This document describes the method of determination of both major and trace levels of metal contents in rubber — raw, vulcanized — by ICP-OES.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the green strength of raw rubber or unvulcanized rubber compounds using a tensile stress-strain test, the test pieces being prepared following standard test conditions or cut from calendered sheets.

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This document defines —   the physical and chemical tests on raw reclaimed natural rubber, and —   the standard materials, standard test formulations, equipment, and processing methods for evaluating the vulcanization characteristics, and the mechanical properties of reclaimed natural rubber.

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This document defines —   physical and chemical tests on raw reclaimed isobutene-isoprene (IIR) rubber, and —   standard materials, standard test formulations, equipment, and processing methods for evaluating the vulcanization characteristics and the mechanical properties of reclaimed isobutene-isoprene rubber.

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This document specifies two methods for the determination of volatile-matter content in raw rubbers by using a hot mill or an oven. These methods are applicable to the determination of the volatile-matter content in the “R” group of rubbers listed in ISO 1629. These are rubbers having an unsaturated carbon chain, for example natural rubber and synthetic rubbers derived at least partly from di-olefins. These methods can also be applicable to other raw rubbers, but in these cases it is necessary to demonstrate that the change in mass is due solely to loss of actual volatile matter and not to rubber degradation. The hot-mill method is not applicable to natural rubber, to synthetic rubbers which are too difficult to handle on a hot mill or to synthetic rubbers in powder or chip form. The two methods do not necessarily give identical results. Therefore, in the case of dispute, the oven method, procedure A, is the reference method. NOTE      The applicability of each test method to various types of rubber is summarized in Annex A.

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This document specifies two methods for the determination of the surface tension of polymer dispersions and rubber latices (natural and synthetic). — Method A is the ring method (Du Noüy ring method). — Method B is the plate method (Wilhelmy plate method). Method A is suitable valid for polymer dispersions and rubber latices with a viscosity less than 200 mPa·s. Method B is not suitable for polymer dispersions and rubber latices containing cationic surfactants. Methods A and B are also suitable for prevulcanized latices and compounded material. In case of dispute, the preferred method is method A (the ring method).

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This document specifies guidance on the specification of technically specified rubber (TSR). A grading system is proposed, based on the origin of the natural rubber content and on properties exhibited by the rubber. This document is intended for use by parties involved in the procurement of TSR and is intended to form a basis from which requirements for a particular case may be more closely specified. As such, it describes a number of criteria that need to be the subject of appropriate agreement between the interested parties.

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This document specifies a method using a differential scanning calorimeter to determine the glass transition temperature of raw rubber and rubber latex.

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This document specifies two methods to determine the colour of raw natural rubber according to a standard colour scale: — Method A: colour matching against standard coloured glasses; — Method B: colour determination using colour spectrophotometer. In case of dispute, the preferred method is Method B.

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This document specifies a method for determining the bound styrene content of emulsion-polymerized styrene-butadiene rubbers (SBR) by correlation with the measured refractive index of an extracted sample according to a table of refractive indices versus percentage mass fractions styrene. The method is also applicable to extracted oil-extended emulsion-polymerized SBR as long as it produces a film suitable for refractive index measurements. It is not applicable to solution-polymerized SBR.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of gel content for technically specified rubbers (TSR).

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the volatile fatty acid number of natural rubber latex concentrate. The method is not necessarily suitable for latices from natural sources other than Hevea brasiliensis and is not applicable to compounded latex, vulcanized latex, artificial dispersions of rubber or synthetic rubber latices.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the alkalinity of natural rubber latex concentrate. The method is not necessarily suitable for latices from natural sources other than Hevea brasiliensis or for synthetic rubber latices, compounded latex, vulcanized latex or artificial dispersions of rubber. NOTE A method for the determination of the alkalinity of polychloroprene latex is specified in ISO 13773.

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This document specifies a macro-method and a semi-micro method for the determination of nitrogen in raw natural rubber and in natural rubber latex using variants of the Kjeldahl process. NOTE The determination of nitrogen in natural rubber is usually carried out in order to arrive at an estimate of the protein content. Minor amounts of non-proteinous nitrogen containing constituents are also present. However, in the dry solids prepared from natural rubber latex, these materials can make a substantial contribution to the total nitrogen content.

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1.1 This document specifies two thermogravimetric methods for the determination of moisture and other volatile-matter content in raw rubbers by using an automatic analyser with an infrared drying unit. 1.2 These methods are applicable to the determination of volatile-matter content in synthetic rubbers (SBR, NBR, BR, IR, CR, IIR, halogenated IIR and EPDM) listed in ISO 1629 and to various forms of raw rubber, such as bale, block, chip, pellet, crumb, powder and sheet. These methods might also be applicable to other raw rubbers only when the change in mass is proven to be due solely to loss of original volatile matter and not to rubber degradation. 1.3 The methods are not applicable to raw rubbers which need homogenizing as specified in ISO 1795. 1.4 The hot-mill method and the oven method specified in ISO 248‑1 and the methods specified in this document might not give identical results. In cases of dispute, therefore, the oven method, procedure A, specified in ISO 248‑1:2011, is the referee method. NOTE These methods can be useful for routine determinations, e.g. quality control, when the measurement conditions for the automatic analyser are fixed for a particular raw rubber or grade of raw rubber.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the bound acrylonitrile content in NBR by an automatic analyser which uses the Kjeldahl method. The method is also applicable to XNBR (carboxylic acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber) and NBIR (acrylonitrile- butadiene-isoprene rubber) as well as NBR latex. NOTE This document and ISO 24698‑1 can give different results on the same rubber sample.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the bound acrylonitrile content in NBR by an automatic analyser which uses a combustion process. The method is also applicable to XNBR (carboxylic acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber) and NBIR (acrylonitrile- butadiene-isoprene rubber) as well as NBR latex. NOTE This document and ISO 24698‑2 can give different results on the same rubber sample.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the KOH number of natural rubber latex concentrate which is preserved wholly or in part with ammonia. The method is applicable to latices containing boric acid. The method is not applicable to latices preserved with potassium hydroxide. It is not necessarily suitable for latices from natural sources other than Hevea brasiliensis, or for latices of synthetic rubber, compounded latex, vulcanized latex or artificial dispersions of rubber.

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ISO 2004:2017 gives specifications for natural rubber latex concentrate types which are preserved wholly or in part with ammonia and which have been produced by centrifuging or creaming.

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ISO 7781:2017 specifies three methods for the determination of the soap and organic-acid content of raw styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). - Method A is the titration method using indicator reagent. - Method B is the titration method using an automatic potentiometric titrator. - Method C is the back titration method using an automatic potentiometric titrator. Since the soaps and organic acids present in the rubber are not single chemical compounds, the method gives only an approximate value for the soap and organic-acid content.

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ISO 2930:2017 specifies a method for determining the plasticity retention index (PRI) of raw natural rubber. The PRI is a measure of the resistance of raw natural rubber to thermal oxidation. A high resistance to thermal oxidation is shown as a high value of the index. PRI is not an absolute value and cannot give an absolute classification of plasticity number of different natural rubber after oxidation.

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ISO 20851:2017 specifies the method to examine the presence and approximate count of viable aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms in synthetic rubber latices. Identification of the microorganisms is outside the scope of this document.

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ISO 10638:2017 specifies a method using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, for the identification of antidegradants in raw rubbers, latices, unvulcanized-rubber compounds and vulcanized-rubber products. It is applicable to the 31 types of antidegradant listed in Annex A. The method specified is qualitative and is not intended for quantitative analysis.

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ISO 1795:2017 specifies a method for the sampling of raw rubber in bales, blocks or packages and further procedures carried out on the samples to prepare test samples for chemical and physical tests.

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ISO 19846:2017 specifies: - a coding system of reclaimed natural rubber and reclaimed isobutylene-isoprene (IIR) rubber; - a numeric system to classify reclaimed rubber.

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ISO 11852:2017 specifies a titration method for the determination of the magnesium content of field natural rubber latex.

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ISO 11344:2016 describes a method for the determination of the molecular mass, expressed as polystyrene, and the molecular-mass distribution of polymers produced in solution which are completely soluble in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and which have a molecular-mass range from 5 × 103 to 1 × 106. It is not the purpose of this International Standard to explain the theory of gel permeation chromatography.

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ISO 6235:2016 specifies a method for the determination of the long polystyrene block content of raw uncompounded styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and raw uncompounded blends of block SBR. It is not applicable to blends of block SBR with EPDM, IIR, CSM and other halogenated rubbers. The method is applicable to raw, uncompounded latices of the above compositions and is suitable for rubbers having block polystyrene contents in the range from 5 % (by weight) to 100 % (by weight). Rubbers having block polystyrene contents of less than 5 % (by weight) may yield incorrect results unless a correction factor, based on information gained by working with such rubbers, is applied. The method is intended for use on gel-free rubbers, but it may be used on rubbers containing gel if it has been proved that the gel does not interfere.

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ISO 19246:2016 specifies a general method for determining the liquid absorption capacity of a pigment and extender by using di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DOA, CAS 103-23-1). The determination of the DOA absorption number is performed by means of an absorptometer which is equipped with a torque measurement and processing system. The DOA absorption number provides an indication of the void volume formed by the aggregates and agglomerates of the pigments and extenders.

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ISO 249:2016 specifies a method for the determination of the dirt content of raw natural rubber. It is not applicable to dirt present as surface contamination.

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ISO 705:2015 specifies a method for the determination of the density of natural rubber latex concentrate between the temperatures of 5 °C and 40 °C. ISO 705:2015 is intended for use when density determinations are used to calculate the mass of a measured volume of latex in locations where it is not practical to weigh directly or to control the temperature of the laboratory.

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ISO 19043:2015 specifies a method for the determination of total phosphate content of natural rubber latex concentrate. This method is not necessarily suitable for latex from natural sources other than the Hevea brasiliensis.

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ISO 2028:2015 specifies four methods for the isolation of dry polymer from synthetic polymer latices containing anionic surfactants, for the purpose of subsequent testing. Tests to be performed include the determination of the Mooney viscosity, the bound-styrene or acrylonitrile content in the polymer chain or the mill shrinkage.

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ISO 19051:2015 specifies a test method for the determination of nitrogen content of raw natural rubber using the Micro Dumas combustion method. This method is also applicable to natural rubber latex.

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ISO 2005:2014 specifies a method for the determination of the sludge content of natural rubber latex concentrate. The method is not necessarily suitable for latices from natural sources other than Hevea brasiliensis. It is not suitable for compounded latex or vulcanized latex.

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ISO 12000:2014 gives definitions relative to polymer dispersions and latices and identifies the test methods applicable for determining the properties of polymer dispersions, comprising products of synthetic or natural origin including synthetic and natural rubber latices. Some of the test methods apply only to polymer dispersions or latices of specific chemical composition or to those to be used for specific applications.

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ISO 124:2014 specifies methods for the determination of the total solids content of natural rubber field and concentrated latices and synthetic rubber latex. These methods are not necessarily suitable for latex from natural sources other than the Hevea brasiliensis, for vulcanized latex, for compounded latex, or for artificial dispersions of rubber.

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ISO 17403:2014 specifies a cyanide-free titration method for the determination of the magnesium content in field and concentrated natural rubber latex.

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ISO 976:2013 specifies a method for the determination of the pH of polymer dispersions and rubber latices (natural and synthetic) by means of a pH-meter equipped with a combined glass and silver reference electrode. The method is also suitable for prevulcanized latex and compounds containing polymer dispersions or rubber latices, including adhesives.

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ISO/TS 16097:2013 specifies physical and chemical tests, standard test formulations, equipment and processing methods for the vulcanization-characteristics evaluation and the mechanical properties of vulcanized crumb rubber. It is not aimed to provide specifications or limitations, or whether these vulcanized crumb rubbers may be used.

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ISO 1629:2013 establishes a system of symbols for the basic rubbers in both dry and latex forms, based on the chemical composition of the polymer chain. The purpose is to standardize the abbreviated terms used in industry, commerce and government, and it is not intended to conflict with, but rather to act as a supplement to, existing trade names and trademarks.

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ISO 12492:2012 specifies a test method for the determination of water content of raw rubber and compounded rubber using a coulometric Karl Fischer titration method. It applies to the range for the water content between 0,01 % and 1 %. As this is a very sensitive method, contact of sample with any moisture, even from the surrounding environment, must be eliminated as much as possible.

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ISO 21461:2012 provides a method for the selective determination of polyaromaticity of oil in vulcanized rubber compounds. The method is based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry.

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ISO 1652:2011 specifies a method for the determination of the apparent viscosity of both natural rubber latex concentrate and synthetic rubber latices by the Brookfield method. The method is also suitable for the determination of the viscosity of natural latices from sources other than Hevea brasiliensis and also for compounded latices.

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ISO/TR 16314:2010 provides a method for the selective determination of polyaromaticity of oil in reclaimed rubbers. The method is based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry.

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ISO 11089:2010 describes a procedure for the determination of the following antidegradants in raw synthetic rubbers: N‑alkyl-N'‑phenyl-p‑phenylenediamine; N‑aryl-N'‑aryl-p‑phenylenediamine; poly‑2,2,4‑trimethyl-1,2‑dihydroquinoline. Extender oils, when present, can interfere. The method, with modification if necessary, can be applied to the determination of other amine antidegradants.

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ISO 2006-1:2009 specifies a method for the determination of the high-speed mechanical stability of synthetic rubber latex. The method is not applicable to compounded synthetic rubber latices.

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ISO 2006-2:2009 specifies a method for the determination of the mechanical stability of synthetic rubber latex. This method measures the mass of coagulum formed when a test portion of latex is stirred for a specified length of time at moderate speed under a relatively high shear stress achieved by applying a load.

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ISO 17052:2007 specifies a method for the determination of residual monomers and other volatile low-molecular-mass compounds in raw rubber by capillary column gas chromatography using a thermal desorption (also known as dynamic headspace) method. It includes a generic section that is applicable to all types of raw rubber and two annexes specific to particular rubber types. This method has the advantages of not requiring a solvent, of concentrating the volatile compounds and of introducing them to the chromatograph in a very precise manner. The compounds found in the raw rubber which are to be determined are defined as residual monomers, solvents and other low-molecular-mass compounds in the boiling point range of C4 to C12 hydrocarbons. NOTE The limit of detection is 1 microgram per gram.

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