Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 112: Principles for the presentation of information (ISO 9241-112:2017)

ISO 9241-112:2017 establishes ergonomic design principles for interactive systems related to the software-controlled presentation of information by user interfaces. It applies to the three main modalities (visual, auditory, tactile/haptic) typically used in information and communication technology. These principles apply to the perception and understanding of presented information. These principles are applicable in the analysis, design, and evaluation of interactive systems. This document also provides recommendations corresponding to the principles. The recommendations for each of the principles are not exhaustive and are not necessarily independent from one another.
While this document is applicable to all types of interactive systems, it does not cover the specifics of particular application domains. This document also applies to outputs from interactive systems (such as printed documents, e.g. invoices).
The guidance in this document for presenting information is aimed at helping the user to accomplish tasks. This guidance is not aimed at the presentation of information for other reasons (e.g. corporate branding or advertising).
It is intended for the following types of users:
- user interface designers, who will apply the guidance during the development process;
- developers, who will apply the guidance during design and implementation of system functionality;
- evaluators, who are responsible for ensuring that products meet the recommendations;
- designers of user interface development tools and style guides to be used by user interface designers;
- project managers, who are responsible for managing development processes;
- buyers, who will reference this document during product procurement.

Ergonomie der Mensch-System-Interaktion - Teil 112: Grundsätze der Informationsdarstellung (ISO 9241-112:2017)

Dieses Dokument stellt ergonomische Gestaltungsgrundsätze für interaktive Systeme im Zusammenhang mit der softwaregesteuerten Informationsdarstellung durch Benutzungsschnittstellen auf. Es gilt für die drei Hauptinteraktionsmodalitäten (visuell, akustisch, taktil/haptisch), die üblicherweise in der Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik verwendet werden. Diese Grundsätze gelten für die Wahrnehmung und das Verstehen von dargestellten Informationen. Diese Grundsätze sind bei der Analyse, der Gestaltung und der Beurteilung interaktiver Systeme anwendbar. Außerdem stellt dieses Dokument den jeweiligen Grundsätzen entsprechende Empfehlungen bereit. Die Empfehlungen für jeden dieser Grundsätze sind nicht vollständig und voneinander nicht zwangsläufig unabhängig.
Während dieses Dokument für alle Arten interaktiver Systeme anwendbar ist, behandelt es jedoch nicht die Besonderheiten einzelner Anwendungsfelder. Dieses Dokument gilt des Weiteren für die Ausgaben interaktiver Systeme (wie z. B. gedruckte Dokumente, z. B. Rechnungen).
Die in diesem Dokument enthaltene Anleitung zur Informationsdarstellung hat zum Ziel, dem Benutzer bei der Erfüllung von Aufgaben behilflich zu sein. Diese Anleitung ist nicht für die Informationsdarstellung aus anderen Gründen gedacht (z. B. zur Markendarstellung oder Werbung).
Sie ist für folgende Benutzertypen vorgesehen:
-   Designer von Benutzungsschnittstellen, welche die Empfehlungen während des Entwicklungsprozesses anwenden;
-   Designer, die die Empfehlungen bei der Gestaltung und Umsetzung der Systemfunktionalität anwenden;
-   Gutachter, die dafür verantwortlich sind, dass Produkte den Empfehlungen entsprechen;
-   Designer von Werkzeugen für die Entwicklung von Benutzungsschnittstellen und Gestaltungsleitfäden, die von Benutzungsschnittstellen-Designern verwendet werden sollen;
-   Projektmanager, die für das Managen von Entwicklungsprozessen verantwortlich sind;
-   Käufer, die sich beim Produkteinkauf auf dieses Dokument beziehen.

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie 112: Principes et lignes directrices relatives à la présentation de l'information (ISO 9241-112:2017)

ISO 9241-112:2017 énonce des principes de conception ergonomique pour des systèmes interactifs en relation avec une présentation de l'information contrôlée par logiciel par les interfaces utilisateur. Il s'applique aux trois principales modalités (visuelle, sonore, tactile/haptique) généralement utilisées dans les technologies de l'information et de la communication. Ces principes s'appliquent à la perception et à la compréhension de l'information présentée. Ces principes sont applicables à l'analyse, à la conception et à l'évaluation des systèmes interactifs. Le présent document fournit également des recommandations correspondant aux principes. Les recommandations associées à chacun des principes ne sont pas exhaustives et ne sont pas nécessairement indépendantes les unes des autres.
Bien que le présent document soit applicable à tous les types de systèmes interactifs, il ne couvre pas les spécificités de domaines d'application particuliers. Le présent document s'applique également aux sorties des systèmes interactifs (telles que des documents imprimés, par exemple des factures).
Les lignes directrices du présent document relatif à la présentation de l'information visent à aider l'utilisateur à accomplir des tâches. Ces lignes directrices ne concernent pas la présentation de l'information à d'autres fins (par exemple valorisation de la marque d'entreprise ou publicité).
Elle est destinée aux types d'utilisateurs suivants:
- les concepteurs d'interfaces utilisateur, qui appliqueront les lignes directrices lors du processus de développement;
- les développeurs, qui appliqueront les lignes directrices lors de la conception et de l'implémentation des fonctionnalités du système;
- les évaluateurs, qui sont tenus de s'assurer que les produits sont conformes aux recommandations;
- les concepteurs d'outils de développement d'interfaces utilisateur et de guides de style destinés à être utilisés par les concepteurs d'interfaces;
- les chefs de projet, qui sont responsables de la gestion des processus de développement;
- les acheteurs, qui se référeront au présent document lors de l'achat du produit.

Ergonomija medsebojnega vpliva človek-sistem - 112. del: Načela za prikaz informacij (ISO 9241-112:2017)

Ta del standarda ISO 9241 podaja načela ergonomske oblike za interaktivne sisteme v povezavi s programsko upravljano predstavitvijo informacij prek uporabniških vmesnikov v treh glavnih modalitetah (vizualni, zvočni, taktilni/haptični), ki se običajno uporabljajo v informacijsko-komunikacijski tehnologiji. Ta načela se uporabljajo za zaznavanja in razumevanje predstavljenih informacij. Ta načela veljajo pri analizi, načrtovanju in vrednotenju interaktivnih sistemov. Ta del standarda ISO 9241 podaja tudi priporočila v zvezi z načeli. Priporočila za posamezna načela niso izčrpna in niso nujno medsebojno neodvisna. Ta del standarda ISO 9241 se uporablja za vse vrste interaktivnih sistemov, vendar ne zajema specifičnih lastnosti posameznih domen uporabe. Ta del standarda ISO 9241 se uporablja tudi za rezultate interaktivnih sistemov (kot je tiskano gradivo, na primer fakture). Vodilo v tem mednarodnem standardu za predstavitev informacij je namenjeno pomoči uporabnikom pri izvajanju opravil. To vodilo ni namenjeno predstavitvi informacij za druge namene (npr. uporabo tržnih znamk ali oglaševanje podjetij). Namenjeno je naslednjim vrstam uporabnikov: – načrtovalcem uporabniških vmesnikov, ki bodo vodilo uporabljali pri razvojnih postopkih; – razvijalcem, ki bodo vodilo uporabljali pri načrtovanju in uvajanju funkcionalnosti sistema; – ocenjevalcem, ki so odgovorni za zagotavljanje skladnosti proizvodov s priporočili; – načrtovalcem orodij za razvoj uporabniških vmesnikov in slogovnih vodnikov za načrtovalce uporabniških vmesnikov; – kupcem, ki se bodo pri naročanju proizvodov sklicevali na ta del standarda ISO 9241.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
21-Mar-2017
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
22-Mar-2017
Completion Date
22-Mar-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 9241-112:2017
01-september-2017
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 9241-12:2001
(UJRQRPLMDPHGVHERMQHJDYSOLYDþORYHNVLVWHPGHO1DþHOD]DSULND]
LQIRUPDFLM ,62

Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 112: Principles for the presentation of

information (ISO 9241-112:2017)
Ergonomie der Mensch-System-Interaktion - Teil 112: Grundsätze der
Informationsdarstellung (ISO 9241-112:2017)

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie 112: Principes et lignes directrices

relatives à la présentation de l'information (ISO 9241-112:2017)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 9241-112:2017
ICS:
13.180 Ergonomija Ergonomics
35.180 Terminalska in druga IT Terminal and other
periferna oprema IT peripheral equipment
SIST EN ISO 9241-112:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 9241-112:2017
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SIST EN ISO 9241-112:2017
EN ISO 9241-112
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
March 2017
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.180; 35.080; 35.240.01 Supersedes EN ISO 9241-12:1998
English Version
Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 112:
Principles for the presentation of information (ISO 9241-
112:2017)

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système - Partie Ergonomie der Mensch-System-Interaktion - Teil 112:

112: Principes et lignes directrices relatives à la Grundsätze der Informationsdarstellung (ISO 9241-

présentation de l'information (ISO 9241-112:2017) 112:2017)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 5 February 2017.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 9241-112:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 9241-112:2017
EN ISO 9241-112:2017 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 9241-112:2017
EN ISO 9241-112:2017 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 9241-112:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159

"Ergonomics" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 122 “Ergonomics” the secretariat of

which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2017, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
This document supersedes EN ISO 9241-12:1998.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 9241-112:2017 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 9241-112:2017 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 9241-112:2017
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SIST EN ISO 9241-112:2017
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 9241-112
First edition
2017-03
Ergonomics of human-system
interaction —
Part 112:
Principles for the presentation of
information
Ergonomie de l’interaction homme-système —
Partie 112: Principes et lignes directrices relatives à la présentation
de l’information
Reference number
ISO 9241-112:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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SIST EN ISO 9241-112:2017
ISO 9241-112:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9241-112:2017
ISO 9241-112:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Introduction to the presentation of information ................................................................................................................ 4

4.1 Sources of guidance on presentation of information within the ISO 9241-100

series and their relationship ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Modalities and media ........................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.3 Accessibility ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Action guidance ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.5 Information presentation and aesthetics ......................................................................................................................... 6

5 Introduction to principles .......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Relationship to other sets of principles in the ISO 9241-100 series ........................................................ 7

5.3 Relationship between individual principles .................................................................................................................. 7

6 Principles and recommendations ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1 Detectability .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.1.1 Principle of detectability ........................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1.2 Guidance related to using prominence ......................................................................................................... 8

6.1.3 Guidance related to timely presentation of information ............................................................... 8

6.1.4 Guidance related to making controls detectable by the user .................................................... 9

6.1.5 Guidance related to using continuity to aid detectability..........................................................10

6.2 Freedom from distraction ..........................................................................................................................................................10

6.2.1 Principle of freedom from distraction ........................................................................................................10

6.2.2 Guidance on minimizing and avoiding distractions .......................................................................10

6.3 Discriminability ...................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.3.1 Principle of discriminability ...............................................................................................................................11

6.3.2 Guidance related to the structuring of presented information ............................................11

6.3.3 Guidance related to using presentation attributes..........................................................................12

6.3.4 Guidance related to grouping using proximity ...................................................................................12

6.3.5 Guidance related to using similarity ............................................................................................................13

6.4 Interpretability ....................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.4.1 Principle of interpretability .................................................................................................................................13

6.4.2 Guidance related to ensuring comprehensibility .............................................................................14

6.4.3 Guidance related to ensuring unambiguous meaning ..................................................................14

6.4.4 Guidance related to using closure appropriately ..............................................................................15

6.4.5 Guidance related to textual coherence.......................................................................................................15

6.4.6 Guidance related to selection and use of media/modality .......................................................16

6.4.7 Guidance related to user capabilities ..........................................................................................................16

6.5 Conciseness .............................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.5.1 Principle of conciseness .........................................................................................................................................17

6.5.2 Guidance related to conciseness of content ..........................................................................................17

6.5.3 Guidance related to conciseness of actions ...........................................................................................17

6.6 Consistency (internal and external) ..................................................................................................................................18

6.6.1 Principle of consistency ..........................................................................................................................................18

6.6.2 Guidance related to consistency across pieces of information .............................................18

6.6.3 Guidance related to logical consistency ....................................................................................................19

6.6.4 Guidance related to consistency with conventions known to the user .........................19

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................20

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 9241-112:2017
ISO 9241-112:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: w w w . i s o .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159, Ergonomics, Subcommittee SC 4,

Ergonomics of human–system interaction.

This first edition of ISO 9241-112, together with ISO 9241-125, cancels and replaces ISO 9241-12:1998.

A list of all parts in the ISO 9241 series can be found on the ISO website.
iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9241-112:2017
ISO 9241-112:2017(E)
Introduction

This document presents principles for the presentation of information that apply to the design and

evaluation of user interfaces.

The application and use of the principles and general recommendations in this document results in a

variety of benefits to users of interactive user interfaces, including improvements in speed, accuracy,

mental effort, and user experience. They also help prevent users from experiencing usability problems

with presented information. Examples of such problems include the following:
— Users do not detect information, although the information is present.

— Users are distracted from information they are focusing on by other information.

— Users cannot discriminate between pieces of information, since they appear to be identical.

— Users misinterpret information since the meaning of the information is ambiguous.

— Users expend unnecessary time in understanding information since the information is presented is

unnecessarily lengthy.

— Users do not understand information due to unknown conventions used in the information.

The principles and general recommendations will help to avoid misinterpretations by providing

guidance on the appropriate and effective presentation of information. The guidance in this document

does not deal with the identification of the specific information to be presented.

This document contains general recommendations that apply across modalities. ISO 9241-125 provides

detailed recommendations relating to the design and evaluation of visual user interfaces.

This document can be used with ISO 9241-110 to provide principles covering interaction with user

interfaces, including the presentation of information.

These principles replace the “characteristics of presented information” listed in ISO 9241-12:1998, 4.1.

The characteristic “legibility” formerly contained in ISO 9241-12 is not being dealt with specifically

in this document since it is specific to visual information, but it is covered in general as part of

“Discriminability” and “Interpretability”. “Clarity” and “Comprehensibility” also formerly contained in

ISO 9241-12 are now being dealt with as part of “Freedom from distraction” and “Interpretability”.

This document focuses on software aspects of the presentation of information and does not include

guidance on the hardware-controlled physical characteristics of information presented in different

modalities.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 9241-112:2017
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SIST EN ISO 9241-112:2017
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 9241-112:2017(E)
Ergonomics of human-system interaction —
Part 112:
Principles for the presentation of information
1 Scope

This document establishes ergonomic design principles for interactive systems related to the software-

controlled presentation of information by user interfaces. It applies to the three main modalities

(visual, auditory, tactile/haptic) typically used in information and communication technology. These

principles apply to the perception and understanding of presented information. These principles are

applicable in the analysis, design, and evaluation of interactive systems. This document also provides

recommendations corresponding to the principles. The recommendations for each of the principles are

not exhaustive and are not necessarily independent from one another.

While this document is applicable to all types of interactive systems, it does not cover the specifics of

particular application domains. This document also applies to outputs from interactive systems (such

as printed documents, e.g. invoices).

The guidance in this document for presenting information is aimed at helping the user to accomplish

tasks. This guidance is not aimed at the presentation of information for other reasons (e.g. corporate

branding or advertising).
It is intended for the following types of users:

— user interface designers, who will apply the guidance during the development process;

— developers, who will apply the guidance during design and implementation of system functionality;

— evaluators, who are responsible for ensuring that products meet the recommendations;

— designers of user interface development tools and style guides to be used by user interface designers;

— project managers, who are responsible for managing development processes;
— buyers, who will reference this document during product procurement.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 9241-171:2008, Ergonomics of human-system interaction — Part 171: Guidance on software

accessibility
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 9241-112:2017
ISO 9241-112:2017(E)
3.1
user
person who interacts with a system, product or service

Note 1 to entry: A person who uses an output or service provided by a system, such as a bank customer who

receives a paper or electronic statement, visits a branch, or carries out telephone banking using a call centre, is

considered to be a user.
[SOURCE: ISO 26800:2011, 2.10, modified — Change in notes.]
3.2
user interface

all components of an interactive system (software or hardware) that provide information and controls

for the user (3.1) to accomplish specific tasks with the interactive system
[SOURCE: ISO 9241-110:2006, 3.9]
3.3
user-interface element
user-interface object
entity of the user interface that is presented to the user (3.1) by the software
EXAMPLE Text, graphic, control.
Note 1 to entry: User-interface elements can be interactive or not.

Note 2 to entry: Both entities relevant to the task and entities of the user interface (3.2) are regarded as user-

interface elements. A user-interface element can be a visual representation or an interaction mechanism for a

task object (such as a letter, sales order, electronic part, or wiring diagram) or a system object (such as a printer,

hard disk, or network connection). It can be possible for the user to directly manipulate some of these user-

interface elements.

Note 3 to entry: User-interface elements in a graphical user interface (3.2) include such things as basic objects

(such as window title bars, menu items, push buttons, image maps, and editable text fields) or containers (such

as windows, grouping boxes, menu bars, menus, groups of mutually-exclusive option buttons, and compound

images that are made up of several smaller images). User-interface elements in an audio user interface include

such things as menus, menu items, messages, and action prompts.
[SOURCE: ISO 9241-171:2008, 3.38]
3.4
attribute
data item that modifies or describes some aspect of an action or an object

Note 1 to entry: An attribute whose value is subject to change can be treated as an object.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC TR 11580:2007, 2.2, modified — Change of the note.]
3.5
action

user (3.1) behaviour that a system accepts as a request for a particular operation

EXAMPLE Pressing a key, clicking a mouse button, moving the pointer over an object, speaking a command.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC TR 11580:2007, 2.3]
3.6
operation
predefined system behaviour that a user (3.1) initiates
EXAMPLE Sending mail, printing, modifying the data or properties of an object.

Note 1 to entry: A user (3.1) performs an action (3.5) or a set of actions to initiate an operation.

2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 9241-112:2017
ISO 9241-112:2017(E)
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC TR 11580:2007, 2.4]
3.7
function
task-specific operation (3.6) of an object
Note 1 to entry: Objects can have zero, one, or many functions.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC TR 11580:2007, 2.5]
3.8
state

status of an object, action (3.5), or attribute (3.4) which is related to the currently permitted interactions

with the object, action, or attribute
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC TR 11580:2007, 2.7]
3.9
selection

explicitly identifying an object, attribute (3.4), or operation (3.6) that is intended as the target for

subsequent action (3.5)

Note 1 to entry: When a mouse is used, selection is performed by clicking once on a mouse button, then, a second

click is used to initiate the default function (3.7) of the selected item.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC TR 11580:2007, 2.10]
3.10
context of use

users (3.1), tasks, equipment (hardware, software and materials), and the physical and social

environments in which a product is used
[SOURCE: ISO 9241-11:1998, 3.5]
3.11
modality
mode of interaction referring to one of the human senses

Note 1 to entry: The three modalities most commonly used in information/communication technology (ICT) are:

visual, auditory, tactile/haptic.

Note 2 to entry: Modalities are used in interactions between users (3.1) and systems.

3.12
medium, sing.
media, pl.
different specific forms of presenting information to the user (3.1)
EXAMPLE Text, video, graphics, animation, audio.

[SOURCE: ISO 14915-1:2002, 3.3, modified — The phrase “human user” has been shortened to “user” as

the latter is a term defined as a person.]
3.13
convention

specific design solution that is widely applied within a culture and therefore commonly expected to apply

EXAMPLE Western languages are typically read from left to right.
3.14
group

set of information items or user interface elements (3.3) that are semantically related and perceptually

distinct
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 9241-112:2017
ISO 9241-112:2017(E)
3.15
accessibility

extent to which products, systems, services, environments and facilities can be used by people from

a population with the widest range of user (3.1) needs, characteristics and capabilities to achieve

identified goals in identified contexts of use (3.10)

Note 1 to entry: Context of use includes direct use or use supported by assistive technologies.

4 Introduction to the presentation of information

4.1 Sources of guidance on presentation of information within the ISO 9241-100 series

and their relationship

Guidance on presentation of information is contained in various international standards, as well as in

guidelines produced by manufacturers of interactive systems. Whenever the usability of interactive

systems is addressed in guidance documents, presentation of information is part of the consideration.

Figure 1 gives an overview on types of source documents which contain guidance on presented

information.
NOTE The following description also serves as alternative text for Figure 1.

In ISO 9241-110, principles and general recommendations for the interaction between user and system

that apply across application domains and particular technologies are introduced. In particular, the

principles of self-descriptiveness and conformity with user expectations are related to the presentation

of information. Information, which is not self-descriptive, will mislead the user. Information that is not

located where users expect it is likely to be not detected and information that does not conform to

other user expectations might be misunderstood.

In ISO 9241-112, principles and general recommendations for the presentation of information are

introduced that apply across the three main modalities (visual, auditory, and tactile/haptic) typically

used in ICT. These principles and general recommendations also apply across application domains and

across technologies.

Other ISO standards contain recommendations and requirements with a specific thematic focus.

— Requirements and recommendations specific to the visual presentation of information can be found

in ISO 9241-125.

— Requirements and recommendations specific to dialogue techniques can be found in standards

such as ISO 9241-143.

— Requirements and recommendations specific to an application domain can be found in standards

such as ISO 9241-151 and ISO 9241-154.

— Requirements and recommendations specific to accessibility can be found in standards such as

ISO 9241-20 and ISO 9241-171.
ISO standards contain guidance at the levels of
— principles,
— general recommendations, and
— requirements and recommendations
...

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