilation of this document can be found in CEN/TR 17557

[1]. It will describe existing raw material sources with regard to their current usage in surfactants, their

source identification and conformation, and the options for communication same. It should also include

the current work on surfactants regarding their performances, their sustainability, the LCA approaches

and end of life options.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 17035:2022
EN 17035:2021 (E)
1 Scope

This document sets requirements for bio-based surfactants in terms of properties, limits, application

classes and test methods. It lays down the characteristics and details for assessment of bio-based

surfactants as to whether they:
— are fit for purpose in terms of performance related properties;

— comply with the requirements regarding the health, safety and environment which apply to general

surfactants;
— are derived from a certain minimum percentage of biomass;

— comply with at least similar sustainability criteria as comparable (non-bio-based) surfactants.

The criteria of the regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals

(REACH) [13] also apply to bio-based surfactants.

NOTE EN 16575 defines the term “bio-based” as derived from biomass and clarifies that “bio-based” does not

imply “biodegradable”. In addition, “biodegradable” does not necessarily imply the use of “bio-based” material.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 14210, Surface active agents - Determination of interfacial tension of solutions of surface active agents

by the stirrup or ring method
EN 14370, Surface active agents - Determination of surface tension

EN 16640, Bio-based products - Bio-based carbon content - Determination of the bio-based carbon content

using the radiocarbon method
EN 16575, Bio-based products - Vocabulary
EN 16751, Bio-based products - Sustainability criteria
EN 16760, Bio-based products - Life Cycle Assessment

EN 16785-1, Bio-based products - Bio-based content - Part 1: Determination of the bio-based content

using the radiocarbon analysis and elemental analysis

EN 16785-2, Bio-based products - Bio-based content - Part 2: Determination of the bio-based content

using the material balance method

EN ISO 14040, Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Principles and framework

(ISO 14040)

EN ISO 14044, Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Requirements and guidelines

(ISO 14044)
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 17035:2022
EN 17035:2021 (E)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 16575 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
surfactant

organic substance possessing surface activity which, dissolved in a liquid, particularly water, lowers the

surface or interfacial tension, by preferred adsorption at the liquid/vapour surface, or other interfaces

Note 1 to entry: “Substance” as defined in REACH [12].

[SOURCE: EN ISO 862:1995, Definition 1, modified — The term originally defined was “surface active

agent” and “a chemical compound” is replaced here with “organic substance” at the beginning of the

definition.]
3.2
bio-based surfactant
surfactant wholly or partly derived from biomass (based on biogenic carbon)
3.3
bio-surfactant

surfactant wholly based on biomass (based on biogenic carbon) produced either by chemical or

biotechnological processing
3.4
degradation

transformation of a compound into smaller component parts due to the physico-chemical processes,

which can occur due to abiotic processes such as oxidation and UV adsorption
3.5
biodegradation

transformation of a compound into smaller component parts by means of biological processes

3.6
ultimate biodegradation

breakdown of organic matter by micro-organisms in the presence of oxygen to carbon dioxide, water

and mineral salts of any other elements present (mineralization) or in absence of oxygen to carbon

dioxide, methane and mineral salts, and in both cases the production of new biomass

4 Generalities on surfactants

Surfactants are products which have the ability to reduce interfacial/surface tension, wet surfaces,

suspend materials, or emulsify oils and fats. They make it possible to process, apply, clean or separate

materials. Surfactants are widely used in consumer and professional products and for industrial

applications. Surfactants are typically used on their own or in combination with other surfactants and

other agents to fulfil the requirements of the respective applications.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 17035:2022
EN 17035:2021 (E)
Examples of applications for surfactants are:
— cleaning agent;
— foaming/defoaming agent;
— wetting agent;
— emulsifier;
— viscosity modifier;
— surface tension reducer;
— process aid;
— fabric softener.

NOTE For many applications to perform effectively, surfactants are essential (see for examples the website of

the TEGEWA e.V. (TExtilhilfsmittel” (textile auxiliaries), “GErbstoffe” (tanning agents) and “WAschrohstoffe”

(detergent raw materials)) .
5 Performance of surfactants
5.1 Generalities related to performance

Performance and properties of any molecule, including surfactants, is determined by its chemical

structure and not by the origin of its raw materials.

This section gives a common set of technical properties characterizing the performance of surfactants

including bio-based surfactants. Due to the absence of international surfactant specification standards,

it is necessary to provide to potential users the means to qualify the bio-based surfactant products,

especially for its technical performance. Additionally, there are a number of other factors which will

determine the acceptance of a surfactant such as the Health, Safety and Environmental properties which

are treated in another section of this document.

Surfactants are used in such a wide variety of applications that it is not convenient to evaluate

separately their performance with respect to each application. Therefore, a practical approach is to

define a set of measurable surfactant properties which enable technical speci
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 17035:2018
01-oktober-2018
Površinsko aktivne snovi - Površinsko aktivne snovi na biološki osnovi - Zahteve
in preskusne metode
Surface Active Agents - Bio-based surfactants - Requirements and test methods

Grenzflächenaktive Stoffe - Bio-basierte Tenside - Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren

$JHQWVGHVXUIDFH7HQVLRDFWLIVELRVRXUFpV([LJHQFHVHWPpWKRGHVG
HVVDLV
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 17035
ICS:
13.020.55 Biološki izdelki Biobased products
71.100.40 Površinsko aktivna sredstva Surface active agents
oSIST prEN 17035:2018 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17035:2018
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17035:2018
DRAFT
EUROPEAN STANDARD
prEN 17035
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
August 2018
ICS 71.100.40 Will supersede CEN/TS 17035:2017
English Version
Surface Active Agents - Bio-based surfactants -
Requirements and test methods

Agents de surface - Tensioactifs biosourcés - Exigences Grenzflächenaktive Stoffe - Bio-basierte Tenside -

et méthodes d'essais Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 276.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations

which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 17035:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17035:2018
prEN 17035:2018 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Generalities on surfactants.......................................................................................................................... 8

5 Performance of surfactants ......................................................................................................................... 8

5.1 Generalities related to performance ........................................................................................................ 8

5.2 Technical performance properties ........................................................................................................... 9

5.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.2.2 Chemical composition ................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.3 Solubility ............................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.2.4 Surface and interfacial tension .................................................................................................................. 9

5.2.5 Foaming power ................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.2.6 Wetting performance .................................................................................................................................. 10

5.2.7 Emulsion power ............................................................................................................................................ 10

6 Health, safety and environmental requirements ............................................................................. 10

7 Bio-based content ........................................................................................................................................ 10

7.1 Generalities .................................................................................................................................................... 10

7.2 Surfactant classification ............................................................................................................................ 11

7.3 Analytical approach .................................................................................................................................... 12

8 Sustainability ................................................................................................................................................. 12

9 End of life ......................................................................................................................................................... 12

10 Declaration and product labelling ......................................................................................................... 13

Annex A (informative) Sub-sampling procedure ........................................................................................... 14

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 15

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17035:2018
prEN 17035:2018 (E)
European foreword

This document (prEN 17035:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 276 “Surface

active agents”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.
This document will supersede CEN/TS 17035:2017.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association.

This document has been prepared under Mandate M/491 [12] of the European Commission, addressed

to CEN for the development of European Standards for solvents and surfactants in relation to bio-based

product aspects. It has been prepared by CEN/TC 276/WG 3 “Bio-surfactants”, the secretariat of which

is held by AFNOR.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17035:2018
prEN 17035:2018 (E)
Introduction

Bio-based raw materials have been used for millennia in the manufacture of surfactants, e.g. the first

surfactant used by mankind, was already completely bio-based – soap. With the advent of modern

surfactants in the early 20 Century, petrochemical-based raw materials also became of interest. They

offered the opportunity to tune the surfactant properties, in a broader sense, to their various

applications.

The last decades have seen the emergence of new bio-based raw materials for surfactants. Some of the

reasons for the increased interest lie in the bio-based products’ potential benefits in relation to the

depletion of fossil resources and climate change.

Acknowledging the need for common standards for bio-based products, the European Commission

issued Mandate M/492 , resulting in a series of standards developed by CEN/TC 411, with a focus on

bio-based products other than food, feed and biomass for energy applications.

The standards of CEN/TC 411 “Bio-based products” provide a common basis on the following aspects:

— common terminology ;
— bio-based content determination;
— Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) ;
— sustainability aspects ;
— declaration tools.

It is important to understand what the term “bio-based product” covers and how it is being used. The

term “bio-based” means “derived wholly or partly from biomass”. It is essential to characterize the

amount of biomass contained in the product by, for instance, its (total) bio-based content or bio-based

carbon content.

The bio-based content of a product itself does not provide information on its environmental impact or

sustainability, which may be assessed through Life Cycle Inventory (LCI), LCA and sustainability

criteria. In addition, transparent and unambiguous communication within bio-based value chains is

facilitated by a harmonized framework for certification and declaration.

Breaking down the horizontal standards to bio-based products like bio-based surfactants, the European

Commission issued Mandate M/491 [12], resulting in standards developed by CEN/TC 276. This

European Standard has been developed with the aim to fulfil part of the Mandate to describe the

technical requirements of bio-based surfactants. The criteria for “bio-based surfactants” published in

this European Standard are complementary to the horizontal standards by CEN/TC 411.

1) A mandate is a standardization task embedded in European trade laws. The M/492 Mandate is addressed to

the European Standardization bodies, i.e. CEN, CENELEC and ETSI, for the development of horizontal European

Standards for bio-based products. The M/491 Mandate is addressed to the development of European Standards

for bio-solvents and bio-surfactants.
2) EN 16575.
3) EN 16760.
4) EN 16751.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17035:2018
prEN 17035:2018 (E)

Surfactants are products which have the ability to reduce interfacial/surface tension, wet surfaces,

suspend materials or emulsify oils and fats. In Europe, thousands of producers, manufacturers and

nearly every inhabitant use surfactants every day in consumer or industrial applications. The

surfactant-producing industry is composed of mainly multinationals. Downstream users are found in

multinationals as well as SME's.

Surfactants may be produced from both fossil and renewable carbon feedstock (ref. EN 16575 -

vocabulary). The amount of crude oil used for surfactant production is, however, low with less than 1 %

of the total world's crude oil consumption.

Finally, the approach for these Technical Reports/Specifications/Standards intends to strengthen and

harmonize the reputation of “bio-based surfactants” and the confidence of the customer in this product

group.

An overview and considerations for the compilation of this European Standard can be found in the WI

276071 [1]. It will describe existing raw material sources with regard to their current usage in surface

active agents, their source identification and conformation, and the options for communication same. It

should also include the current work on surfactants regarding their performances, their sustainability,

the LCA approaches and end of life options.
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1 Scope

This European Standard sets requirements for bio-based surfactants in terms of properties, limits,

application classes and test methods. It lays down the characteristics and details for assessment of bio-

based surfactants as to whether they:
— are fit for purpose in terms of performance related properties;

— comply with the requirements regarding the health, safety and environment which apply to general

surfactants;
— are derived from a certain minimum percentage of biomass; and

— comply with at least similar sustainability criteria as comparable (non-bio-based) surfactants.

The criteria of the regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals

(REACH) [11] also apply to bio-based surfactants.

NOTE EN 16575 defines the term “bio-based” as derived from biomass and clarifies that “bio-based” does not

imply “biodegradable”. In addition, “biodegradable” does not necessarily imply the use of “bio-based” material.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 1772, Surface active agents — Determination of wetting power by immersion (ISO 8022:1990

modified)

EN 1890, Surface active agents — Determination of cloud point of non-ionic surface active agents

obtained by condensation of ethylene oxide
EN 12458, Surface active agents — Determination of stability in hard water

EN 12728, Surface active agents — Determination of foaming power — Perforated disc beating method

EN 13996, Surface active agents — Foaming power and antifoaming power — Turbine stirring method

EN 14210, Surface active agents — Determination of interfacial tension of solutions of surface active

agents by the stirrup or ring method
EN 14370, Surface active agents — Determination of surface tension

EN 14371, Surface active agents — Determination of foamability and degree of foamability — Circulation

test method

EN 16640, Bio-based products — Bio-based carbon content — Determination of the bio-based carbon

content using the radiocarbon method
EN 16575, Bio-based products — Vocabulary
EN 16751, Bio-based products — Sustainability criteria
EN 16760, Bio-based products — Life Cycle Assessment
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EN 16785-1, Bio-based products — Bio-based content — Part 1: Determination of the bio-based content

using the radiocarbon analysis and elemental analysis

EN 16785-2, Bio-based products — Bio-based content — Part 2: Determination of the bio-based content

using the material balance method

EN ISO 14040, Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Principles and framework (ISO

14040)

EN ISO 14044, Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Requirements and guidelines (ISO

14044)

DIN 53902, Testing of surface active agents; determination of foaming power, modified Ross-Miles-method

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 16575 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
surfactant

organic substance possessing surface activity which, dissolved in a liquid, particularly water, lowers the

surface or interfacial tension, by preferred adsorption at the liquid/vapour surface, or other interfaces

Note 1 to entry: “Substance” as defined in REACH [12].

[SOURCE: EN ISO 862:1995, Definition 1, modified — The term originally defined was “surface active

agent” and “a chemical compound” is replaced here with “organic substance” at the beginning of the

definition.]
3.2
bio-based surfactant
surfactant wholly or partly derived from biomass (based on biogenic carbon)
3.3
bio-surfactant

surfactant wholly based on biomass (based on biogenic carbon) produced either by chemical or

biotechnological processing
3.4
degradation

transformation of a compound into smaller component parts due to the physico-chemical processes,

which can occur due to abiotic processes such as oxidation and UV adsorption
3.5
biodegradation

transformation of a compound into smaller component parts by means of biological processes

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3.6
ultimate biodegradation

breakdown of organic matter by micro-organisms in the presence of oxygen to carbon dioxide, water

and mineral salts of any other elements present (mineralization) or in absence of oxygen to carbon

dioxide, methane and mineral salts, and in both cases the production of new biomass

4 Generalities on surfactants

Surfactants are products which have the ability to reduce interfacial/surface tension, wet surfaces,

suspend materials, or emulsify oils and fats. They make it possible to process, apply, clean or separate

materials. Surfactants are widely used in consumer and professional products and for industrial

applications. Surfactants are typically used on their own or in combination with other surfactants and

other agents to fulfil the requirements of the respective applications.
Examples of applications for surfactants are:
— cleaning agent;
— foaming/defoaming agent;
— wetting agent;
— emulsifier;
— viscosity modifier;
— surface tension reducer;
— process aid;
— fabric softener.

NOTE For many applications to perform effectively, surfactants are essential (see for examples the website of

the TEGEWA e.V. (TExtilhilfsmittel” (textile auxiliaries), “GErbstoffe” (tanning agents) and “WAschrohstoffe”

(detergent raw materials)) .
5 Performance of surfactants
5.1 Generalities related to performance

Performance and properties of any molecule, including surfactants, is determined by its chemical

structure and not by the origin of its raw materials.

This section gives a common set of technical properties characterizing the performance of surfactants

including bio-based surfactants. Due to the absence of international surfactant specification standards,

it is necessary to provide to potential users the means to qualify the bio-based surfactant products,

especially for its technical performance. Additionally, there are a number of other factors which will

determine the acceptance of a surfactant such as the Health, Safety and Environmental properties which

are treated in another section of this document.

Surfactants are used in such a wide variety of applications that it is not convenient to evaluate

separately their performance with respect to each application. Therefore, a practical approach is to

5) See www.tegewa.de for a more detailed brochure about typical use of surfactants.

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