Energy performance of buildings - Determination and reporting of Primary Energy Factors (PEF) and CO2 emission coefficient - General Principles, Module M1-7

This document provides a transparent framework for reporting on the choices related to the procedure to determine primary energy factors (PEFs) and CO2 emission coefficients for energy delivered to and exported from the buildings as described in EN ISO 52000-1.
This document specifies the choices to be made to calculate the PEF(s) and CO2 emission coefficients related to different energy carriers. PEFs and CO2 emission coefficients for exported energy can be different from those chosen for delivered energy.
This document is primarily intended for supporting and complementing EN ISO 52000-1, as the latter requires values for the PEFs and CO2 emission coefficients to complete the EPB calculation. But it can also be used for other applications.
NOTE   The CO2 emission coefficients allow calculating greenhouse gas emissions. According to the choices made, the CO2 emission coefficients represent only CO2 emissions or also other greenhouse gases.
Table 1 shows the position (marked by "X") of this document within the modular structure as set out in EN ISO 52000-1.
The modules represent EPB standards, although one EPB standard may cover more than one module and one module may be covered by more than one EPB standard, for instance a simplified and a detailed method respectively.

Energieeffizienz von Gebäuden - Bestimmung und Berichterstattung von Primärenergiefaktoren (PEF) und CO2-Emissionsfaktoren - Allgemeine Grundsätze, Modul M1-7

Dieses Dokument bietet einen transparenten Rahmen für die Berichterstattung zu Entscheidungen, die mit dem Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Primärenergiefaktoren (PEFs) und CO2-Emissionskoeffizienten für Gebäuden zugeführte und aus ihnen abgeführte Energie, wie in EN ISO 52000 1 beschrieben, zusammen¬hängen.
In diesem Dokument werden die Entscheidungen dargelegt, die in Bezug auf die Berechnung von PEF(s) und CO2-Emissionskoeffizienten, die mit verschiedenen Energieträgern zusammenhängen, zu treffen sind. PEFs und CO2-Emissionskoeffizienten für abgeführte Energie können sich von jenen, die für zugeführte Energie ausgewählt wurden, unterscheiden.
Dieses Dokument ist hauptsächlich zur Unterstützung und Ergänzung von EN ISO 52000 1 vorgesehen, da Letztere Werte für die PEFs und CO2-Emissionskoeffizienten zur Durchführung der EPB-Berechnung erfordert. Es kann auch für andere Anwendungen genutzt werden.
ANMERKUNG Die CO2-Emissionskoeffizienten ermöglichen die Berechnung von Treibhausgasemissionen. Die CO2 Emissionskoeffizienten stellen entsprechend den getroffenen Entscheidungen nur CO2-Emissionen oder auch andere Treibhausgase dar.
Tabelle 1 zeigt die Position (durch ein „X“ gekennzeichnet) dieses Dokuments innerhalb der modularen Struktur wie in EN ISO 52000 1 dargestellt an.
Die Module repräsentieren EPB Normen, auch wenn eine EPB Norm mehr als ein Modul abdecken kann und ein Modul von mehr als einer EPB Norm abgedeckt werden kann, zum Beispiel jeweils ein vereinfachtes und ein detailliertes Verfahren.

Performance énergétique des bâtiments - Détermination et déclaration des facteurs d'énergie primaire (PEF) et du coefficient d'émission de CO₂ - Principes généraux, Module M1-7

Le présent document offre un cadre transparent pour déclarer les choix de mode opératoire visant à déterminer les facteurs d’énergie primaire ainsi que les coefficients d’émission de CO2 de l’énergie livrée aux bâtiments et de l’énergie exportée par le bâtiment, tel que décrit dans l’EN ISO 52000-1.
Le présent document spécifie les choix à effectuer afin de calculer les PEF et les coefficients d’émission de CO2 relatifs à différents vecteurs énergétiques. Les PEF et les coefficients d’émission de CO2 de l’énergie exportée par le bâtiment peuvent différer de ceux choisis pour l’énergie livrée au bâtiment.
Le présent document est essentiellement une norme complémentaire à l’EN ISO 52000-1, car cette dernière exige que les valeurs de PEF et de coefficients d’émission de CO2 viennent compléter le calcul PEB. Elle peut cependant être utilisée pour d’autres applications.
NOTE   Les coefficients d’émission de CO2 permettent de calculer les émissions de gaz à effet de serre. Selon les choix effectués, les coefficients d’émission de CO2 ne représentent que les émissions de CO2 ou également d’autres gaz à effet de serre.
Le Tableau 1 montre la position (marquée par un « X ») du présent document au sein de la structure modulaire définie par l’EN ISO 52000-1.
Les modules représentent les normes PEB. Une norme PEB peut toutefois couvrir plusieurs modules et un module peut toutefois être couvert par plusieurs normes PEB (par exemple, par une méthode simplifiée et par une méthode détaillée respectivement).

Energijske lastnosti stavb - Določanje in poročanje o faktorjih primarne energije (PEF) in emisijskem koeficientu CO2 - Splošna načela - Modul M1-7

General Information

Status
Published
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
11-Nov-2020
Completion Date
11-Nov-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 17423:2021
01-januar-2021

Energijske lastnosti stavb - Določanje in poročanje o faktorjih primarne energije

(PEF) in emisijskem koeficientu CO2 - Splošna načela - Modul M1-7
Energy performance of buildings - Determination and reporting of Primary Energy
Factors (PEF) and CO2 emission coefficient - General Principles, Module M1-7
Energieeffizienz von Gebäuden - Bestimmung und Berichterstattung von
Primärenergiefaktoren (PEF) und CO2-Emissionsfaktoren

Performance énergétique des bâtiments - Détermination et déclaration des facteurs

d’énergie primaire (PEF) et du coefficient d’émission de CO2 - Principes généraux,

Module M1-7
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 17423:2020
ICS:
13.040.01 Kakovost zraka na splošno Air quality in general
91.120.10 Toplotna izolacija stavb Thermal insulation of
buildings
SIST EN 17423:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 17423:2021
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SIST EN 17423:2021
EN 17423
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
November 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.040.01; 91.120.10
English Version
Energy performance of buildings - Determination and
reporting of Primary Energy Factors (PEF) and CO2
emission coefficient - General Principles, Module M1-7

Performance énergétique des bâtiments - Energieeffizienz von Gebäuden - Bestimmung und

Détermination et déclaration des facteurs d'énergie Berichterstattung von Primärenergiefaktoren (PEF)

primaire (PEF) et du coefficient d'émission de CO2 - und CO2-Emissionsfaktoren
Principes généraux, Module M1-7
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 4 October 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 17423:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 17423:2021
EN 17423:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 8

4 Symbols, subscripts and abbreviations................................................................................................ 10

4.1 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................................ 10

4.2 Subscripts ........................................................................................................................................................ 11

4.3 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................ 11

5 General description of the methods and choices .............................................................................. 12

5.1 Basic principles of the assessment methods ...................................................................................... 12

5.2 Short description of the choices ............................................................................................................. 18

6 Set of different choices related to PEF and CO emission coefficient ........................................ 19

6.1 Choices related to the perimeter — Geographical perimeter ...................................................... 19

6.2 Choices related to calculation conventions ........................................................................................ 19

6.3 Choices related to the data ....................................................................................................................... 20

6.4 Choices related to the assessment methodologies .......................................................................... 23

Annex A (normative) Template for reporting the choices ......................................................................... 28

Annex B (informative) Examples of assessment boundaries .................................................................... 30

Annex C (informative) Additional explanation and reporting .................................................................. 32

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 45

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SIST EN 17423:2021
EN 17423:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 17423:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 371 “Energy

Performance of Buildings project group”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2021, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by May 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,

Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North

Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United

Kingdom.
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SIST EN 17423:2021
EN 17423:2020 (E)
Introduction

This document belongs to a series of standards aiming at international harmonization of the methodology

for the assessment of the energy performance of buildings.

For the correct use of this document, a normative template is given in Annex A to report the choices.

The target group of this document are all the users of the set of standards related to the assessment of

the energy performance of buildings and especially national standardization experts or building

authorities who are in charge of defining the PEFs and CO emission coefficients.

In view of the complexity of the issue, the need for contextual knowledge and practicality of use, it is

useful to mention necessary comments and explanations directly in the standard, and not to prepare a

separate CEN/TR (Technical Report). For the same reasons, parts taken from other standards are

appropriate to have in this document.

The document can be applied for different time intervals (annual, monthly, hourly).

This document is a new standard.
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SIST EN 17423:2021
EN 17423:2020 (E)
1 Scope

This document provides a transparent framework for reporting on the choices related to the procedure

to determine primary energy factors (PEFs) and CO emission coefficients for energy delivered to and

exported from the buildings as described in EN ISO 52000-1.

This document specifies the choices to be made to calculate the PEF(s) and CO emission coefficients

related to different energy carriers. PEFs and CO emission coefficients for exported energy can be

different from those chosen for delivered energy.

This document is primarily intended for supporting and complementing EN ISO 52000-1, as the latter

requires values for the PEFs and CO emission coefficients to complete the EPB calculation. But it can also

be used for other applications.

NOTE The CO emission coefficients allow calculating greenhouse gas emissions. According to the choices

made, the CO emission coefficients represent only CO emissions or also other greenhouse gases.

2 2

Table 1 shows the position (marked by “X”) of this document within the modular structure as set out in

EN ISO 52000-1.

The modules represent EPB standards, although one EPB standard may cover more than one module and

one module may be covered by more than one EPB standard, for instance a simplified and a detailed

method respectively.
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SIST EN 17423:2021
EN 17423:2020 (E)

Table 1 — Position of this document (M1–7), within the modular structure as set out in EN ISO 52000-1

Building
Overarching Technical Building Systems
(as such)
Domestic Building
PV,

Submodule Descriptions Descriptions Descriptions Heating Cooling Ventilation Humidification Dehumidification Hot Lighting automation

wind,..
water and control
sub1 M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 M10 M11
1 General General General
Common
terms and
Building
definitions;
2 Energy Needs
symbols,
Needs
units and
subscripts
(Free) Indoor
Maximum
Conditions
3 Applications Load and
without
Power
Systems
Ways to Ways to Ways to
Express Express Express
Energy Energy Energy
Performance Performance Performance
Building
Heat
categories Emission and
5 Transfer by
and Building control
Transmission
Boundaries
Building Heat
Occupancy Transfer by
Distribution
6 and Infiltration
and control
Operating and
Conditions Ventilation
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SIST EN 17423:2021
EN 17423:2020 (E)
Building
Overarching Technical Building Systems
(as such)
Domestic Building
PV,

Submodule Descriptions Descriptions Descriptions Heating Cooling Ventilation Humidification Dehumidification Hot Lighting automation

wind,..
water and control
sub1 M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 M10 M11
Aggregation
of Energy
Internal Heat Storage and
7 Services and X
Gains control
Energy
Carriers
Building Solar Heat Generation
zoning Gains and control
Load
Building
Calculated dispatching
Dynamics
9 Energy and
(thermal
Performance operating
mass)
conditions
Measured Measured Measured
10 Energy Energy Energy
Performance Performance Performance
11 Inspection Inspection Inspection
Ways to
Express
12 BMS
Indoor
Comfort
External
13 Environment
Conditions
Economic
Calculation
The shaded modules are not applicable.
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SIST EN 17423:2021
EN 17423:2020 (E)
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 15316-4-5, Energy performance of buildings - Method for calculation of system energy requirements and

system efficiencies - Part 4-5: District heating and cooling, Module M3-8-5, M4-8-5, M8-8-5, M11-8-5

EN ISO 7345, Thermal performance of buildings and building components - Physical quantities and

definitions (ISO 7345)

EN ISO 52000-1:2017, Energy performance of buildings - Overarching EPB assessment - Part 1: General

framework and procedures (ISO 52000-1:2017)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 7345, EN ISO 52000-1 and

the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
primary energy
energy that has not been subjected to any conversion or transformation process

Note 1 to entry: Primary energy may be related to non-renewable energy and renewable energy. If both are taken

into account, it is called “total primary energy”.

[SOURCE: EN ISO 52000-1:2017, 3.4.29, modified note – “includes” is replaced by “may be related to”]

3.2
energy carrier

substance or phenomenon that can be used to produce mechanical work, electricity or thermal energy or

to operate chemical or physical processes

[SOURCE: EN ISO 52000-1:2017, 3.4.9, modified – “or heat” has been replaced by “electricity or thermal

energy”.]
3.3
primary energy factor

ratio of the primary energy to the energy delivered to or exported from the assessment boundary

Note 1 to entry: primary energy factor can refer to the total primary energy or to the renewable, or non-renewable

primary energy. To be more precise it should be specified (e.g. non-renewable primary energy factor).

3.3.1
non-renewable primary energy factor for delivered energy carrier

non-renewable primary energy for a given energy carrier, including the delivered energy and the

considered non-renewable energy overheads of delivery to the points of use, divided by the delivered

energy

[SOURCE: EN ISO 52000-1:2017, 3.5.17 modified – the term is completed by “for delivered energy

carrier” and in the definition “non-renewable” is added before “energy overhead”]

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SIST EN 17423:2021
EN 17423:2020 (E)
3.3.2
non-renewable primary energy factor for exported energy carrier

non-renewable primary energy for a given energy carrier, including the exported energy and the

considered non-renewable energy overheads of producing and exporting to the collection points, divided

by the exported energy
3.3.3
renewable primary energy factor for delivered energy carrier

renewable primary energy for a given energy carrier, including the delivered energy and the considered

renewable energy overheads of delivery to the points of use, divided by the delivered energy

[SOURCE: EN ISO 52000-1:2017, 3.5.21, modified – the term is completed by “for delivered energy

carrier” and in the definition for “an energy carrier” the words “distant or nearby” have been deleted.]

3.3.4
renewable primary energy factor for exported energy carrier

renewable primary energy for a given energy carrier including the exported energy and the considered

renewable energy overheads of producing and exporting to the collection points, divided by the exported

energy
3.3.5
total primary energy factor
sum of non-renewable and renewable PEFs for a given energy carrier
[SOURCE: EN ISO 52000-1:2017, 3.5.25]
3.4
CO emission coefficient

coefficient that describes the amount of CO that is released from doing a certain activity

EXAMPLE Burning one tonne of fuel in a furnace is an example of application.

Note 1 to entry: The CO emission coefficient can also include the equivalent emissions of other greenhouse gases

(e.g. methane). To be more precise it should be specified by adding “equivalent” (e.g. CO eq).

[SOURCE: EN ISO 52000-1:2017, 3.5.4, modified – The original note 1 and note 2 have been deleted. In

note 3 the second sentence has been added.]
3.5
assessment boundary

boundary where the delivered and exported energy carriers are measured or calculated

Note 1 to entry: The term “building” in this document is used to mean “whatever is inside the assessment boundary”.

[SOURCE: EN ISO 52000-1:2017, 3.4.2, modified – “energy” has been replaced by “energy carriers”. Note

1 has been added]
3.6
energy flow
quantity of energy going from the energy source to the energy use
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SIST EN 17423:2021
EN 17423:2020 (E)
3.7
greenhouse gas

gas, that absorbs and emits radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of infrared radiation

emitted by the earth's surface, the atmosphere, and clouds
Note 1 to entry: Greenhouse gas may have natural and anthropogenic origins.

[SOURCE: EN ISO 14067:2018, 3.1.2.1, modified – “gaseous constituent of the atmosphere” is simplified

into “gas”. The notes have been deleted, because they are not of interest for the application of the term

here Note 1 used to be part of the definition.]
3.8
biogenic carbon
carbon derived from biomass
[SOURCE: EN ISO 14067:2018, 3.1.7.2]
3.9
fossil carbon
carbon that is contained in fossilized material

Note 1 to entry: Examples of fossilized material are coal, oil, natural gas and peat.

[SOURCE: EN ISO 14067:2018, 3.1.7.3]
4 Symbols, subscripts and abbreviations
4.1 Symbols
[SOURCE: EN ISO 52000-1:2017]
For the purposes of this document, the symbols listed in Table 2 apply.

The following text includes symbols that are not used in this document, but that are needed for overall

consistency in the set of EPB standards.
Table 2 — Symbols and units
Symbol Quantity Unit
c coefficient
various
E kW·h
energy in general
f factor (e.g. primary energy factor, …)
H calorific value, net or gross (NCV or GCV), kW∙h/kg
K CO emission coefficient kg/(kW∙h)
Q quantity of heat kW∙h
η efficiency (factor)
ɛ expenditure factor
Coefficients have dimensions; factors are dimensionless.

Including primary energy; note that for heat the symbol Q and for auxiliary energy and work the symbol W is

used.
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SIST EN 17423:2021
EN 17423:2020 (E)
4.2 Subscripts
[SOURCE: EN ISO 52000-1:2017]
For the purposes of this document, the subscripts listed in Table 3 apply.

The following text includes subscripts that are not used in this document, but that are needed for overall

consistency in the set of EPB standards.
Table 3 — Subscripts
Subscript Term Subscript Term
CO CO emission nren non-renewable
2 2
cr energy carrier ntdel net delivered
del delivered P primary energy
dis distribution Pnren non-renewable primary energy
el electricity pr produced
exp exported pv solar electricity (photovoltaic)
gen generation ren renewable energy
i, j, k indexes tot total
in input we weighting
ls losses
4.3 Abbreviations
For the purposes of this document, the abbreviations listed in Table 4 apply.
Table 4 — Abbreviations
Abbreviation Term
CHP Combined Heat and Power
EPB Energy Performance of
Buildings
GHG Green House Gases
GWP Global Warming Potential
LCA Live Cycle Analysis
PEF Primary Energy Factor
PV Photovoltaic
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SIST EN 17423:2021
EN 17423:2020 (E)
5 General description of the methods and choices
5.1 Basic principles of the assessment methods
5.1.1 Primary Energy Factors (PEF)
5.1.1.1 The three fundamental types of PEF

[SOURCE: EN ISO 52000-1:2017, H.3, modified – More explanation has been added, the order of clauses

has been changed.]

For each delivered or exported energy carrier, there are three PEFs (see Figure 1), related to different

energy contents of the energy carrier, to be assessed:
a) Non-renewable PEF (f )
P;nren

The primary energy taken into account in the non-renewable PEF covers only non-renewable energy

flows (possibly including also the non-renewable energy overheads of delivery to the point of use,

according to the LCA method, see 6.4.4) required to deliver one unit of energy of the related energy

carrier to the building. Therefore, the non-renewable PEF can be less than one if the unit of energy

contains also renewable energy. It covers the whole non-renewable primary energies consumption,

including those consumed by exploitation of the renewable sources when applicable.

b) Renewable PEF (f )
P;ren

The primary energy taken into account in the definition of renewable PEF covers only renewable

energy flows (possibly including also the renewable energy overheads of delivery to the point of use,

according to the LCA method, see 6.4.4) required to deliver one unit of energy to the building per

energy carrier. It covers all renewable primary energy including those consumed for the exploitation

of the non-renewable sources (e.g. renewable energy used to produce electricity to drive an electric

pump for pumping oil through a pipeline).
c) Total PEF (f )
P;tot
The total PEF is the sum of the non-renewable and renewable PEF.
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SIST EN 17423:2021
EN 17423:2020 (E)
5.1.1.2 PEF for delivered and exported energy

In line with EN ISO 52000-1, this document defines the PEF for delivered energy to the building through

the assessment boundary and the energy produced “on-site” and exported through the assessment

boundary.
— PEF for a delivered energy carrier cr

The PEF, f , for a delivered energy carrier cr from on-site, nearby or distant is defined as:

del
Σ E
jjwe;del,
(1)
f =
we;del;cr
del;cr
where
E is delivered energy, in kWh;
we;del
cr is the subscript representing the type of the energy carrier;
we is the subscript representing sequentially total, non-renewable or renewable
attribute;

j is the subscript accounting for different energy sources of same type we, which

concurs to produce the energy carrier.
Key
A energy source 4 non-renewable infrastructure related energy (see also 6.4.4)

B upstream chain of energy supply 5 renewable infrastructure related energy (see also 6.4.4)

C inside the assessment boundary 6 non-renewable energy to extract, refine, convert and transport

1 total primary energy 7 renewable energy to extract, refine, convert and transport

2 non-renewable primary energy 8 delivered non-renewable energy
3 renewable primary energy 9 delivered renewable energy

Figure 1 — PEFs for a two source (one non-renewable, the other renewable) energy carrier

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SIST EN 17423:2021
EN 17423:2020 (E)
— PEF for an exported energy carrier cr

Energy that is produced on-site can be exported. In this case, EN ISO 52000-1:2017, 9.6.6 allows for

either a PEF representing the resources avoided by the external grid or a PEF representing the

resources used for producing the energy.
5.1.1.3 Gross and Net calorific value
The PEF can be expressed based on gross or net calorific values.
5.1.1.4 In-use phase or Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)

The PEF may focus only on the in-use phase or take into account also the embedded energy used (LCA,

see 6.4.4) for example to manufacture wind turbines.
5.1.2 CO emission coefficient

LCA approach is used in EN 15978 (Sustainability of construction works – Assessment of environmental

performance of buildings – Calculation method) for the assessment of environmental impacts of buildings

(including climate change) during life cycle of buildings (including operational energy use of buildings).

In EN 15978 and EN 15804 the LCA approach with GWP calculation rules have been aligned with

EN ISO 14067 (Carbon Footprint of Products) and the European Commission Product Environmental

Footprint (PEF) calculation rules applying the GWP100 characterisation factors for the GWP calculations.

It is important that approaches in standards (and in regulations) are aligned in the construction sector,

when they both are using the LCA approach for CO emissions (GWP) in order to direct the performance

of buildings into the same direction, i.e. to mitigate climate change.

This document does not provide any GWP calculation rules but offers a standard template that helps

reporting the main methodological choices.

The CO emission coefficient can also include the equivalent emission of other greenhouse gases (e.g.

methane, N O, etc.). To be more precise, it should be specified by adding “equivalent” (e.g. CO eq).

2 2

The emission factors shall be coherent with the choice of referring to gross or net calorific value.

In line with EN ISO 52000-1, in this document the CO emission coefficients are applied to the energy

delivered to the building or exported through the assessment boundary.

For the energy produced on-site and which can be exported, EN ISO 52000-1:2017, 9.6.6 allows for either

a CO emission coefficient representing the resources avoided by the external grid or a CO emission

2 2

coefficient representing the resources used for producing the energy. Subclause 6.3.4 defines both

options.
CO emission coefficient for an exported energy carrier cr

Energy that is produced on-site can be exported. As for PEF calculation, ISO 52000-1 allows for either a

CO emission coefficient representing the resources avoided by the external grid or a CO emission

2 2
coefficient representing the resources used for producing the energy.
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SIST EN 17423:2021
EN 17423:2020 (E)
5.1.3 Assessment boundary

To start the determination and reporting of PEF and CO emission coefficient the perimeter of the

assessment shall be set. It shall be clearly stated where the specific technical energy system ends (e.g.

“inside” – see hereafter) and where the assessment of the PEF and CO emission coefficient starts

(“outside” – see hereafter).

The assessment boundary is the boundary where the delivered and exported energy are measured or

calculated to assess the building energy performance. In EN ISO 52000-1, the assessment boundary

delimitates two systems:

— “inside” the assessment boundary where the energy losses and auxiliary energy are taken into

account explicitly as energy amounts. However in EN ISO 52000-1 CO emissions are not explicitly

taken into account inside the assessment boundary. Therefore, the CO emissions factors of

combustible energy vectors include the CO emissions of a perfect combustion process. The real

efficiency is calculated inside the assessment boundary.

— “outside” the assessment boundary where the energy losses and auxiliary energy necessary to

deliver one unit of the energy carrier to the building are taken into account in the PEFs per energy

carrier. The PEF of delivered energy carriers shall only take into account losses and auxiliary related

to the energy carrier. Otherwise the PEF and CO emission coefficient could not be applied in a

coherent way to all buildings.

Therefore, the placement of the assessment boundary is important to clearly define what to take into

account in the PEF and the CO emission coefficient. Examples on possible placements of the assessment

boundary are provided in Annex B.

NOTE In EN ISO 52000-1:2017, 9.5.1, the assessment boundary is defined as the output of active solar, wind or

water energy systems. By convention, no primary energy losses are counted beyond this boundary for the upstream

energy flow.
5.1.4 Origin of delivered energies

The delivered energies are classified according to the following source perimeters:

— on-site,
— nearby,
— distant.

Refer to EN ISO 52000-1:2017, 9.5.1 for a complete description of the origin of delivered energies.

These perimeters refer to the production site localisation and do not necessarily coincide with the

geographical perimeter.

The concept of on-site, nearby and distant is schematically shown in Figure 2. A similar figure can be

made for the gas grid.
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Key
a assessment boundary (use energy balance) 1 PV, thermal solar
b perimeter: on-site 2 wind
c perimeter: nearby 3 boiler room
d perimeter: distant 4 heat pump
S1 thermally conditioned space 5 district heating/cooling

S2 space outside thermal envelope 6 substation (low/medium voltage and possible storage)

Figure 2 — Example of a scheme of the concept of assessment boundary and origin of delivered

energy

PEF and CO emission coefficients are defined for each energy flow delivered or exported through the

assessment boundary, considering the origin for delivered and the destination for exported energy.

5.1.5 Accounting methods
5.1.5.1 General

The assessment of the PEF and CO emission coefficient for an energy carrier can be done by:

— following the reverse energy flow (from th
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 17423:2019
01-september-2019

Energijske lastnosti stavb - Določanje in poročanje o faktorjih primarne energije

(PEF) in emisijskem koeficientu CO2 - Splošna načela, Modul M1-7
Energy performance of buildings - Determination and reporting of Primary Energy
Factors (PEF) and CO2 emission coefficient - General Principles, Module M1-7
Energieeffizienz von Gebäuden - Bestimmung und Berichterstattung von
Primärenergiefaktoren (PEF) und CO2-Emissionsfaktoren
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 17423
ICS:
13.040.01 Kakovost zraka na splošno Air quality in general
91.120.10 Toplotna izolacija stavb Thermal insulation of
buildings
oSIST prEN 17423:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN 17423:2019
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oSIST prEN 17423:2019
DRAFT
EUROPEAN STANDARD
prEN 17423
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
July 2019
ICS 13.040.01; 91.120.10
English Version
Energy performance of buildings - Determination and
reporting of Primary Energy Factors (PEF) and CO2
emission coefficient - General Principles, Module M1-7
Energieeffizienz von Gebäuden - Bestimmung und
Berichterstattung von Primärenergiefaktoren (PEF)
und CO2-Emissionsfaktoren

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 371.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations

which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 17423:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Symbols, subscripts and abbreviations................................................................................................... 9

4.1 Symbols ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.2 Subscripts ........................................................................................................................................................ 10

4.3 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................ 11

5 General description of the methods and choices .............................................................................. 11

5.1 Basic principles of the assessment methods ...................................................................................... 11

5.1.1 Primary Energy Factors (PEF) ................................................................................................................. 11

5.1.2 C0 emission coefficient ............................................................................................................................ 14

5.1.3 Assessment boundary ................................................................................................................................ 14

5.1.4 Origin of delivered energies ..................................................................................................................... 14

5.1.5 Accounting methods - General ................................................................................................................ 16

5.2 Short description of the choices ............................................................................................................. 18

6 Set of different choices related to PEF and CO emission coefficient ........................................ 19

6.1 Choices related to the perimeter: Geographical Perimeter .......................................................... 19

6.2 Choices related to calculation conventions ........................................................................................ 20

6.2.1 Time resolution ............................................................................................................................................ 20

6.2.2 Sources of the data used ............................................................................................................................ 20

6.2.3 Net or Gross Calorific Value ...................................................................................................................... 20

6.3 Choices related to the input data ............................................................................................................ 21

6.3.1 Energy sources to be considered (available energy sources) ...................................................... 21

6.3.2 Type of CO emission coefficients .......................................................................................................... 21

6.3.3 Conventions related to energy conversion ......................................................................................... 23

6.3.4 Conventions for PEF related to exported energy .............................................................................. 24

6.4 Choices related to the assessment methodologies .......................................................................... 25

6.4.1 Energy exchanges with other geographical perimeters ................................................................ 25

6.4.2 Allocation of multi energy input system for a delivered energy carrier.................................. 27

6.4.3 Calculation approaches for multisource generation mix .............................................................. 28

6.4.4 Allocation of multi energy output system ........................................................................................... 29

6.4.5 Life cycle method .......................................................................................................................................... 31

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 37

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European foreword

This document (prEN 17423:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 371 “Energy

Performance of Buildings project group”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.
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Introduction

This document is part of a series of standards aiming at international harmonization of the methodology

for the assessment of the energy performance of buildings (EPB standards).

This document specifies the choices to be made to calculate the PEF(s) and CO emission coefficients

related to different energy carriers.

The document can be adapted to different time steps (annual, monthly, hourly) with the scenarios used

for energy use and energy delivered.

For the correct use of this document, a normative template is given in Annex A to specify choices.

The target group of this document are all the users of the set of EPB standards and especially national

standardization experts or building authorities who are in charge of defining the PEFs and CO Emission

coefficients.
This document is a new standard.
Information for the public enquiry – to be deleted for the final publication:

In this document, explicative elements of a technical report and requirements related to a standard are

merged for a better understanding of this document.

It has not been decided yet if a separate technical report will be drafted. This will also depend on feedback

from the public enquiry.

Choices related to PEF and CO are also dealt with in other documents (e.g: EN ISO 52000-1,

EN 15316-4.5). In the future, all choices are expected to be summarized in one document. Therefore,

chapters of other documents have been copied into this document to make a consistent document and

provide a better understanding.

Annex A (normative) provides a template to report only the main methodological choices that have an

impact on PEF and CO emission coefficient values. No mandatory quantitative reporting of data are

requested. These choices are described in Clause 6.

Informative general formulae defining the PEF for different configurations (e.g. one main energy carrier,

multi energy input systems, multi energy output systems, exchanges with other perimeters) have been

added at the end of the extension period. These general formulae do not have an impact on PEF and CO

emission factors but contribute to a better understanding. Related informative data reporting tables

show a possible structure of resumed data reporting towards are more common structured quantitaive

reporting.
It has not been decided yet to make the formulae and reporting tables normative.
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1 Scope

This document provides a transparent framework for reporting on the choices related to the procedure

to determine PEFs and CO Emission coefficients for energy delivered to and/or exported by the

buildings as described in EN ISO 52000-1:2017. Exported PEFs and CO Emission coefficients can be

different from those chosen for delivered energy.

This document can be considered as a supporting/complementing standard to EN ISO 52000-1, as the

latter requires values for the PEFs and GHG Emissions factors to complete the EPB calculation.

Table 1 shows the relative position of this document within the set of EPB standards in the context of the

modular structure as set out in EN ISO 52000-1.

Table 1 — Position of this standard (M1 –7), within the modular structure of the set of EPB

standards
Building
Overarching Technical Building Systems
(as such)
sub1 M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 M10 M11
1 General General General
Common
terms and
definitions; Building
2 Needs
symbols, units Energy Needs
and
subscripts
(Free) Indoor
Maximum
Conditions
3 Applications Load and
without
Power
Systems
Ways to
Ways to Ways to
Express
Express Express
4 Energy
Energy Energy
Performanc
Performance Performance
Building
Heat Transfer
categories Emission
5 by
and Building and control
Transmission
Boundaries
Building Heat Transfer
Occupancy by Infiltration Distribution
and Operating and and control
Conditions Ventilation
Aggregation
Internal Heat Storage and
7 X
of Energy
Gains control
Services and
Submodule
Descriptions
Descriptions
Descriptions
Heating
Cooling
Ventilation
Humidifi
cation
Dehumidification
Domestic Hot water
Lighting
Building automation and
control
PV, wind, ..
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Building
Overarching Technical Building Systems
(as such)
sub1 M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 M10 M11
Energy
Carriers
Building Solar Heat Generation
zoning Gains and control
Load
Building
Calculated dispatching
Dynamics
9 Energy and
(thermal
Performance operating
mass)
conditions
Measured
Measured Measured
Energy
10 Energy Energy
Performanc
Performance Performance
11 Inspection Inspection Inspection
Ways to
Express
12 BMS
Indoor
Comfort
External
13 Environment
Conditions
Economic
Calculation
The shaded modules are not applicable
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 15316-4-5:2017, Energy performance of buildings — Method for calculation of system energy

requirements and system efficiencies —Part 4-5: District heating and cooling, Module M3-8-5, M4-8-5, M8-

8-5, M11-8-5

EN ISO 7345, Thermal performance of buildings and building components – Physical quantities and

definitions (ISO 7345)

EN ISO 52000-1:2017, Energy performance of buildings — Overarching EPB assessment – Part 1: General

framework and procedures (ISO 52000-1:2017)
Submodule
Descriptions
Descriptions
Descriptions
Heating
Cooling
Ventilation
Humidifi
cation
Dehumidification
Domestic Hot water
Lighting
Building automation and
control
PV, wind, ..
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3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 7345, in EN ISO 52000-1,

and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
EPB standard

standard that complies with the requirements given in EN ISO 52000-1, CEN/TS 16628 and

CEN/TS 16629

Note 1 to entry: These three basic EPB documents were developed under a mandate given to CEN by the

European Commission and the European Free Trade Association (Mandate M/480,), and support essential

requirements of EU Directive 2010/31/EU on the energy performance of buildings (EPBD). Several EPB standards

and related documents are developed or revised under the same mandate.
[SOURCE: EN ISO 52000-1:2017 (3.5.14)]
3.2
primary energy
energy that has not been subjected to any conversion or transformation process

Note 1 to entry: Primary energy includes non-renewable energy and renewable energy. If both are taken into

account, it is called total primary energy.
[SOURCE: EN ISO 52000-1:2017 (3.4.29)]
3.3
energy carrier

substance or phenomenon that can be used to produce mechanical work, electricity or thermal energy or

to operate chemical or physical processes

[SOURCE: EN ISO 52000-1:2017 (3.4.9), modified – 'or heat' has been replaced by 'electricity or thermal

energy'.]
3.4
primary energy factor
PEF

ratio of the primary energy to the energy delivered to or exported from the assessment boundary

Note 1 to entry: PEF can refer to the total primary energy or only to the renewable and/or non-renewable

primary energy. To be more precise it should be specified (e.g. PEFnren).
Note 2 to entry: PEFs can differ by year

Note 3 to entry: The term “building” in this document is used to mean “whatever is inside the assessment

boundary”.
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3.4.1
non-renewable primary energy factor for delivered energy carrier

non-renewable primary energy for a given energy carrier, including the delivered energy and the

considered non-renewable energy overheads of delivery to the points of use, divided by the delivered

energy
[SOURCE: EN ISO 52000-1:2017 (3.5.17)]
3.4.2
non-renewable primary energy factor for exported energy carrier

non-renewable primary energy for a given energy carrier, including the exported energy and the

considered non-renewable energy overheads of producing and exporting to the collection points, divided

by the exported energy
3.4.3
renewable primary energy factor for delivered energy carrier

renewable primary energy for a given energy carrier, including the delivered energy and the considered

energy overheads of delivery to the points of use, divided by the delivered energy

[SOURCE: EN ISO 52000-1:2017 (3.5.21), modified – For an energy carrier the words 'distant or nearby'

have been deleted.]
3.4.4
renewable primary energy factor for exported energy carrier

renewable primary energy for a given energy carrier including the exported energy and the considered

renewable energy overheads of producing and exporting to the collection points, divided by the exported

energy
3.4.5
total primary energy factor
sum of non-renewable and renewable PEFs for a given energy carrier
[SOURCE: EN ISO 52000-1:2017 (3.5.25)]
3.5
CO emission coefficient

coefficient that describes the amount of CO that is released from doing a certain activity, such as burning

one tonne of fuel in a furnace
Note 1 to entry: CO emission coefficients can differ by year.

Note 2 to entry: The C0 emission coefficient can also include the equivalent emissions of other greenhouse gases

(e.g. methane). To be more precise it should be specified by adding “equivalent” (e.g. C0 eq).

[SOURCE: EN ISO 52000-1:2017 (3.5.4), modified – The original note 1 has been deleted. In note 3 the

second sentence has been added.]
3.6
assessment boundary

boundary where the delivered and exported energy carriers are measured or calculated

[SOURCE: EN ISO 52000-1:2017 (3.4.2), modified – 'energy' has been replaced by 'energy carriers'.]

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3.7
energy flow

flow of energy by means of carriers in the direction from the energy source to the energy use

3.8
greenhouse gas
GHG

gaseous constituent of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorbs and emits radiation

at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of infrared radiation emitted by the earth’s surface, the

atmosphere, and clouds

[SOURCE: EN ISO 14067:2018 (3.1.2.1), modified – The notes have been deleted, because they are not of

interest for the application of the term here.]
3.9
biogenic carbon
carbon derived from biomass
[SOURCE: EN ISO 14067:2018 (3.1.7.2)]
3.10
fossil carbon
carbon that is contained in fossilized material

Note 1 to entry: Examples of fossilized material are coal, oil and natural gas and peat.[SOURCE:

EN ISO 14067:2018 (3.1.7.3)]
4 Symbols, subscripts and abbreviations
4.1 Symbols
[SOURCE: EN ISO 52000-1:2017]
For the purposes of this standard, the symbols listed in Table 2 apply.

The following text includes symbols that are not used in this document, but that are needed for overall

consistency in the EPB set of standards.
Table 2 — Symbols and units
Symbol Quantity Unit
c coefficient
various
E kW·h
energy in general
3 c
E energy carrier
kg, m , A, KW h
f factor (e.g. primary energy factor, …)
H calorific value kW∙h/kg
K CO emission coefficient kg/(kW∙h)
m mass (e.g. quantity of CO emissions) kg
N number of items (integer only) –
Q quantity of heat (kW∙h)
t time, period of time
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Symbol Quantity Unit
W (electrical) auxiliary energy (kW∙h)
X volume fraction %
X, Y any property, system, … –
η efficiency (factor)
Coefficients have dimensions; factors are dimensionless.

Including primary energy; note that for heat the symbol Q and for auxiliary energy and work the symbol W is

used.
The unit depends on the type of energy carrier.

Hours (h) are used as the unit of time instead of seconds when aggregating heat or energy flow (E) to quantity

of heat or energy (kW∙h).
4.2 Subscripts
[SOURCE: EN ISO 52000-1:2017]

For the purposes of this International Standard, the subscripts listed in Table 3 apply.

The following text includes subscripts that are not used in this document, but that are needed for overall

consistency in the EPB set of standards.
Table 3 — Subscripts
Subscript Term Subscript Term
an annual lat latent
aux auxiliary lf liquid fuel
avg time-average ls losses
B building m monthly
bm biomass max maximum
C cooling nren non-renewable
CO CO emission ntdel net delivered
2 2
cr energy carrier oil oil
CW cooling and DHW out output, outlet
day daily P primary energy
dc district cooling per for a period of time
del delivered Pnren non-renewable primary energy
dh district heat pr produced
dis distribution Ptot total primary energy
distant distant pv solar electricity (photovoltaic)
dhum dehumidification (system) ren renewable energy
e external seas seasonal
el electricity sf solid fuel
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Subscript Term Subscript Term
EPus all building services included in the sol solar
energy performance assessment
exp exported sto storage
gas gas sys system
gen generation T
thermal
grid from public network (grid) t calculation interval
h hourly tot total
H heating TOT
total
HC heating and cooling used used in the same calculation
interval
HCW heating, cooling and DHW V ventilation a)
HU humidification W
domestic hot water (DHW)
hum humidification (system) wd wood
HW heating and DHW we weighting
i,j,k indexes wk weekly
in input, inlet X any considered building service
L lighting
4.3 Abbreviations
For the purposes of this document, the abbreviations listed in Table 4 apply.
Table 4 — Abbreviations
Abbreviation Term
PEF Primary Energy Factor
GHG Green House Gases
GWP Global Warming Potential
5 General description of the methods and choices
5.1 Basic principles of the assessment methods
5.1.1 Primary Energy Factors (PEF)

[SOURCE: EN ISO 52000-1:2017, modified – More explanation has been added, the order of clauses has

been changed.]

For each delivered or exported energy carrier, there are three PEF (see Figure 1), related to different

energy contents of the energy carrier, to be assessed:
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a) Non-renewable PEF (f );
P;nren

The primary energy taken into account in the non-renewable PEF covers only non-renewable energy

flows required to deliver one unit of energy of the related energy carrier to the building. Therefore, the

non-renewable PEF can be less than one if the unit of energy contains also renewable energy. It covers

the whole non-renewable primary energies consumption, including those consumed by exploitation of

the renewable sources when applicable.
b) Renewable PEF (f ).
P;ren

The primary energy taken into account in the definition of renewable PEF covers only renewable energy

flows required to deliver one unit of energy to the building per energy carrier. It covers all renewable

primary energy included those consumed for the exploitation of the non-renewable sources (e.g.

renewable energy used for the production of electricity to drive an electric pump fore pumping oil

through a pipeline).
c) Total PEF (f );
P;tot
The total PEF is the sum of the non-renewable and renewable PEF.

The PEF may focus only on the in-use phase or take into account also the embedded energy used (Live

Cycle Analyses) for example to manufacture wind turbines.
— PEF for a delivered energy carrier x
The PEF for a delivered energy carrier of type x is defined as:
 p ; y ;del ; j
f 
(1)
P ; y ;del ;x
del ;x
where
x is the subscript representing the type of the energy carrier;

y is the subscript representing in turn total, non-renewable or renewable attribute;

j is the subscript accounting for different energy sources of same type y, which concurs to produce

the energy carrier.
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Key
A energy source 4 non-renewable infrastructure related energy
B upstream chain of energy supply 5 renewable infrastructure related energy
non-renewable energy to extract, refine, convert and
C inside the assessment boundary 6
transport

1 total primary energy 7 renewable energy to extract, refine, convert and transport

2 non-renewable primary energy 8 delivered non-renewable energy
3 renewable primary energy 9 delivered renewable energy

Figure 1 — PEFs for a two source (one non-renewable, the other renewable) energy carrier

— PEF for an exported energy carrier x

The PEF for an exported energy carrier x is defined as (see also EN/ISO 52000-1 Clause 9.6.6):

— the resources used to produce the exported energy. The sum of the primary energy input is divided

by the energy output (see Formula (1))

— the resources avoided by the external grid due to the export of the energy. The PEF of the exported

energy is equal to the PEF of the replaced energy (e.g. the PEF of exported PV electricity is the PEF of

the grid electricity).

The above definition applies only to the exported energy carriers through the building assessment

boundary.

The delivered energy and the related PEF can be expressed based on gross or net calorific values.

Other flows that are not represented in Figure 1 can be taken into account, such as embedded energy that

is described in the life cycle approach.
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5.1.2 C0 emission coefficient

The C0 emission coefficient shall be expressed in kg of CO per kWh of the related energy carrier. The

2 2

C0 emission coefficient can also include the equivalent emission of other greenhouse gases (e.g.

methane, water vapor). To be more precise, it should be specified by adding “equivalent” (e.g. C0 eq).

The emission factors shall be coherent with the choice of referring to gross or net calorific value.

5.1.3 Assessment boundary

To start the determination and reporting of PEF and CO emission coefficient the perimeter of the

assessment shall be set. It shall be clearly stated where the specific technical energy system ends (“inside”

– see hereafter) and where the assessment of the PEF starts (“outside” – see hereafter).

The assessment boundary is the boundary where the delivered and exported energy are measured or

calculated to assess the building energy performance. In EN ISO 52000-1, the assessment boundary

delimitates two systems:

— “inside” the assessment boundary where the energy losses and auxiliary energy are taken into

account explicitly as energy amounts. In general, the assessment boundary is related to a building or

a group of buildings and consider all building specific equipment,

NOTE 1 The GHG emissions are not related directly to the transformation process inside (e.g. the gas boiler)

but directly linked to the amount of delivered energy carriers. The CO emissions from it are assigned to the

building.

— “outside” the assessment boundary where the energy losses and auxiliary energy necessary to

deliver one unit of the energy carrier to the building are taken into account in the PEFs per energy

carrier. The PEF of delivered energy carriers shall only take into account losses and auxiliary related

to the energy carrier and exclude building specific equipment. Otherwise the PEF and CO emission

coefficient could not be applied in a coherent way to all buildings.

Therefore, the placement of the assessment boundary is important to clearly define what to take into

account in the PEF and the CO emission coefficient. Examples on possible placements of the assessment

boundary are provided in Annex B.

NOTE 2 In EN ISO 52000-1:2017, Clause 9.5.1, the assessment boundary is defined as the output of solar panels,

solar collectors or electric generation devices. By convention, no primary energy losses are counted

...

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