This document provides systems of classification of plywood panels based on general appearance and principal characteristics.

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  • Draft
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This document sets out requirements regarding the performance of characteristics of the following types of cross laminated timber to be used in buildings and bridges:
-   type 1: Straight or curved cross laminated timber comprising only timber layers but no large finger joints;
-   type 2: Straight cross laminated timber comprising only timber layers and large finger joints;
-   type 3: Straight cross laminated timber comprising timber and wood-based panel layers but no large finger joints.
It also lays down procedures for assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVPC) of characteristics and specifies marking and labelling of cross laminated timber.
This document covers cross laminated timber of all three types of cross laminated timber:
-   manufactured according to this standard, which sets up provisions for:
-   boundary conditions during manufacture of cross laminated timber;
-   moisture content and temperature of timber to be bonded;
-   production of finger joints and bonds between layers;
-   to be used in service class 1 or 2 according to EN 1995 1 1;
-   made of coniferous species and poplar listed in this standard;
-   which may be made of layers made of different species having similar properties;
-   bonded with phenolic or aminoplastic or moisture curing one-component polyurethane or emulsion polymer isocyanate adhesives of adhesive type I according to the respective standard;
-   built up of at least three orthogonally bonded layers (at least two of them timber layers);
-   which may have, depending on the number of layers, adjacent layers bonded parallel to the grain;
-   made of timber layers which are made of strength graded timber according to EN 14081 1;
-   made of timber layers having nominal thicknesses between 6 mm (including) and 60 mm (including) depending on the layup;
-   made of timber layers
-   which may comprise non-structural edge bonds; and
-   have a mean gap width of less than or equal to 0,6 mm and a 90th percentile of the gap width of 2 mm;
-   having nominal overall thicknesses up to 500 mm.
Additional provisions of this document apply for straight cross laminated timber comprising only timber layers and comprising large finger joints (type 2):
-   made from cross laminated timber pieces having the same cross-section and layup;
-   made from cross laminated timber pieces having nominal cross-sectional thicknesses from 51 mm (including) up to 345 mm (including) and nominal minimum thicknesses of the outer layers not less than 17 mm (including).
-   made from cross laminated timber pieces solely comprising timber layers;
-   made from plane cross laminated timber pieces;
-   with parallel x-axes of the jointed components;
-   with finger joints having a finger length of at least 45 mm and fingers which are visible at the two narrow sides of the components;
-   bonded with phenolic or aminoplastic or moisture curing one-component polyurethane adhesives of adhesive type I according to the respective standard.
Additional provisions of this document apply for straight cross laminated timber comprising timber and wood-based panel layers but no large finger joints (type 3):
-   made of structural wood-based panels specified in this European standard;
-   made of one panel per layer and;
-   having thicknesses between 6 mm (including) and 45 mm (including);
This document applies to cross laminated timber untreated or treated against biological attack.
This document  does not cover:
-   cross laminated timber treated with fire retardants;
-   cross laminated timber which is produced from re-used timber or wood-based panels comprising re-used timber.

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This document specifies the nature and limits of characteristics inherent in wood and manufacturing defects enabling the visual assessment of the plywood for allocation to an appearance class. This document applies to plywood, the surface veneers of which are made from hardwood species[1] including tropical and temperate hardwood. It does not apply to overlaid panels. [1] Conventionally, broadleaved species.

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This document establishes general rules for the classification of plywood by its surface appearance. It concerns plywood made of hardwood including tropical and temperate hardwood, softwood and plywood derived from other lignocellulosic materials. It does not apply to overlaid plywood.

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This document specifies the nature and limits of characteristics inherent in palm-plywood and manufacturing defects enabling the visual assessment of the plywood for allocation to an appearance class. This document applies to palm-plywood, the surface veneers of which are made from oil palm trunk.

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  • Standard
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This European Standard specifies the requirements for plywood, as defined in EN 313 2, for both general purpose use (non-structural application) and structural application in dry, humid or exterior conditions. It also gives a classification system based on the bending properties.
NOTE 1   This European Standard is referenced in EN 13986 for construction applications.
This standard can be appropriately applied for all plywood, including overlaid and coated plywood, but it does not cover materials or processes used for overlaying or coating. Neither does it cover any materials or processes applied in relation to enhancement of biological durability.
NOTE 2   For additional guidance on biological durability and the potential need for preservative treatment, according to application and serviceability, reference can be made to CEN/TS 1099.
The values listed under Clause 4 relate only to product properties; they are not 'characteristic values' and are not to be used in design calculations.
NOTE 3   Characteristic values (i.e. for use in design calculation according to EN 1995–1–1) are given either in EN 12369–2 which is based on the classification system given in this standard or by the manufacturer based on testing according to EN 789, EN 1058 and ENV 1156.
Additional information on supplementary properties for certain applications is also given.

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This European Standard specifies the requirements for plywood, as defined in EN 313 2, for both general purpose use (non-structural application) and structural application in dry, humid or exterior conditions. It also gives a classification system based on the bending properties.
NOTE 1   This European Standard is referenced in EN 13986 for construction applications.
This standard can be appropriately applied for all plywood, including overlaid and coated plywood, but it does not cover materials or processes used for overlaying or coating. Neither does it cover any materials or processes applied in relation to enhancement of biological durability.
NOTE 2   For additional guidance on biological durability and the potential need for preservative treatment, according to application and serviceability, reference can be made to CEN/TS 1099.
The values listed under Clause 4 relate only to product properties; they are not 'characteristic values' and are not to be used in design calculations.
NOTE 3   Characteristic values (i.e. for use in design calculation according to EN 1995–1–1) are given either in EN 12369–2 which is based on the classification system given in this standard or by the manufacturer based on testing according to EN 789, EN 1058 and ENV 1156.
Additional information on supplementary properties for certain applications is also given.

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ISO 13608:2014 specifies the terms, classifications, requirements, test methods, marking, for decorative veneered plywood with natural wood veneer, coloured veneer, laminated veneer, multilaminar veneer, and other types of veneer as decorative surface and plywood as a core panel, where the surface veneer thickness is less than 0,55 mm.

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ISO 1954:2013 specifies dimensional tolerances of plywood panels (length, width, thickness) and tolerances for edge straightness and squareness.

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  • Standard
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This European Standard specifies a calculation method for the estimation of some mechanical properties of plywood (strength and stiffness) with a symmetrical composition. The resulting values are intended as predictive only.

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This European Standard specifies, for plywood panels of any composition, symmetrical or not, a calculation method to derive some mechanical properties (strength and stiffness in bending, tension, compression, panel and planar shear) as well as density from the wood compounding the layers.
NOTE   Usually, the lay-up of the panels is symmetrical but, very often, the surface appearance of the face and the surface appearance of the back face differ, hence a difference between the mechanical properties of the respective veneers. Therefore, in this case, the composition is not mechanically symmetrical and a symmetry independent calculation method is needed.
Provided that structural characteristic values are taken for the layers, the resulting values for the panels can be used as characteristic values as required by EN 1995-1-1.
Conversely, Annex A defines the procedures to derive the veneer properties, in bending, tension and compression, either from testing panels according to EN 789 and EN 1058 or from timber testing according to EN 408 or from imposed values defined in EN 338.
Annex B provides practical spreadsheets, which are applications of the equations in the main part of this standard.
Annex C provide an example for the calculation of bending strength, in accordance with Annex B.

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This European Standard provides information on the characteristic values for use in designing structures incorporating wood-based panels. The characteristic values given in this standard are to be used in accordance with EN 1995-1-1. When utilizing the classification system for derivation of plywood characteristic values, this European Standard can only be applied with reference to EN 636. This European Standard includes the characteristic values of the mechanical properties for plywood complying with EN 636 in bending, tension, compression, panel shear and planar shear. EN 636 classifies bending properties into two sets of classes, one for stiffness and another for strength. Stiffness and strength in tension and compression are related to the same properties in bending. For shear properties, fixed values determined by correlation to density are provided. Where optimised values are needed, the characteristic values are determined directly by testing in accordance with EN 789 and EN 1058 or by combination of testing according to the latter two standards and calculation according to prEN 14272. This European Standard applies to panels complying with the three following conditions: 5 layers or more and 6 mm overall thickness and more; the ratio of the cumulative thickness of veneers in alternate directions does not exceed 2,5; wood species with a mean density greater than 350 kg/m3 and not exceeding 750 kg/m3.

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This European Standard provides information on the characteristic values for use in designing structures incorporating wood-based panels. The characteristic values given in this standard are to be used in accordance with  EN 1995-1-1.
When utilizing the classification system for derivation of plywood characteristic values, this part of this standard can only be applied with reference to EN 636.
This part of this standard includes the characteristic values of the mechanical properties for plywood complying with EN 636 in bending, tension, compression, panel shear and planar shear. EN 636 classifies bending properties into two sets of classes, one for stiffness and another for strength. Stiffness and strength in tension and compression are related to the same properties in bending.
For shear properties, fixed values determined by correlation to density are provided.
Where optimised values are needed, the characteristic values are determined directly by testing in accordance with EN 789 and EN 1058 or by combination of testing according to the latter two standards and calculation according to prEN 14272.
This part of this standard applies to panels complying with the three following conditions:
-   5 layers or more and 6 mm overall thickness and more;
-    the ratio of the cumulative thickness of veneers in alternate directions does not exceed 2,5;
-    wood species with a mean density greater than 350 kg/m3 and not exceeding 750 kg/m3.

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This document gives guidance for the end user on the selection of plywood for application of various finishes for use in dry, humid, or exterior end-use conditions.

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This document gives guidance on the selection of plywood for use in the different use classes as defined in EN 335 1.
The guidance given takes into account the natural durability classification for solid timber (see EN 350 2) together with other factors specific for plywood.
It does not consider durability against chemico-physical factors, such as weathering, nor does it consider the biological durability of the adhesive.
Guidance on precautionary measures for use is also given.

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ISO 12466-1:2007 specifies methods for determining the bonding quality of plywood, blockboard, battenboard, and laminboard, bonded with thermosetting resin, by shear testing.

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ISO 12466-2:2007 specifies requirements for determination of bonding quality class of plywood, blockboard, battenboard, and laminboard, bonded with thermosetting resins, according to their intended end uses.

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This document gives guidance for the end user on the selection of plywood for application of various finishes for use in dry, humid, or exterior end-use conditions.

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This document gives guidance on the selection of plywood for use in the different use classes as defined in EN 335 1.
The guidance given takes into account the natural durability classification for solid timber (see EN 350 2) together with other factors specific for plywood.
It does not consider durability against chemico-physical factors, such as weathering, nor does it consider the biological durability of the adhesive.
Guidance on precautionary measures for use is also given.

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ISO 12465:2007 establishes requirements for the specification of plywood for general and structural use, in dry, tropical dry/humid and high-humidity/exterior conditions. It includes requirements for the quality of veneer, glue bond, lay-up (construction), dimensions and tolerances, conformance verification and marking. The values listed in ISO 12465:2007 relate to product properties, but they are not characteristic values to be used in design calculations. Additional information on supplementary properties for certain applications is also given.

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  • Standard
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This document sets out provisions regarding the performance of characteristics of the following Types of cross laminated timber for use in buildings and bridges:
- Type 1: Straight or curved cross laminated timber comprising only timber layers but no large finger joints;
- Type 2: Straight cross laminated timber comprising only timber layers and large finger joints;
- Type 3: Straight cross laminated timber comprising timber and wood-based panel layers but no large finger joints.
This document covers cross laminated timber of all three Types of cross laminated timber:
- manufactured according to this document, which sets up provisions for:
- boundary conditions during manufacture of cross laminated timber;
- moisture content and temperature of timber to be bonded;
- production of finger joints and bonds between layers;
- to be used in service class 1 or 2 according to EN 1995-1-1;
- made of coniferous species and poplar listed in this document;
- which may be made of layers made of different species;
- bonded with phenolic or aminoplastic or moisture curing one-component polyurethane or emulsion polymer isocyanate adhesives of adhesive Type I according to the respective standard;
- made of timber laminations having a nominal width between 40 mm (including) and 300 mm (including);
- built up of at least three orthogonally bonded layers (at least two of them timber layers);
- which may have, depending on the number of layers, adjacent layers bonded parallel to the grain;
- made of timber layers which are made of strength graded timber according to EN 14081-1;
-made of timber layers having nominal thicknesses between 6 mm (including) and 47 mm (including);
- made of timber layers which may comprise edge bonds;
- having nominal overall thicknesses up to 500 mm.
Additional provisions of this document apply for straight cross laminated timber comprising only timber layers and comprising large finger joints (Type 2):
- made from cross laminated timber pieces having the same cross-section and layup;
- made from cross laminated timber pieces having nominal cross-sectional thicknesses from 51 mm (including) up to 345 mm (including) and nominal minimum thicknesses of the outer layers not less than 17 mm (including);
- made from cross laminated timber pieces solely comprising timber layers;
- made from plane cross laminated timber pieces;
- with parallel x-axes of the jointed components;
- with large finger joints having a finger length of at least 45 mm and fingers which are visible at the two narrow sides of the components;
- having large finger joints bonded with phenolic or aminoplastic or moisture curing one-component polyurethane adhesives of adhesive Type I according to the respective standard.
Additional provisions of this document apply for straight cross laminated timber comprising timber and wood-based panel layers but no large finger joints (Type 3):
- made of structural wood-based panels specified in this document;
- made of one panel per layer and;
- having thicknesses between 6 mm (including) and 45 mm (including).
This document applies to cross laminated timber untreated or treated against biological attack.
This document does not cover:
- cross laminated timber treated with fire retardants;
- cross laminated timber which is produced from re-used timber or wood-based panels comprising re-used timber.
It also lays down procedures for assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVPC) of cross laminated timber.

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This document specifies methods for determining the bonding quality of veneer plywood, blockboard and laminboard by shear testing.
The relevant requirements are specified in EN 314 2.
This document is suitable for insulating core plywood as defined in Annex B.
Annex A is normative. Annex B is informative.

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This document specifies methods for determining the bonding quality of veneer plywood, blockboard and laminboard by shear testing.
The relevant requirements are specified in EN 314 2.
This document is suitable for insulating core plywood as defined in Annex B.
Annex A is normative. Annex B is informative.

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This European Standard specifies dimensional tolerances of plywood panels (length, width, thickness) and tolerances for squareness and edge straightness. NOTE Some uses of plywood can require narrower tolerances: see specific standards for types or perfor-mance
standards.

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This part of ISO 2426 specifies the nature and limits of characteristics inherent in wood and manufacturing defects enabling the visual assessment of the plywood for allocation to an appearance class. This part of ISO 2426 applies to plywood, the surface veneers of which are made from softwood species. It does not apply to overlaid panels.

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  • Standard
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This European Standard specifies dimensional tolerances of plywood panels (length, width, thickness) and tolerances for squareness and edge straightness. NOTE Some uses of plywood can require narrower tolerances: see specific standards for types or perfor-mance
standards.

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This European Standard defines the principal terms concerning plywood.

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THis European Standard specifies the methods for measuring and expressing: some natural characteristics of wood, and the defects that come from the manufacturing process which are used for the classification of the appearance of plywood surfaces according to EN 635-1, EN 635-2 and EN 635-3.

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This European standard gives a classification of plywood panels.

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This European Standard defines the principal terms concerning plywood.

  • Standard
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THis European Standard specifies the methods for measuring and expressing: some natural characteristics of wood, and the defects that come from the manufacturing process which are used for the classification of the appearance of plywood surfaces according to EN 635-1, EN 635-2 and EN 635-3.

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This European standard gives a classification of plywood panels.

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This European standards specifies requirements for bonding classes of veneer plywood according to their end uses. The appropriate test methods are specified in EN 314-1. The main addressed characteristics are: mechanical properties like shear strength and the assessment of wood failure.

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This European Standard specifies the nature and limits of characteristics inherent in wood and manufacturing defects enabling the visual assessment of theplywood for allocation to an appearance class. This classification is a contribution to assessing the finishing suitability of plywood. This part of EN 635 applies to plywood, the surface veneers of which are made from hardwood species. It does not apply to overlaid panels.

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This European Standard specifies the nature and limits of characteristics inherent in wood and manufacturing defects enabling the visual assessment of theplywood for allocation to an appearance class. This classification is a contribution to assessing the finishing suitability of plywood. This part of EN 635 applies to plywood, the surface veneers of which are made from softwood species. It does not apply to overlaid panels.

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This part of EN 635 establishes general rules for the classification of plywood by its surface appearance. It does not apply to overlaid plywood.

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This European Standard specifies the nature and limits of characteristics inherent in wood and manufacturing defects enabling the visual assessment of theplywood for allocation to an appearance class. This classification is a contribution to assessing the finishing suitability of plywood. This part of EN 635 applies to plywood, the surface veneers of which are made from hardwood species. It does not apply to overlaid panels.

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This European Standard specifies the nature and limits of characteristics inherent in wood and manufacturing defects enabling the visual assessment of theplywood for allocation to an appearance class. This classification is a contribution to assessing the finishing suitability of plywood. This part of EN 635 applies to plywood, the surface veneers of which are made from softwood species. It does not apply to overlaid panels.

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This part of EN 635 establishes general rules for the classification of plywood by its surface appearance. It does not apply to overlaid plywood.

  • Standard
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This European standards specifies requirements for bonding classes of veneer plywood according to their end uses. The appropriate test methods are specified in EN 314-1. The main addressed characteristics are: mechanical properties like shear strength and the assessment of wood failure.

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This European Standard specifies the requirements for plywood, as defined in EN 313 2, for both general purpose use (non-structural application) and structural application in dry, humid or exterior conditions. It also gives a classification system based on the bending properties.
NOTE 1   This European Standard is referenced in EN 13986 for construction applications.
This standard can be appropriately applied for all plywood, including overlaid and coated plywood, but it does not cover materials or processes used for overlaying or coating. Neither does it cover any materials or processes applied in relation to enhancement of biological durability.
NOTE 2   For additional guidance on biological durability and the potential need for preservative treatment, according to application and serviceability, reference can be made to CEN/TS 1099.
The values listed under Clause 4 relate only to product properties; they are not 'characteristic values' and are not to be used in design calculations.
NOTE 3   Characteristic values (i.e. for use in design calculation according to EN 1995–1-1) are given either in EN 12369–2 which is based on the classification system given in this standard or by the manufacturer based on testing according to EN 789, EN 1058 and ENV 1156.
Additional information on supplementary properties for certain applications is also given.

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This European Standard specifies the requirements for plywood, as defined in EN 313 2, for both general purpose use (non-structural application) and structural application in dry, humid or exterior conditions. It also gives a classification system based on the bending properties.
NOTE 1   This European Standard is referenced in EN 13986 for construction applications.
This standard can be appropriately applied for all plywood, including overlaid and coated plywood, but it does not cover materials or processes used for overlaying or coating. Neither does it cover any materials or processes applied in relation to enhancement of biological durability.
NOTE 2   For additional guidance on biological durability and the potential need for preservative treatment, according to application and serviceability, reference can be made to CEN/TS 1099.
The values listed under Clause 4 relate only to product properties; they are not 'characteristic values' and are not to be used in design calculations.
NOTE 3   Characteristic values (i.e. for use in design calculation according to EN 1995–1-1) are given either in EN 12369–2 which is based on the classification system given in this standard or by the manufacturer based on testing according to EN 789, EN 1058 and ENV 1156.
Additional information on supplementary properties for certain applications is also given.

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This document specifies the requirements for cross laminated timber with rectangular cross-sections shaped by sawing, planning or other methods.
This document covers cross laminated timber, untreated or treated against biological attack.
This document does not cover timber treated by fire retardant products.

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This European Standard sets out provisions regarding the performance characteristics for straight and curved structural cross laminated timber (X-Lam) both without and with large finger joints as a material for the manufacture of structural elements to be used in buildings and bridges.
This European Standard applies to cross laminated timber:
-   to be used in service class 1 or 2 according to EN 1995 1 1;
-   made of coniferous species and poplar listed in 5.1.5 of this standard;
-   built up of at least three orthogonally bonded layers (at least two of them timber layers);
-   having, depending on the number of layers, adjacent layers which may be bonded parallel to the grain;
-   made of timber layers which are made of strength graded timber according to EN 14081 1;
-   made of timber layers having thicknesses between 6 mm and 60 mm (including) taking into account the layup requirements given in this European standard;
-   made of timber layers which may be edge bonded or which are not bonded and have spacing less than 6 mm between adjacent laminations;
-   which may comprise wood based panel layers made of structural wood based panels specified in this European standard, fulfilling the requirements for use in service class 2 or 3 according to EN 1995 1 1, having no structural joints between the single panels and having thicknesses between 6 mm and 45 mm (including);
-   bonded with adhesives, fulfilling the requirements given in this European standard;
-   having overall thicknesses up to 500 mm;
-   which is not made from reused timber or wood based panels comprising reused timber.
This European Standard also applies to cross laminated timber with large finger joints:
-   made from cross laminated timber pieces having the same cross section and layup;
-   made from cross laminated timber pieces having cross sectional thicknesses from 51 mm up to 345 mm (inclusive) and minimum thicknesses of the outermost layers not less than 17 mm.
-   made from cross laminated timber pieces solely comprising timber layers;
-   made from plane cross laminated timber pieces jointed so that no regular change between the grain directions of the layers occurs;
-   with finger joints having a finger length of at least 45 mm and fingers which are visible at the two narrow sides of the components.
This European Standard applies to cross laminated timber treated against biological attack. Cross laminated timber treated with fire retardants is not covered.
It also sets out minimum production requirements and procedures for Assessment and Verification of Constancy of Performance.

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This European Standard specifies the requirements for plywood, as defined in EN 313-2, for both general purpose use (non-structural application) and structural application in dry, humid or exterior conditions. It also gives a classification system based on the bending properties. NOTE 1 This European Standard is referenced in EN 13986 for construction applications. NOTE 2 For additional guidance on application, information is provided in CEN/TS 1099. The values listed under Clause 4 relate only to product properties; they are not 'characteristic values' and are not to be used in design calculations. NOTE 3 Characteristic values (i.e. for use in design calculation according to EN 1995-1-1) are given either in EN 12369-2 which is based on the classification system given in this standard or by the manufacturer based on testing according to EN 789, EN 1058 and ENV 1156. Additional information on supplementary properties for certain applications is also given.

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This European Standard specifies the requirements for plywood, as defined in EN 313-2, for both general purpose use (non-structural application) and structural application in dry, humid or exterior conditions. It also gives a classification system based on the bending properties.
NOTE 1   This European Standard is referenced in EN 13986 for construction applications.
NOTE 2   For additional guidance on application, information is provided in CEN/TS 1099.
The values listed under Clause 4 relate only to product properties; they are not 'characteristic values' and are not to be used in design calculations.
NOTE 3   Characteristic values (i.e. for use in design calculation according to EN 1995 1 1) are given either in EN 12369 2 which is based on the classification system given in this standard or by the manufacturer based on testing according to EN 789, EN 1058 and ENV 1156.
Additional information on supplementary properties for certain applications is also given.

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ISO 1096:2013 provides systems of classification of plywood panels based on general appearance and principal characteristics.

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This European Standard specifies the requirements for plywood for general purposes or structural application in dry, humid or exterior conditions. It also gives a classification system based on the bending properties.
NOTE 1   This standard will be called up in EN 13986 for construction applications.
The values listed in this standard relate to product properties but they are not characteristic values to be used in design calculations.
NOTE 2   Such characteristic values (e. g. for use in design calculation in ENV 1995-1-1) are given either in prEN 12369-2 or by the manufacturer, based on testing according to EN 789, EN 1058 and ENV 1156.
Additional information on supplementary properties for certain applications is also given.

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