Safety of machinery - Anthropometric requirements for the design of workstations for industries and services (ISO/DIS 14738:2020)

Sicherheit von Maschinen - Anthropometrische Anforderungen an die Gestaltung von Arbeitsplätzen für Industrie und Dienstleistungen (ISO/DIS 14738:2020)

Diese Internationale Norm legt aus der Anwendung anthropometrischer Daten abgeleitete Grundlagen für die Gestaltung von Arbeitsplätzen fest. Sie basiert auf ergonomischen Erkenntnissen und derzeit verfügbaren anthropometrischen Maßen.
Diese Internationale Norm legt Anforderungen an die Größe des Raumes für den menschlichen Körper bei der üblichen Betätigung von Arbeitsmitteln in sitzender und stehender bzw. kombinierter Sitz- und Stehhaltung fest. Sie enthält Raumanforderungen für Instandhaltungs-, Reparatur- und Reinigungsarbeiten.
Diese Internationale Norm gibt keine speziellen Empfehlungen für Bildschirmgeräte an Maschinen. Zu diesem Zweck kann ISO 9241-5 in Verbindung mit dieser Internationale Norm angewendet werden.
Sicherheitsabstände gegen das Erreichen von Gefährdungsbereichen mit den oberen und unteren Gliedmaßen sind in ISO 13857 festgelegt.

Varnost strojev - Antropometrične zahteve za načrtovanje delovnih mest za industrijo in storitve (ISO/DIS 14738:2020)

General Information

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Technical Committee
Current Stage
4060 - Closure of enquiry - Enquiry
Due Date
08-Jul-2020
Completion Date
08-Jul-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 14738:2020
01-junij-2020
Varnost strojev - Antropometrične zahteve za načrtovanje delovnih mest za
industrijo in storitve (ISO/DIS 14738:2020)

Safety of machinery - Anthropometric requirements for the design of workstations for

industries and services (ISO/DIS 14738:2020)
Sicherheit von Maschinen - Anthropometrische Anforderungen an die Gestaltung von
Arbeitsplätzen für Industrie und Dienstleistungen (ISO/DIS 14738:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 14738
ICS:
13.110 Varnost strojev Safety of machinery
13.180 Ergonomija Ergonomics
oSIST prEN ISO 14738:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN ISO 14738:2020
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oSIST prEN ISO 14738:2020
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 14738
ISO/TC 159/SC 3 Secretariat: JISC
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2020-04-15 2020-07-08
Safety of machinery — Anthropometric requirements for
the design of workstations for industries and services
ICS: 13.180; 13.110
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 14738:2020(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2020
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oSIST prEN ISO 14738:2020
ISO/DIS 14738:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Task requirements ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Determination of main work posture ............................................................................................................................................. 3

6 Dimensional data for workstation design ................................................................................................................................. 4

7 Sitting ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.1 Working height, working surface height........................................................................................................................... 6

7.2 Seat .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.3 Calculation of sitting position .................................................................................................................................................... 9

8 Sit/Standing position ....................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.1 Sit/Standing position - measurements ...........................................................................................................................12

9 Standing position ..............................................................................................................................................................................................12

9.1 Standing - measurements ...........................................................................................................................................................14

Annex A (normative) Anthropometric data from ISO 7250-1 .................................................................................................15

Annex B (informative) Body dynamics ............................................................................................................................................................18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 3.

Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies

for voting. Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of member

bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this International Standard may be the

subject of patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard ISO 14738 was prepared by the ISO Technical Committee TC 159, Ergonomics,

Subcommittee SC 3, Anthropometry and biomechanics, in accordance with the Agreement on technical

cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

Throughout the text of this standard, read "...this European Standard..." to mean "...this International

Standard″...

Annex A forms a normative part of this International Standard. Annex B is for information only.

For the purposes of this International Standard, the CEN annex regarding fulfilment of European

Council
Directives has been removed.
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Introduction

This International Standard is part of a set of ergonomics standards relating to anthropometry.

This International Standard describes how these ergonomics principles should be applied, using

anthropometric requirements for the design of workstations in the industries (machinery) and services.

NOTE: Utility company offering services for individuals or professionals all service companies were in

2015 destined for half to companies that integrate them into their production process as consumptions

Intermediate.

This concerns: trade, transport, accommodation and catering; Information and communication,

financial and insurance activities but also scientific and technical activities, administrative and Support

Services.

In addition, it is recommended that the postures and movements that are imposed by the machinery

design are evaluated as described in ISO 11226.

This International Standard has been prepared to be a harmonized standard in the sense of the last

Machinery Directive 2006-42 CE and associated EFTA regulations.

For work and workstations involving manual handling and repetitive tasks, designers are also advised

to refer to ISO technical report TR 12295 Handling Ergonomics (an ergonomics application document

for ISO standards on manual handling, ISO 11228-1, ISO 11228-2 and ISO 11228-3) and the Evaluation

of Static Working Postures (ISO 11226).
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DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 14738:2020(E)
Safety of machinery — Anthropometric requirements for
the design of workstations for industries and services
1 Scope

This International Standard provides principles derived from the application of anthropometric data

to the design of workstations. It is based on ergonomics and currently available anthropometric

measurements.

This International Standard specifies the body's space requirements for normal operation of equipment

in sitting, sit-standing and standing positions. It includes space demands for maintenance, repairing

and cleaning work.

This International Standard does not give recommendations specifically for visual display terminal

workstations at machinery. For this purpose, ISO 9241-5 can be used in conjunction with this

International Standard.

Safety distances intended to prevent hazard zones being reached by upper and lower limbs are provided

in ISO 13857.
2 Normative references

This International Standard incorporates, by dated or undated reference, provisions from other

publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the

publications are listed thereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any

of these publications apply to this International Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment

or revision. For undated references, the latest edition of the publication referred to applies (including

amendments).

EN ISO 12100, Machine Safety - General Principles of Design - Risk Assessment and Risk Reduction

ISO 13857, Safety of machinery — Safety distances to prevent hazard zones being reached by upper and

lower limbs

ISO 7250-1, Basic human body measurements for technological design — Part 1: Body measurement

definitions and landmarks

ISO/TR 7250-2, Basic human body measurements for technological design — Part 2: Statistical summaries

of body measurements from national populations

ISO 7250-3, Basic human body measurements for technological design — Part 3: Worldwide and regional

design ranges for use in product standards

EN 1005-3, Safety of machinery - Human physical performance - Part 3: Recommended force limits for

machinery operation

EN 1005-4, Safety of machinery - Human physical performance - Part 4: Evaluation of working postures

and movements in relation to machinery
ISO 11226, Ergonomics — Evaluation of static working postures
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3 Terms and definitions
3.1 Percentile (P)

Percentiles are the values of the variable that divide the population or the continuous variable into 100

equal groups by number (1% of the population).
NOTE Are considered as normal the values situated between (P5) and (P95).
3.2 95e percentile
It is the value such that 95% of the measured values are below and 5% are above.
3.3 Raised sitting position

It is dependent on technical necessities, tasks at varying levels of work or maintaining the level of vision

to that of the people standing. It has the same comfort advantages as sitting. On the other hand, it results

in a greater difficulty in manipulating and positioning the seating medium in front of a workstation.

NOTE It increases the risk of falling by sitting or getting up, as well as the risk of tripping over the base. The

footrest can be uncomfortable when climbing/descending the seat. The passage of the legs under the worktop

should not be prevented.
3.4 Sitting Position

The sitting station, or sitting position, is a rest station of the human being, in which the body rests on

the buttocks or the back of the thighs, with the trunk vertically.
3.5 Sit-standing position

The sit-standing position is suitable for situations where it is possible to adopt a fully seated position or

a position associating the sitting and standing position. It helps to support a portion of the body weight

and facilitates the return to a standing position.
3.6 Services

A service activity is characterized mainly by the provision of technical or intellectual capacity/delivery.

Unlike an industrial activity, it cannot be described by the characteristics of a material property

acquired by the customer. The line between material and intangible goods is also tenuous.

4 Task requirements

Design of workstations at machinery shall be based on an analysis of task requirements (see EN 614-1)

including at least the following elements:
— time aspects e.g. duration of work (see ISO 11226);
— size of working area,
— size of objects to be handled;
— force demands (see EN 1005-2 and EN 1005-3);
— action demands (e.g. for feeding and/or removing items from the machinery);
— dynamic body measurements (see Annex B);
— coordination demands;
— stability demands;
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— visual demands;
— need for communication;
— need to move between workstations;
— frequency and duration of body, head and limb movements (see ISO 11226);
— the possibility for adopting different postures (see ISO 11226).

Machinery and workstations shall be designed to avoid awkward postures and movement patterns

taking into account technical and economic constraints.
5 Determination of main work posture

Prolonged work postures can be stressful and can cause muscle and joint discomfort. The most effective

way to prevent or minimize these effects is to change postures regularly.

Indeed, maintaining prolonged static postures is not recommended. It has a negative effect on blood

circulation, whereas changing postures can help to improve circulation. When blood circulation is

improved, muscles are provided with the nutrients they need, and metabolic waste products are

eliminated. In order to avoid prolonged sitting or standing postures, employees must be provided with

the opportunities to change postures whenever possible and as needed.

Adjustable seating and work surfaces are recommended wherever possible to accommodate regular

changes in posture. The operator must be able to make the changes to their posture as needed

throughout the shift, depending on their own circumstances (e.g. ease of work, tolerance to certain

positions, onset of discomfort, pre-emptively to avoid discomfort etc).

Figure 1 shows an analysis method for determining the preferred main work posture at a work station

shows how some of the different factors described in clause 3 should be considered. Figure 1 also

indicates how factors can be modified to allow a sitting posture. The design of the workstation, task

and equipment shall allow for and some movement and shifting of posture. The design should also

allow the operator to change freely between the sitting, standing and sit/standing posture during the

working day. When the designer chooses the main work posture, a risk assessment shall be performed,

following EN ISO 12100, which specifies the principles of risk assessment and reduction, relevant to the

design and use of machines, as well as incidents, accidents and risks associated with them. Sitting and

sit/standing postures are generally to be preferred and the standing postures are less recommended.

Kneeling, crouching and lying down should be avoided as working postures.

The raised sitting position is generally not recommended. In the case of equipment requires special

height, we have to consider the posture for lower limb as describe in the sitting posture (clause 7).

If performing tasks requiring low force the raised sitting position is necessary and it shall follow the

requirements of the sitting position (see clause 7).

Standing posture cannot be held all day. It is recommended to change position regularly. Some activities

require many different tasks (eg repetitive tasks in manufacturing activities with two or three

machines) and it is important to provide physiological recovery times every hour as recommended by

OCRA method (ISO 11228-3).
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Figure 1 — Analysis method for determining main preferred work posture
6 Dimensional data for workstation design

Several calculation methods, relating to the design of the workstations, are given for each working

position described in this standard. For dimensions, it is necessary to refer to the anthropometrics

dimensions based on data from static measurements and on naked people. They do not take into

account the movements of the body, the clothes and the equipment necessary for the activity as well as

the working conditions and the physical environment. Annex A provides a table of the different body

parts as it is possible to find them in ISO 7250-1 and anthropometric data in ISO 7250-3.

The dimensions given in Table 1 are based on practice, and complement the anthropometric benchmarks

specified in the cited standards. All these data are used to specify the dimensions of the workstations.

Table 1 — Allowances and additional dimensions
Height allowances(x) x - for shoes add 30 mm
x - for shoes and foot movements add 130 mm
x - for shoes and possibility to cross legs or for seat with for-
ward sloping adjustment add 130 mm
Width allowances (y) y - for movement of legs add at least 350 mm.
Depth allowances (z) z - for movements at knee height add at least 50 mm
z - for movements for the feet add at least 100 mm.

Other important dimensions - worksurface thickness as thin as possible, preferred maxi-

mum at front edge 30 mm (see clause 6.1)
- width of footrest, preferred at least 700 mm
- depth of footrest, preferred 700 mm.

For access to and use of a pedal, add pedal height plus sufficient space according to force demands

(see EN 1005-3).
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The layout of workstations shall be designed according to the body size of the target population of

operators and shall take into account:

— body size (both static and dynamic, including appropriate clothing and / or personal protective

equipment) of adults and people with special needs;

— body size and joints functional range (reach envelope, See Annex B.3 and ISO 9241-400);

— safety distances see EN ISO 13857;

— access sizes (for use, installation, adjustment, maintenance, cleaning, repair and transport).

To avoid constraining postures or movements, it is necessary that the size of workstations is compatible

with the different operators. This may involve the implementation of adjustment means for each

operator to optimize the working positions.
The design shall respect the following principles:

a) the height of use, or other functional dimension of the equipment, shall be adapted to the operator

and the type of work to be done, for example by being adjustable;

b) the type, location and seat adjustment possibilities shall be appropriate to the body size of the

operator and tasks that are performed;

c) sufficient space shall be provided for all parts of the body to allow for postures and movements

necessary to perform the task and to facilitate access and postural changes;

d) the handles and pedals of the machine shall be adapted to the functional anatomy of the hand or

foot and population sizes of operators. Handles of hand-held equipment shall be designed to ensure

that the operator is able to correctly hold the equipment, adopt good posture and perform the

expected movement;

e) control devices which are used frequently or are important (e.g. emergency controls) shall be

readily accessible and within the immediate reach of the operator when in the normal working

posture. while less frequently used controls must be within the reach envelope of the operator.

When designing a machine to be adapted to an estimated population of operators the 5th to 95th

percentile range of dimensions shall be met, at minimum. Where health and safety conditions and

other relevant demands or hazards require it, the breadth can range from the 1st to the 99th percentile

accommodation for women and men. When determining free spaces (dimensions of space for the legs,

for example), one should use the values of the 95th percentile or more for men. For reaching distance,

one should use the values of the 5th percentile or less for women. When work equipment sizes are

adjustable, the allowable range should cover the 5th to 95th percentile of the population including men

and women.

NOTE The standards ISO 15534-1 & 2 provide more complete information on using anthropometric data in

designing workspaces.

EN ISO 15537 provides principles for selecting and using test persons for testing anthropometric

aspects of industrial products and designs
7 Sitting

Sitting shall not be the only work posture accessible to the worker. The operator shall be provided with

the opportunity to change positions throughout the work shift.

Prolonged sitting posture can be stressful and can cause muscle and joint discomfort. Changing position

is an important recommendation for also sitting posture.
The advantages of the sitting posture include:
— the physiological energy cost and fatigue are reduced,
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— it provides the body with a stable support,
— it allows precision work to be done.
The disadvantages include:
— the working area is limited,
— the possibilities for applying forces are limited,

— the increased risk of restricted blood circulation, increased discomfort and intervertebral disc

pressure from prolonged sitting

Workstation dimensions shall accommodate the anthropometric variation in the user groups and the

different work tasks, e.g. by being adjustable (see EN 614-1).

The best method of fitting the workstation to the user and the task is to make both the working surface

and the seat easily adjustable.

For more information on working postures and movements relative to machinery, refer to EN 1005-4.

Leaning Backward Upright Leaning forward
Figure 2 — Examples of variations in sitting posture

To avoid discomfort caused by sitting for a long time in a fixed position the workstation design shall

allow variations in postures. This shall be done by adding sufficient allowances, (see also Annex B,

Fig B.1 and B.3), to the relevant anthropometric dimensions when calculating the space requirements

according to Table 2 and Table 3.

In order to obtain appropriate sitting postures sufficient space for free body movements shall be

provided, especially for the legs and feet (see table 3). The working area for the arms shall be within

appropriate distances according to the intended frequency and duration of movements of the body,

head and limbs. For example, the placement of loading and unloading points on a workstation shall be

selected so that operation can be carried out within the preferred working area
7.1 Working height, working surface height

Working height in this standard means the height of the hands when working, while working surface

height means the height of the supporting surface. The working height should be chosen to provide an

adequate posture for the body and at the same time fulfill visual needs. The choice is a compromise

between the need to minimize the load on the neck, arms, shoulders and back and the need to allow a

viewing distance for adequate visual control. The optimal working surface height and the slope depend

on the work task. Table 2 provides guidelines that can be used in most situations.

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Table 2 — Recommendations for working heights
Working surface
Task demands Posture Working height
height
Fine co-ordination of higher than elbow high work surface
hand- work (arm sup- height height (reducing eye
ported) combined with distance to the task)
visual monitoring in the
same working area
Active movements with Elbow flexion (90°) Elbow height working
arms, small objects surface
Support forearm
Manipulating heavy or variable, depend- Work height less than
bulky objects, ing on the size of the elbow height when
the object it is compatible with
the space for the legs;
a sit-standing seat (and
appropriately adjusted
work surface height)
provides more space

To provide sufficient space for the thighs, while allowing a suitable working height for the hands, the

thickness of the work surface material should be minimized. The minimum thickness of the work

surface depends on the strength characteristics of the material used and other technical requirements.

In practice, a 30mm thick work surface often constitutes an acceptable compromise between the need

for space and the resistance characteristics.

The work surface can be inclined or horizontal. An inclined surface is often an optimal solution: the

best angle for a sloping surface is a compromise between vision requirements, neck, back and shoulder

load and angles preventing objects from falling off the surface. An angle of about 15° is recommended

for many fine manipulation handling tasks with high vision requirements. Armrests shall be provided

where working with the arms in the raised position cannot be avoided.
7.2 Seat
The benefits of a seated workstation are:

— maintaining a suitable position with minimal muscular effort (the bends of the seat must meet the

physiological curves);
— reducing the load on the spine where the back rest can be used effectively.

The seat shall provide stable and anthropometrically appropriate support to the body in a posture,

which is appropriate to the task or activity being performed, A pivoting seat is beneficial to facilitate

safe access to the workstation.

The seat shall be easily adjustable to user-specific needs. The seat and back should be able to move

simultaneously. It is necessary to include a mechanism for achieving progressive, lockable position

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changes between reclining and full upright posture. The file shall not restrict the free movement of the

arms necessary.

The adjustment range and / or dimensions of the seats available shall be suitable for the population of

users. In most work situations, the optimal seat height of an individual is approximately the length of

the lower leg (plus shoes). A seat forward tilt is recommended for work in the leaning forward position

and can make it easier when it is not possible to reduce the thickness of the plan and work materials

that appeal to certain individuals. Seat depth should be adjustable, or slightly shorter than the buttock-

popliteal length distance of the user.
Figure 3 — Example of correct seated work posture Cash host of supermarket.
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7.3 Calculation of sitting position
Table 3 — Sitting, working area limits for arms, explanation of notations
Posture Notation Explanation of calculation
Preferred working area, height, cen-
tred on th
...

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