Water quality - Guidance for assessing the efficiency and related metrics of fish passage solutions using telemetry

This document specifies standardized methods for assessing the efficiency and related metrics of fish passage solutions using telemetry techniques that allow individual fish approaching an impediment to be monitored.
It covers studies using fish that have been electronically tagged with acoustic, passive integrated transponder or radio tags in order to provide a variety of defined passage efficiency metrics and includes both upstream and downstream passage of fish.
It provides recommendations and requirements for equipment, study design, data analysis and reporting. Selected literature with references in support of this document is given in the Bibliography.

Wasserbeschaffenheit - Anleitung zur Beurteilung der Wirksamkeit und zugehöriger Kennwerte von Fischaufstiegshilfen mittels Fernmessung

Dieses Dokument legt standardisierte Methoden für die Bewertung der Effizienz und damit zusammenhängende Metriken von Fischpassage-Lösungen unter Verwendung von Telemetriemethoden fest, mit denen einzelne Fische, die sich einem Hindernis nähern, überwacht werden können.
Es deckt Studien ab, bei denen Fische mit akustischen, passiven integrierten Transpondern oder Funketiketten elektronisch markiert wurden, um eine Vielzahl von definierten Metriken zur Passageeffizienz zu erhalten, und umfasst sowohl die stromaufwärts als auch die stromabwärts gerichtete Passage von Fischen.
Es enthält Empfehlungen und Anforderungen für Ausrüstung, Studiendesign, Datenanalyse und Berichterstattung. Ausgewählte Literatur mit Verweisen zur Unterstützung dieses Dokuments enthalten die Literaturhinweise.

Qualité de l'eau - Recommandations pour l'évaluation par télémétrie de l'efficacité des dispositifs de franchissement piscicole et d'indicateurs associés

Le présent document spécifie des méthodes normalisées pour l'évaluation de l'efficacité des dispositifs de franchissement piscicole et d'indicateurs associés, en utilisant des techniques de télémétrie qui permettent de suivre individuellement des poissons à l'approche d'un obstacle.
Il couvre les études utilisant des poissons qui ont été marqués électroniquement au moyen de marques acoustiques, de transpondeurs passifs intégrés ou des marques radio pour fournir divers indicateurs d'efficacité de franchissement définis et comprend le franchissement en amont et en aval.
Il fournit des recommandations et exigences relatives aux équipements, à la conception des études, à l'analyse des données et à la production de rapports. Un choix de publications référencées est donné dans la Bibliographie afin d'étayer le contenu du présent document.

Kakovost vode - Navodilo za ocenjevanje učinkovitosti sistemov ribjih prehodov in s tem povezanih metrik s telemetrijo

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 17233:2021
01-september-2021

Kakovost vode - Navodilo za ocenjevanje učinkovitosti sistemov ribjih prehodov in

s tem povezanih metrik s telemetrijo

Water quality - Guidance for assessing the efficiency and related metrics of fish passage

solutions using telemetry
Wasserbeschaffenheit - Anleitung zur Beurteilung der Wirksamkeit und zugehöriger
Kennwerte von Fischaufstiegshilfen mittels Fernmessung

Recommandations pour l’évaluation par télémétrie de l’efficacité des dispositifs de

franchissement piscicole et d'indicateurs associés
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 17233:2021
ICS:
13.060.99 Drugi standardi v zvezi s Other standards related to
kakovostjo vode water quality
SIST EN 17233:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 17233:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 17233:2021
EN 17233
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
April 2021
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.060.99
English Version
Water quality - Guidance for assessing the efficiency and
related metrics of fish passage solutions using telemetry

Qualité de l'eau - Recommandations pour l'évaluation Wasserbeschaffenheit - Anleitung zur Beurteilung der

par télémétrie de l'efficacité des dispositifs de Wirksamkeit und zugehöriger Kennwerte von

franchissement piscicole et d'indicateurs associés Fischaufstiegshilfen mittels Fernmessung

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 18 January 2021.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 17233:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 17233:2021
EN 17233:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 7

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Principle and field of application .............................................................................................................. 9

5 Equipment ...................................................................................................................................................... 10

5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 10

5.2 Calibration and system checks ................................................................................................................ 10

5.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 10

5.2.2 Acoustic telemetry ....................................................................................................................................... 10

5.2.3 Radio telemetry ............................................................................................................................................ 10

5.2.4 PIT telemetry ................................................................................................................................................. 11

5.2.5 Multiple tagging scenarios ........................................................................................................................ 11

6 Experimental design ................................................................................................................................... 11

6.1 Pre-planning .................................................................................................................................................. 11

6.2 Sample size ..................................................................................................................................................... 13

6.3 Timing and duration of investigations ................................................................................................. 13

6.4 Baseline, control and reference investigations ................................................................................. 14

6.5 Receiver positions........................................................................................................................................ 14

6.5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 14

6.5.2 Available fish (f ) ......................................................................................................................................... 16

6.5.3 FPS attraction efficiency (η ) ................................................................................................................... 16

6.5.4 FPS entrance efficiency (η ) ..................................................................................................................... 17

6.5.5 FPS passage efficiency (η ) ....................................................................................................................... 17

6.5.6 Overall FPS efficiency (η ) .................................................................................................................... 18

fps

6.5.7 Impediment passage efficiency (η ) .................................................................................................... 18

6.5.8 Fallback and Delay ....................................................................................................................................... 18

6.5.9 Further information .................................................................................................................................... 18

6.6 Capture, tagging and release of fish ....................................................................................................... 19

6.6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 19

6.6.2 Source fish....................................................................................................................................................... 20

6.6.3 Motivation ....................................................................................................................................................... 20

6.6.4 Capture of fish ............................................................................................................................................... 20

6.6.5 Handling and tagging of fish ..................................................................................................................... 21

6.6.6 Release of fish ................................................................................................................................................ 22

6.7 Data acquisition from additional equipment ..................................................................................... 22

7 Post processing and data analysis ......................................................................................................... 23

8 Quality control and quality assurance .................................................................................................. 23

8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 23

8.2 Quality control .............................................................................................................................................. 23

8.3 Quality assurance ......................................................................................................................................... 23

9 Reporting ........................................................................................................................................................ 24

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SIST EN 17233:2021
EN 17233:2021 (E)

9.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 24

9.2 Introduction and objectives ...................................................................................................................... 24

9.3 Study site.......................................................................................................................................................... 24

9.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 24

9.3.2 Waterbody information ............................................................................................................................. 24

9.3.3 Impediment description ............................................................................................................................ 24

9.3.4 FPS description .............................................................................................................................................. 25

9.4 Equipment and methods ............................................................................................................................ 25

9.5 Results .............................................................................................................................................................. 26

9.6 Discussion........................................................................................................................................................ 26

9.7 Conclusions/recommendations .............................................................................................................. 26

Annex A (informative) Suitability and limitations of telemetry methods ............................................... 27

Annex B (informative) Complementary data provided by mobile tracking ........................................... 31

Annex C (informative) Estimates of sample size .............................................................................................. 32

Annex D (informative) Examples of receiver positions in telemetry studies ........................................ 36

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 45

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SIST EN 17233:2021
EN 17233:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 17233:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 230 “Water

analysis”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2021, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by October 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 17233:2021
EN 17233:2021 (E)
Introduction

Fish passage solutions (FPS) are measures to help fish pass a cross-river obstacle or impediment in

upstream and/or downstream directions. The ideal solution, from a global-ecological perspective,

would be to re-establish natural river connectivity by decommissioning or removing the obstacle which

would at the same time eliminate or reduce any impounded section and allow unimpeded sediment

transport. In the last two decades or so, the number of constructed upstream FPS has increased

significantly at least in some parts of the world, and the range of proposed FPS designs has also

increased. However, despite careful control of FPS design both pre-and post-construction, the

performance of FPS needs comprehensive field monitoring for the following reasons: FPS designs

globally rely on laboratory experiments that need validating in situ; the efficiency of initially well-

designed FPS may be modified by changes to the environment (e.g. discharge, river morphology) and

require improvement; and the efficiency for new target species or life stages that were not considered

during the initial design process could be necessary. In addition, whilst the design of FPS for some

species and life stages is well advanced (e.g. adult migratory salmonids), the requirements of other

species and for downstream migration are not fully understood. Only systematic, reproducible

monitoring studies assessing the performance of FPS will enable us to improve and develop current fish

pass designs.

In general terms, FPS monitoring is the activity of assessing by appropriate means the degree of success

(or failure) of fish overcoming an impediment and dealing with the conditions of an implemented FPS.

FPS monitoring can serve several purposes:

— It can help to determine the appropriateness of the chosen design of a FPS by providing data about

the effectiveness (assessment or count of the number and type of fish successfully negotiating the

FPS in relation to the fish community present) and/or the efficiency (percentage of available fish

attempting to pass an impediment(s) that find, enter and successfully negotiate, the FPS) for fish

that have to cross the impediment. As a result, a documented well-functioning solution can serve as

an example for a solution in a similar river type with a similar fish community. Any reduction in

performance should be carefully analysed, and the reasons for failures identified and addressed

through adjustments, i.e. by structural changes (e.g. modifications of the design of [different parts

of] the pass) or by operational solutions (e.g. by optimizing the attraction to the entrance, by

adapting the discharge through the pass or by adapting the operation of the turbines).

— Technical information which is indispensable for the design development or optimization of future

FPS can be gathered along with the observations of fish behaviour.

— Provided that appropriate methods are used, FPS monitoring can support informed management of

fish populations upstream or downstream of the impediment, e.g. supporting EU eel regulations,

Directive 2000/60/EC (Water Framework Directive) or direct management of freshwater fishery

resources, and the general biodiversity in the river.

FPS monitoring studies can provide several layers of information. Methods for assessing FPS

effectiveness are not covered by this document. These include; trapping, video, acoustic cameras, direct

observation/online surveillance, physiological telemetry (e.g. EMG (electromyogram), accelerometry

and heart rate), eDNA (environmental Deoxyribonucleic Acid), Catch Per Unit Effort (CPUE) and flume

studies (see [10] and [11] for further information about these methods). These methods do not provide

information on the numbers of fish approaching the impediment that are available to pass, therefore

the failure rate cannot be assessed.
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SIST EN 17233:2021
EN 17233:2021 (E)

If efficiency needs to be addressed, measures of the proportion of fishes passing successfully, relative to

those attempting, is crucial, together with evidence concerning passage-related delay, mortality or

other health impacts [2]. For this purpose, telemetry (acoustic, radio and Passive Integrated

Transponder [PIT] tagging) techniques that enable estimation of a percentage of fish that passed the

impediment in relation to the number of fish approaching the impediment to pass, have major

advantages over other methods. Acoustic and radio telemetry methods are typically applied in medium

to large sized river systems. For smaller sized rivers with lower depths PIT telemetry is often a more

suitable approach. Telemetry methods can be costly procedures for fish-pass monitoring and are

inherently associated with implantation, surgery and therefore animal welfare and always require an

animal testing approval. Some aspects of efficiency (FPS passage efficiency) can be also gathered by

other methods (capture–mark-recapture [CMR], traps in combination with electric-fishing) in certain

situations, mainly in smaller rivers. However, these other methods are not covered in this document.

It should be noted that telemetry methods used in isolation usually look only at a single species and/or

fish of a limited size range (e.g. adults, sub-adults) and are therefore unsuitable to judge the overall FPS

performance for the whole fish community and age classes present. In addition, other highly relevant

aspects of fish passage related to FPS performance (number of species, size classes etc.) cannot be

assessed by telemetry methods and can be much better assessed by using other methods in

combination. A fully comprehensive monitoring programme should ideally target the whole range of

species and fish sizes present, therefore requiring a multi-method approach.

Telemetry techniques involve the tagging of individual fish and subsequent tracking of these individuals

as they approach an impediment and either pass or fail to pass. The proportion of fish that successfully

negotiate the FPS can be calculated and further information about the point of failure derived from the

tracking information e.g. a high attraction efficiency but low passage efficiency can highlight possible

problems concerning the hydraulic conditions within the FPS. This detailed information has the

potential to be used to improve current fish pass designs if enough comparable monitoring information

can be collected to allow detailed assessments of the performance of fish passes for different species or

of different fish pass designs. Currently, however, due to non-standardized monitoring methods,

definitions and protocols, data from fish pass efficiency monitoring studies using telemetry across

Europe are not directly comparable.

This document on assessing the efficiency and related metrics of FPS deals exclusively with telemetry as

an agreed method for the judgement of the efficiency (attraction efficiency, entrance efficiency, passage

efficiency, and overall FPS efficiency) of a FPS to achieve highly standardized and comparable results

for selected species and age classes.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 17233:2021
EN 17233:2021 (E)
1 Scope

This document specifies standardized methods for assessing the efficiency and related metrics of fish

passage solutions using telemetry techniques that allow individual fish approaching an impediment to

be monitored.

It covers studies using fish that have been electronically tagged with acoustic, passive integrated

transponder or radio tags in order to provide a variety of defined passage efficiency metrics and

includes both upstream and downstream passage of fish.

It provides recommendations and requirements for equipment, study design, data analysis and

reporting. Selected literature with references in support of this document is given in the Bibliography.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp

NOTE 1 Not all definitions listed below are necessarily applicable to all studies. Only those which are relevant

to the aims and objectives of the study in question are required.
NOTE 2 This document defines efficiency metrics in the following terms.
3.1
fish passage solution
FPS

any device, structure or mechanism which is designed or managed to facilitate the safe movement of

fish in an upstream and/or downstream direction when overcoming one or several impediments

3.2
FPS performance
overall capability of the FPS to meet its design objective

Note 1 to entry: The design objective will include objectives related to the target fish community, target species,

attraction and passage efficiencies and effectiveness.
3.3
available fish
number of tagged fish approaching the impediment

Note 1 to entry: The point at which fish are considered to be approaching the impediment will be site specific.

Once past this point, fish are assumed to be motivated to pass.
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SIST EN 17233:2021
EN 17233:2021 (E)
3.4
overall FPS efficiency
fps

percentage of available fish attempting to pass an impediment(s) that find, enter and successfully

negotiate, the FPS
Note 1 to entry: Encompasses attraction, entrance and passage efficiencies.
3.5
FPS attraction efficiency
percentage of available fish that are attracted to the FPS entrance
3.6
FPS entrance efficiency
percentage of fish attracted to the FPS entrance that subsequently enter
3.7
FPS passage efficiency
percentage of fish entering the FPS that successfully negotiate and exit the FPS
3.8
overall FPS passage time
time from first approach of fish to an impediment to exit from the FPS
3.9
FPS attraction time

time from first approach of fish to an impediment to arrival at the entrance area of the FPS

3.10
FPS entrance time
time from first arrival of fish at the FPS until first entrance
3.11
FPS passage time
time from first entrance of fish to FPS until exit
3.12
FPS effectiveness

assessment or count of the number and type of fish successfully negotiating the FPS in relation to the

fish community present
3.13
number of attempts

count of the number of times each tagged fish entered the FPS until successful negotiation and exit from

the FPS
3.14
fall-back

percentage of fish that move back downstream/upstream after ascending/descending an impediment

(whether by FPS or other route)
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SIST EN 17233:2021
EN 17233:2021 (E)
3.15
impediment passage efficiency

proportion of fish attempting to pass an impediment that successfully negotiate it, by any route

3.16
overall impediment passage time

time from fish first approach to an impediment to successful passage, by any route

3.17
telemetry

use of electronic tags such as radio and acoustic transmitters, data storage tags, pop-up satellite

archival tags and PIT-tags to obtain information on free-ranging fish
4 Principle and field of application

Impediments to fish migration and associated FPS occur in freshwater and transitional water bodies

within a wide range of habitat types ranging from shallow headwaters to deep, wide lowland rivers;

busy urban environments to remote rural locations. The telemetry techniques covered by this

document enable monitoring in all of these, although no single method can be used across the whole

range of water body types.

Fish passage efficiency encompasses attraction, entrance into, and successful passage through, the FPS.

In order to evaluate the efficiency of FPS, it is necessary to be able to identify individual fish

approaching the impediment that are available to pass so that the success or failure of each fish is

known. Individual detection is best provided by telemetry.

Telemetric methods for assessing the efficiency of FPS that are covered by this document are:

— acoustic telemetry;
— radio telemetry;
— Combined Acoustic Radio Transmitters (CART);
— PIT telemetry;
— permutations of the above.
The suitability and limitations of these methods are summarized in Annex A.

Each of these techniques involves the electronic tagging of individual fish and positioning of receiver

units to track individual fish as they approach and pass (or fail to pass) an impediment. The positioning

of receiver units as described in this document allows relevant aspects of FPS efficiency (attraction,

passage, overall) to be assessed, depending on the specific aims and objectives of the study.

Guidance is provided on the selection of appropriate monitoring equipment, the experimental design of

FPS monitoring studies and data collection (see Clause 6), data processing procedures (see Clause 7),

quality control and assurance (see Clause 8), and presenting the results in a standard reporting format

(see Clause 9) to provide essential fish passage efficiency and delay metrics.
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SIST EN 17233:2021
EN 17233:2021 (E)
5 Equipment
5.1 General

In order to provide near-continuous detection performance and precise detection times, telemetric

determination of FPS performance will involve the use of automated receiver systems and

antenna/hydrophone arrays. The choice of telemetry method and associated equipment is based on

many factors, including study objectives, environmental factors such as channel depth and width, target

fish species and size and sample size. Annex A (Table A.1) summarizes the suitability and limitations of

the different telemetry methods for assessing the efficiency of fish passes.
5.2 Calibration and system checks
5.2.1 General

Thorough calibration and tuning of the receiving equipment is crucial to ensure the collection of good

quality, accurate data. It is essential that the detection range of the receiving equipment is fully mapped

and understood. Regular system checks shall be performed to take into account changing conditions

that can modify receiver detection ranges; for example temperature, entrained air and electromagnetic

fields. Data on tag failure rates should be obtained from the manufacturer or, better, tested for a subset

under experimental conditions; this enables one variable for tag loss during tracking to be quantified.

Similarly, careful quality controls need to be placed upon false positive records of tags, which can occur

due to signal processing errors and tag identification (ID) code collisions.

Tagged fish should be scanned prior to release to confirm that the tags are functioning; this is true for

all telemetry tag types. The likely effects of tag ID code collisions, or cycle period between reception

frequencies (used in some radio applications) relative to antenna range, on tag detection probability

shall be considered and incorporated into experimental design. The percentage period during the study

for which the remote array was functioning effectively shall be recorded; this is particularly important

for PIT stations since tag range is low, and in all but small streams, manual tracking to determine the

fate of PIT tagged fish is difficult (cf. radio, acoustic with battery-powered transmitters).

5.2.2 Acoustic telemetry

A detailed detection efficiency test shall be performed at the beginning of the study with test tag(s) of

the power output to be used and repeated where possible during the study. Detection ratios of test tags

within the hydrophone array should be recorded. Actual detection efficiency
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 17233:2018
01-marec-2018
[Not translated]

Water quality - Guidance for assessing the efficiency and related metrics of fish passage

solutions using telemetry
Wasserbeschaffenheit - Anleitung zur Beurteilung der Wirksamkeit und zugehöriger
Kennwerte von Fischaufstiegshilfen mittels Fernmessung

Recommandations pour l’évaluation par télémétrie de l’efficacité des dispositifs de

franchissement piscicole et d'indicateurs associés
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 17233
ICS:
13.060.99 Drugi standardi v zvezi s Other standards related to
kakovostjo vode water quality
oSIST prEN 17233:2018 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17233:2018
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17233:2018
DRAFT
EUROPEAN STANDARD
prEN 17233
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
January 2018
ICS 13.060.99
English Version
Water quality - Guidance for assessing the efficiency and
related metrics of fish passage solutions using telemetry

Recommandations pour l'évaluation par télémétrie de Wasserbeschaffenheit - Anleitung zur Beurteilung der

l'efficacité des dispositifs de franchissement piscicole Wirksamkeit und zugehöriger Kennwerte von

et d'indicateurs associés Fischaufstiegshilfen mittels Fernmessung

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 230.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations

which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 17233:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 17233:2018
prEN 17233:2018 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

4 Symbols and abbreviations ......................................................................................................................... 8

5 Principle and field of application .............................................................................................................. 8

6 Valid methods for assessing efficiency and related metrics ........................................................... 9

7 Equipment ......................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.1 Calibration and system checks ................................................................................................................... 9

7.1.1 Acoustic telemetry ....................................................................................................................................... 10

7.1.2 Radio telemetry ............................................................................................................................................ 10

7.1.3 PIT telemetry ................................................................................................................................................. 10

7.1.4 Multiple tagging scenarios ........................................................................................................................ 11

7.2 Experimental design ................................................................................................................................... 11

7.2.1 Pre-planning .................................................................................................................................................. 11

7.3 Sample size ..................................................................................................................................................... 12

7.4 Timing and duration of investigations ................................................................................................. 13

7.5 Baseline, control and reference investigations ................................................................................. 13

7.6 Receiver positions........................................................................................................................................ 14

7.6.1 Basic scenario ................................................................................................................................................ 14

7.7 Capture, tagging and release of fish ....................................................................................................... 17

7.7.1 Source fish....................................................................................................................................................... 17

7.7.2 Motivation ....................................................................................................................................................... 18

7.7.3 Capture of fish ............................................................................................................................................... 18

7.7.4 Handling and tagging of fish ..................................................................................................................... 19

7.7.5 Release of fish ................................................................................................................................................ 20

7.8 Data acquisition from additional equipment ..................................................................................... 20

7.8.1 Impediment information ........................................................................................................................... 20

7.8.2 FPS characteristics ....................................................................................................................................... 21

7.8.3 Fish species and assemblages .................................................................................................................. 21

7.8.4 Environmental parameters ...................................................................................................................... 21

8 Post processing and data analysis ......................................................................................................... 21

9 Quality control and quality assurance .................................................................................................. 22

9.1 Quality control .............................................................................................................................................. 22

9.2 Quality assurance ......................................................................................................................................... 22

10 Reporting ........................................................................................................................................................ 22

10.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 22

10.2 Introduction and objectives ..................................................................................................................... 23

10.3 Study site ......................................................................................................................................................... 23

10.4 Equipment and methods............................................................................................................................ 24

10.5 Results .............................................................................................................................................................. 25

10.6 Discussion ....................................................................................................................................................... 25

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10.7 Conclusions/recommendations .............................................................................................................. 25

Annex A (informative) Valid monitoring methods .......................................................................................... 26

Annex B (informative) Complementary data provided by mobile tracking ........................................... 30

Annex C (informative) Estimates of sample size .............................................................................................. 31

Annex D (informative) Examples of receiver positions in telemetry studies ........................................ 35

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 46

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European foreword

This document (prEN 17233:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 230 “Water

analysis”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.
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Introduction
to Fish Pass Monitoring.

Fish passage solutions (FPS) are measures to help fish pass a cross-river obstacle or impediment in

upstream and/or downstream directions. The ideal solution – from a global-ecological perspective –

would be to re-establish natural river connectivity by decommissioning or removing the obstacle which

would at the same time eliminate or reduce any impounded section and allow unimpeded sediment

transport. In the last two decades or so, the number of constructed upstream FPS has increased

significantly at least in some parts of the world, and the range of proposed FPS designs has also

increased. However, despite careful control of FPS design both pre-and post-construction, the

performance of fish passage solutions need comprehensive field monitoring for the following reasons;

FPS designs globally rely on laboratory experiments that need validating in situ; the efficiency of

initially well-designed FPS may be modified by changes to the environment (e.g. discharge, river

morphology) and require improvement; and the efficiency for new target species or life stages that

were not considered during the initial design process may be necessary. In addition, the design and

implementation of downstream migration facilities is still lagging behind, with the associated evidence

gap in our knowledge of performance. Only systematic, reproducible monitoring studies assessing the

performance of fish passes will enable us to improve and develop current fish pass designs.

In general terms, fish pass monitoring is the activity of assessing by all appropriate means the degree of

success (or failure) of fish dealing with the conditions of an implemented fish passage solution.

Comprehensive fish pass monitoring serves several purposes. Firstly, it helps determine the

appropriateness of the chosen design of a FPS by providing data about the effectiveness (number of fish,

size classes and species passing the obstacle, sometimes related to spawning success upstream, or

species compositions and abundances of the river section down- and upstream of an impediment)

and/or the efficiency (proportion of fish passing the impediment in relation to the number of fish

actually trying to pass) for fish that have to cross the impediment. As a result, a documented well-

functioning solution can serve as an example for a solution in a similar river type with a similar fish

community; any reduction in performance should be carefully analysed, and the reasons for failures

identified and addressed through adjustments, i.e. by structural changes (e.g. modifications of the

design of [different parts] the pass) or by operational solutions (concerning the pass itself, e.g. by

optimizing the attraction to the entrance or by adapting the discharge through the pass; or concerning

turbine management). Secondly, technical information which is indispensable for the design

development or optimization of future fish passage solutions can be gathered along with the

observations of fish behaviour. Thirdly, provided that appropriate methods are used, fish pass

monitoring can support informed management of fish populations upstream or downstream of the

impediment, e.g. supporting EU eel regulations, EU Water Framework Directive or direct management

of freshwater fishery resources, and the general biodiversity in the river.

Frequently, however, due to non-standardized choice of monitoring methods and protocols adopted,

data from fish pass monitoring studies across Europe are not directly comparable. Fish trapping usually

works only in the upstream direction, is quite costly and does not provide information on the numbers

of fish that approach the impediment to pass. The same is true for other capture-independent methods

like video monitoring. However, methods such as acoustic or radio telemetry or PIT tags that enable

estimation of a percentage of fish that passed the obstacle in relation to the number of fish approaching

the obstacle to pass usually look only at a single species and fish of a particular size range (e.g. adults,

sub-adults), and are therefore unsuitable for small and young fish existing in the area of the FPS. A

comprehensive monitoring programme should ideally target the whole range of species and fish sizes

present, therefore requiring a multi-method approach.

As described above, different monitoring methods will provide different insights. There exist capture-

dependent methods (e.g. trapping; pooling in a counting basin; capture–mark-recapture [CMR];

monitoring based on tagging with transmitters or transponders [telemetry]) and capture-independent

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methods (e.g. visual observations [and counting] or by video recording; resistivity counter;

hydroacoustics). Detailed descriptions of these methods can be found in the relevant literature and are

not repeated here.

All aforementioned methods — with the exception of telemetry — provide data that benefit primarily

the assessment of the effectiveness of a FPS. If efficiency needs to be addressed, measures of the

proportion of fishes passing successfully, relative to those attempting, is crucial, together with evidence

concerning passage-related delay, mortality or other health impacts (Cooke and Hinch, 2013). For this

purpose, telemetry (acoustic, radio and PIT tagging techniques) have major advantages over the other

methods. In the following, only telemetric methodologies are addressed and standardized as efficiency

estimates are considered to be the best and most relevant metrics of FPS performance.

1 Scope

This document provides guidance for assessing the efficiency and related metrics of fish passage

solutions using telemetry methods that allow fish approaching an impediment to be monitored.

It provides recommendations and requirements for equipment, study design, data analysis and

reporting. A selected literature with references in support of this standard is given in the Bibliography

section.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp

Not all definitions listed below are necessarily applicable to all studies. Only those which are relevant to

the aims and objectives of the study in question are required.
This standard defines efficiencies related to sampled fish as follows:
3.1
fish passage solution
FPS

any device, structure or mechanism which is designed or operated to facilitate the safe movement of

fish in an upstream and/or downstream direction past one or several impediments
3.2
FPS performance
overall capability of the FPS to meet its design objective

Note 1 to entry: The design objective will include objectives related to the target fish community, target species,

attraction and passage efficiencies and effectiveness.
3.3
available fish
number of tagged fish approaching the impediment
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Note 1 to entry: The approach distance will be site specific and fish are assumed to be motivated to pass.

3.4
overall FPS efficiency

percentage of available fish attempting to pass an impediment(s) that find, enter and successfully

negotiate, the FPS
Note 1 to entry: Encompasses attraction, entrance and passage efficiencies.
3.5
FPS attraction efficiency
percentage of available fish that are attracted to the FPS entrance
3.6
FPS entrance efficiency
percentage of fish attracted to the FPS entrance that subsequently enter
3.7
FPS passage efficiency
percentage of fish entering the FPS that successfully negotiate and exit the FPS
3.8
overall FPS passage time
time from first approach of fish to an impediment to exit from the FPS
3.9
FPS attraction time

time from first approach of fish to an impediment to arrival at the entrance area of the FPS

3.10
FPS entrance time
time from first arrival of fish at the FPS until first entrance
3.11
FPS passage time
time from first entrance of fish to FPS until exit
3.12
FPS effectiveness

assessment or count of the number and type of fish successfully negotiating the FPS in relation to the

fish community present
3.13
number of attempts

count of the number of times each tagged fish entered the FPS until successful negotiation and exit from

the FPS
3.14
fall-back

percentage of fish that move back downstream/upstream after ascending/descending an impediment

(whether by FPS or other route)
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3.15
impediment passage efficiency

proportion of fish attempting to pass an impediment that successfully negotiate it, by any route

3.16
overall impediment passage time

time from fish first approach to an impediment to successful passage, by any route

3.17
telemetry

use of electronic tags such as radio and acoustic transmitters, data storage tags, pop-up satellite

archival tags and PIT-tags to obtain information on free-ranging fish
4 Symbols and abbreviations

For the purposes of this document, the following symbols and abbreviations apply.

FPS Fish Passage Solution
PIT Passive Integrated Transponder
CART Combined Acoustic Radio Transmitters
CMR Capture Mark Recapture
CPUE Catch per Unit Effort
EMG Electromyogram
eDNA Environmental Deoxyribonucleic Acid
WFD Water Framework Directive
3R’s Replacement, Reduction and Refinement as per DIRECTIVE 2010/63/EU (European
Union, 2010):
Replacement — Methods which avoid or replace the use of animals.
Reduction — Methods which minimize the number of animals used per experiment.
Refinement — Methods which minimize suffering and improve animal welfare.
5 Principle and field of application

The purpose of a fish passage solution is to allow the free passage of relevant developmental stages of

endemic species. This enables fish to complete both diel and seasonal movements such as accessing

foraging, resting and reproductive habitats, and includes both upstream and downstream pathways.

Whilst the design of fish passage solutions for some species and life stages is well advanced (e.g. adult

migratory salmonids), the requirements of other species and for downstream migration are not fully

understood. FPS monitoring studies can provide several layers of information: For example,

appropriately sited fish counters (e.g. cameras, resistivity, multibeam sonar) and trapping can provide a

relatively simple demonstration of FPS use, however, despite these being non-invasive, these

approaches provide no estimates of the population attempting passage.

This standard covers studies using fish tagged with acoustic, passive integrated transponder and radio

tags to provide a variety of defined passage efficiency metrics and facilitate comparisons between fish

passage solutions. Guidance is provided on the selection of appropriate monitoring equipment, the

experimental design of FPS monitoring studies and data collection (Clause 7), data processing

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procedures (Clause 8), quality control and assurance (Clause 9), and presenting the results in a

standard reporting format (Clause 10) to provide essential fish passage efficiency and delay metrics.

Methods for monitoring other aspects of the performance of FPSs that are not covered and related to

the assessment of effectiveness by this standard include; trapping, video, acoustic cameras, direct

observation/online surveillance, catch — mark — recapture (CMR), physiological telemetry (e.g. EMG

(electromyogram), accelerometry and heart rate), eDNA (environmental Deoxyribonucleic Acid), Catch

Per Unit Effort (CPUE) and flume studies. See Lucas and Baras (2000) and Kemp and O’Hanley (2010)

for further information about these methods.
6 Valid methods for assessing efficiency and related metrics

Fish passage efficiency encompasses attraction, entrance into, and successful passage through, the FPS.

In order to evaluate the efficiency of FPSs, it is necessary to be able to identify individual fish that are

available to pass so that the success or failure of each fish is known. Individual detection is best

provided by telemetry.
Valid methods for assessing the efficiency of FPSs are:
— acoustic telemetry;
— radio telemetry;
— Combined Acoustic Radio Transmitters (CART);
— PIT telemetry;
— permutations of the above.
The suitability and limitations of these methods are summarized in Clause 7.
7 Equipment
7.1 General

In order to provide near-continuous detection performance and precise detection times, telemetric

determination of FPS performance is likely to involve the use of automated receiver systems and

antenna/hydrophone arrays. The choice of telemetry method and associated equipment is based on

many factors, including study objectives, environmental factors such as channel depth and width, target

fish species and size and sample size. Annex A (Table A.1) summarizes the suitability and limitations of

telemetry methods for assessing the efficiency of fish passes.
7.2 Calibration and system checks
7.2.1 General

Thorough calibration and tuning of the receiving equipment is crucial to ensure the collection of good

quality, accurate data. It is essential that the detection range of the receiving equipment is fully mapped

and understood. Regular system checks should be performed to take into account changing conditions

that can modify receiver detection ranges; for example temperature, entrained air and electromagnetic

fields. Data on tag failure rates should be obtained from the manufacturer or, better, tested for a subset

under experimental conditions; this enables one variable for tag loss during tracking to be quantified.

Similarly, careful quality controls need to be placed upon false positive records of tags, due to signal

processing errors and code collisions.
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Tagged fish should be scanned prior to release to confirm that the tags are functioning; this is true for

all telemetry tag types. The likely effects of code collisions, or cycle period between reception

frequencies (used in some radio applications) relative to antenna range, on tag detection probability

shall be considered and incorporated into experimental design. The percentage period during the study

for which the remote array was functioning effectively should be recorded; this is particularly

important for PIT stations since tag range is low, and in all but small streams, manual tracking to

determine the fate of PIT tagged fish is difficult (cf. radio, acoustic with battery-powered transmitters).

7.2.2 Acoustic telemetry

— A detailed detection efficiency test should be performed at the beginning of the study with test

tag(s) of the power output to be used and repeated where possible during the study. Detection

ratios of test tags within the hydrophone field should be recorded. Actual detection efficiency of

tagged fish should be back-calculated from known routes and reported.

— Reference acoustic-transmitters should be placed at several depths in known locations under

typical experimental conditions and the accuracy and precision of reported transmitter positions

calculated. It is a good idea to retain one or more reference transmitters (‘sentinel’ tags) for the

duration of the study.

— The detection range of each hydrophone should be determined under the range of experimental

conditions likely to be experienced.

— ‘Tag drags’ (moving a tag within the array) should be conducted to test the tracking capability of

the system.
7.2.3 Radio telemetry

— A detailed signal strength map around antennas should be generated at the beginning of the study

for the tags to be used. Logger data should be analysed and signal strengths from several loggers (if

present) used to create a signal strength map that enables the position of the fish to be pinpointed.

The same approach should be used where one receiver is multiplexing multiple antennas.

— Detection ratios of test tags within the antenna fields should be recorded. Actual detection

efficiency of tagged fish should be back-calculated from known routes and reported.

— Radio-transmitters should be placed at several depths in known locations during known periods of

time and the accuracy and precision of reported transmitter positions calculated.

— Reference transmitters can be used to compensate for variations in disturbance and the resulting

signal strength recorded. It is a good idea to retain one or more reference transmitters (‘sentinel’

tags) for the duration of the study.
7.2.4 PIT telemetry

— Because of the small range of PIT antennas, thorough testing with tags of the size and type to be

used is vital. Range and detection efficiency tests should be conducted over the possible extent of

experimental conditions for all tag orientations and for multiple as well as single tags (tag

proximity can block detection of other tags). This should include testing of tags passed at the same

speed for which fish passage through the detection field may be expected.

— Regular tests of antenna efficiency should be carried out by manual checks or by automated

sentinel (check) tags and recorded. Actual detection of tagged fish should be back-calculated from

known routes and reported.
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7.2.5 Multiple tagging scenarios

— To overcome limitations of individual telemetry methods fish could be tagged with multiple tags,

provided fish welfare is not compromised. For example, both acoustic and PIT tags could be used

for fish moving through a wide and deep river and a narrow and shall
...

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