Safety of machinery - Anthropometric requirements for the design of workstations at machinery (ISO 14738:2002, including Cor 1:2003 and Cor 2:2005)

1 Scope
This International Standard establishes principles for deriving dimensions from anthropometric measurements and applying them to the design of workstations at non-mobile machinery. It is based on current ergonomic knowledge and anthropometric measurements.
This International Standard specifies the body's space requirements for equipment during normal operation in sitting and standing positions. This International Standard does not specifically include space demands for maintenance, repairing and cleaning work.
This International Standard does not give recommendations specifically for visual display terminal workstations at machinery. For this purpose ISO 9241-5 can be used in conjunction with this International Standard.
Situations where people are to be prevented from reaching a hazard are dealt with in ISO 13852.

Sicherheit von Maschinen - Anthropometrische Anforderungen an die Gestaltung von Maschinenarbeitsplätzen (ISO 14738:2002, einschließlich Cor 1:2003 und Cor 2:2005)

Diese Internationale Norm legt Grundlagen zur Ableitung von Abmessungen aus anthropometrischen Maßen und ihre Anwendung bei der Gestaltung stationärer Maschinenarbeitsplätze fest. Sie basiert auf dem derzeitigen Stand ergonomischer Erkenntnisse und anthropometrischer Maße.
Diese Internationale Norm legt Anforderungen an die Größe des Raumes für den menschlichen Körper bei der Betätigung von Arbeitsmitteln im Normalbetrieb in sitzender und stehender Haltung fest. Diese Internationale Norm enthält keine speziellen Raumanforderungen für Instandhaltungs-, Reparatur- und Reinigungsarbeiten.
Diese Internationale Norm gibt keine speziellen Empfehlungen für Bildschirmgeräte an Maschinen. Zu diesem Zweck kann ISO 9241-5 in Verbindung mit dieser Internationale Norm angewendet werden.
Situationen, in denen Menschen daran gehindert werden sollen, eine Gefahrenstelle zu erreichen, werden in ISO 13852 behandelt.

Sécurité des machines - Prescriptions anthropométriques relatives à la conception des postes de travail sur les machines (ISO 14738:2002, Cor 1:2003 et Cor 2:2005 inclus)

1 Domaine d'application
La présente norme internationale établit les principes des dimensions provenant des mesures anthropométriques en les appliquant à la conception des postes de travail des machines non mobiles. Elle se fonde sur les connaissances ergonomiques et les mesures anthropométriques actuelles.
La présente norme internationale spécifie les prescriptions spatiales pour le corps relatives aux équipements en utilisation normale, en positions assise et debout. La présente norme internationale ne traite pas spécifiquement des espaces nécessaires aux travaux de maintenance, de réparation et de nettoyage.
Cette norme internationale ne fournit pas de recommandations propres aux postes de travail sur écrans de visualisation des machines, pour lesquels on peut utiliser l'ISO 9241-5 conjointement à la présente norme.
Les situations dans lesquelles il est nécessaire d'éviter l'accès des zones dangereuses aux personnes sont traitées dans l'ISO 13852.

Varnost strojev - Antropometrične zahteve za načrtovanje delovnih mest pri strojih (ISO 14738:2002, vključno s popravkoma Cor 1:2003 in Cor 2:2005)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
23-Sep-2008
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
24-Sep-2008
Completion Date
24-Sep-2008

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 14738:2009
01-april-2009
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SIST EN ISO 14738:2003
SIST EN ISO 14738:2003/AC:2005

9DUQRVWVWURMHY$QWURSRPHWULþQH]DKWHYH]DQDþUWRYDQMHGHORYQLKPHVWSULVWURMLK

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Safety of machinery - Anthropometric requirements for the design of workstations at

machinery (ISO 14738:2002, including Cor 1:2003 and Cor 2:2005)
Sicherheit von Maschinen - Anthropometrische Anforderungen an die Gestaltung von

Maschinenarbeitsplätzen (ISO 14738:2002, einschließlich Cor 1:2003 und Cor 2:2005)

Sécurité des machines - Prescriptions anthropométriques relatives à la conception des

postes de travail sur les machines (ISO 14738:2002, Cor 1:2003 et Cor 2:2005 inclus)

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 14738:2008
ICS:
13.110 Varnost strojev Safety of machinery
13.180 Ergonomija Ergonomics
SIST EN ISO 14738:2009 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 14738
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
September 2008
ICS 13.110; 13.180 Supersedes EN ISO 14738:2002
English Version
Safety of machinery - Anthropometric requirements for the
design of workstations at machinery (ISO 14738:2002, including
Cor 1:2003 and Cor 2:2005)
Sécurité des machines - Prescriptions anthropométriques
relatives à la conception des postes de travail sur les
machines (ISO 14738:2002, Cor 1:2003 et Cor 2:2005
inclus)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 25 August 2008.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the

official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2008 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 14738:2008: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
EN ISO 14738:2008 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................3

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential

Requirements of EU Directive 98/37/EC ..............................................................................................4

Annex ZB (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential

Requirements of EU Directive 2006/42/EC .........................................................................................5

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
EN ISO 14738:2008 (E)
Foreword

The text of ISO 14738:2002, including Cor 1:2003 and Cor 2:2005 has been prepared by Technical

Committee ISO/TC 159 “Ergonomics” of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has

been taken over as EN ISO 14738:2008 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 122 “Ergonomics” the secretariat of

which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2009, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at

the latest by December 2009.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 14738:2002.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EC Directive(s).

For relationship with EC Directive(s), see informative Annexes ZA and ZB, which are integral parts of this

document.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 14738:2002, including Cor 1:2003 and Cor 2:2005 has been approved by CEN as a EN ISO

14738:2008 without any modification.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
EN ISO 14738:2008 (E)
Annex ZA
(informative)
Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential
Requirements of EU Directive 98/37/EC

This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission

and the European Free Trade Association to provide a means of conforming to Essential Requirements of the

New Approach Directive 98/37/EC on machinery, amended by 98/79/EC.

Once this standard is cited in the Official Journal of the European Communities under that Directive and has

been implemented as a national standard in at least one Member State, compliance with the normative

clauses of this standard given in Table ZA.1 confers, within the limits of the scope of this standard, a

presumption of conformity with the relevant Essential Requirements of that Directive and associated EFTA

regulations.

Table ZA.1 — Correspondence between this European Standard and Directive 98/37/EC,

amended by 98/79/EC

Clause(s)/sub-clause(s) of this EN Essential Requirements (ERs) Qualifying remarks/Notes

of Directive 98/37/EC, amended
by 98/79/EC
All clauses Annex I: 1.1.2.d, 3.2, 4.2.1.1, -
4.2.1.2

WARNING — Other requirements and other EU Directives may be applicable to the product(s) falling within

the scope of this standard.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
EN ISO 14738:2008 (E)
Annex ZB
(informative)
Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential
Requirements of EU Directive 2006/42/EC

This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission

and the European Free Trade Association to provide a means of conforming to Essential Requirements of the

New Approach Directive 2006/42/EC on machinery.

Once this standard is cited in the Official Journal of the European Communities under that Directive and has

been implemented as a national standard in at least one Member State, compliance with the normative

clauses of this standard given in Table ZB.1 confers, within the limits of the scope of this standard, a

presumption of conformity with the relevant Essential Requirements of that Directive and associated EFTA

regulations.

Table ZB.1 — Correspondence between this European Standard and Directive 2006/42/EC

Clause(s)/sub-clause(s) of this EN Essential Requirements (ERs) Qualifying remarks/Notes

of Directive 2006/42/EC
All clauses Annex I: 1.1.6, 1.1.7, 1.1.8, 3.2 -

WARNING — Other requirements and other EU Directives may be applicable to the product(s) falling within

the scope of this standard.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14738
First edition
2002-09-15
Safety of machinery — Anthropometric
requirements for the design of
workstations at machinery
Sécurité des machines — Prescriptions anthropométriques relatives à
la conception des postes de travail sur les machines
Reference number
ISO 14738:2002(E)
ISO 2002
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 14738:2002(E)
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ii © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 14738:2002(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 3.

Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for

voting. Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of member bodies casting

a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this International Standard may be the

subject of patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard ISO 14738 was prepared by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) in

collaboration with ISO Technical Committee TC 159, Ergonomics, Subcommittee SC 3, Anthropometry and

biomechanics, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna

Agreement).

Throughout the text of this standard, read "...this European Standard..." to mean "...this International

Standard...".

Annex A forms a normative part of this International Standard. Annex B is for information only.

For the purposes of this International Standard, the CEN annex regarding fulfilment of European Council

Directives has been removed.
© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 14738:2002(E)
Contents
Page

Foreword ....................................................................... v

Introduction ...................................................................... vi

1 Scope ..................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ......................................................... 1

3 Task requirements ........................................................... 1

4 Determination of main work posture .............................................. 2

5 Dimensional data for workstation design .......................................... 4

6 Sitting ..................................................................... 4

6.1 Working height, working surface height and slope ................................... . . . 8

6.2 Seat ....................................................................... 9

6.3 Si tti ng - measurements ........................................................ . 10

7 Raised sitting .............................................................. . 12

7.1 Rai sed si tti ng - measurements ................................................... . 14

8 Standing with support ......................................................... 15

8.1 Standing with support - measurements ............................................. . 16

9 S tanding ................................................................... 17

9.1 Standing - measurements ...................................................... . 18

Annex A (normative) Anthropometric data ............................................... 19

Annex B (informative) Body dynamics .................................................. 23

Bibliography ..................................................................... 26

iv © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 14738:2002(E)
Foreword

This document (EN ISO 14738:2002) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 122 "Ergonomics", the

secretariat of which is held by DIN, in collaboration with Technical Committee ISO/TC 159 "Ergonomics".

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or

by endorsement, at the latest by February 2003, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest

by February 2003.

This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries

are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 14738:2002(E)
Introduction

This International Standard is one of several ergonomics standards for the safety of machinery. EN 614-1 describes

the principles designers should adopt in order to take account of ergonomic factors.

This International Standard describes how these principles should be applied by using anthropometric requirements

for the design of workstations at machinery.

In addition it is recommended that the postures and movements that are imposed by the machinery design are

evaluated as described in ISO 11226 and prEN 1005-4.

This International Standard has been prepared to be a harmonized standard in the sense of the Machinery Directive

and associated EFTA regulations.
vi © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 14738:2002(E)
1 Scope

This International Standard establishes principles for deriving dimensions from anthropometric measurements and

applying them to the design of workstations at non-mobile machinery. It is based on current ergonomic knowledge

and anthropometric measurements.

This International Standard specifies the body's space requirements for equipment during normal operation in sitting

and standing positions. This International Standard does not specifically include space demands for maintenance,

repairing and cleaning work.

This International Standard does not give recommendations specifically for visual display terminal workstations at

machinery. For this purpose ISO 9241-5 can be used in conjunction with this International Standard.

Situations where people are to be prevented from reaching a hazard are dealt with in ISO 13852.

2 Normative references

This European Standard incorporates, by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. These

normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed hereafter. For

dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this European

Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references, the latest edition of the

publication referred to applies (including amendments).
ISO 13852

Safety of machinery - Safety distances to prevent danger zones being reached by the upper limbs

ISO 15534-3
Ergonomic design for the safety of machinery - Part 3: Anthropometric data
ISO 7250 : 1996
Basic human body measurements for technological design
3 Task requirements

Design of workstations at machinery shall be based on an analysis of task requirements (see EN 614-1 and

EN 614-2) including at least the following elements:

- time aspects e.g. duration of work at the machinery (see ISO 11226 and prEN 1005-4);

- size of working area;
- size of objects to be handled;
- force demands (see prEN 1005-2 and prEN 1005-3);
- action demands (e.g. for feeding and/or removing items from the machinery);
© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 14738:2002(E)
- dynamic body measurements (see Annex B);
- co-ordination demands;
- stability demands;
- visual demands;
- need for communication;

- frequency and duration of body, head and limb movements (see ISO 11226 and prEN 1005-4);

- need to move between workstations;

- the possibility for adopting different postures (see also ISO 11226 and prEN 1005-4).

Machinery and workstations shall be designed to ensure the best postures and movement patterns taking into

account technical and economic constraints.
4 Determination of main work posture

Figure 1 shows an analysis method for determining the main work posture at a machine and shows how some of

the different factors described in clause 3 should be used. The design of the machine, workstation, task and

equipment shall encourage a certain amount of movement and shifting of posture. The design should also allow the

operator to change freely between the sitting and standing posture during the working day. When the designer

chooses the main work posture, sitting is generally to be preferred. The standing postures are less recommended.

Kneeling, crowling and lying down should be avoided as working postures. Figure 1 also indicates how factors can

be modified to allow a sitting posture.
2 © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14738:2002(E)
Figure 1 - Analysis method for determining main work posture
© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 14738:2002(E)
5 Dimensional data for workstation design

For each working posture described in this International Standard several dimensions for workstation design are

given. These dimensions are based on anthropometric data. The anthropometric data originate from static

measurements of nude persons and do not take into account body movements, clothing, equipment, machinery

operating conditions or environmental conditions.

Annex A, table A.1, gives the human body measurements necessary to calculate the dimensions of workstations

taking account of the known range of body sizes within Europe. Table A.2 is provided to allow the incorporation of

anthropometric data from other regional areas of the world (for example from East Asia, South East Asia and North

America). The notations used in this International Standard and its annexes are common to ISO 15534 Parts 1 to

3. Physical dimensions associated with the workstation are denoted by the capital letters A, B, C etc. in tables 4 to

8. These tables give dimensions calculated from human body measurements for European countries. Anthropometric

measurements are denoted by lower case letters with indices. When a specific percentile of a body measurement

is referred to, this is denoted by the actual percent figure preceeded by the letter 'P' within brackets after the index

(e.g. a (P5) denotes the 5th percentile of body measurement a , shoulder breadth).

2 2

The dimensions given in table 1 are based on practical experience, and supplement the anthropometric measure-

ments specified in Annex A. Together these data are used to specify the dimensions for the workstations at

machinery.

The dimensions calculated will be the minimum for clearance dimensions and the maximum for reach dimensions.

Wherever possible, the dimensions for clearance should be increased and the dimensions for reach should be

decreased.
Table 1 - Allowances and additional dimensions
Height allowances (x) ) x - for shoes add 30 mm
x - for shoes and foot movements add 130 mm
x - for shoes and possibility to cross legs or for seat
with forward sloping adjustment add 130 mm
Width allowances (y) y - for movement of legs add at least 350 mm.
Depth allowances (z) z - for movements at knee height add at least 50 mm
z - for movements for the feet add at least 100 mm.
- worksurface thickness as thin as possible, preferred
Other dimensions which are of
maximum at front edge 30 mm (see clause 6.1)
importance:
- width of footrest, preferred at least 700 mm
- depth of footrest, preferred 700 mm.

) For access to and use of pedal add pedal height plus sufficient space according to force

demands see prEN 1005-3.

Annex B provides additional information on body movements and associated space requirements.

6 Sitting
The advantages of the sitting posture include:
- the physiological energy cost and fatigue are reduced,
- it provides the body with a stable support,
- it allows precision work to be done.
4 © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14738:2002(E)
The disadvantages include:
- the working area is limited,
- the possibilities for applying forces are limited,
- the possible risk of being constrained in a fixed posture for a long time.

Workstation dimensions shall accommodate the anthropometric variation in the user groups and the different work

tasks, e.g. by being adjustable (see EN 614-1).

The best method of fitting the workstation to the user and the task is to make both the working surface and the seat

easily adjustable.
Figure 2 - Examples of variations in sitting posture

In order to avoid discomfort caused by sitting for a long time in a fixed position the workstation design shall allow

variations in postures. This shall be done by adding sufficient allowances, as given in clause 5 (see also Annex B),

to the relevant anthropometric dimensions when calculating the space requirements according to tables 4 and 5.

Figure 2 shows variations in sitting postures ranging from slightly leaning backward to slightly leaning forward and

illustrates how movements of the legs and upper body are interdependent.

In order to obtain appropriate sitting postures sufficient space for free body movements shall be provided, especially

for the legs and feet. The working area for the arms shall be within appropriate distances according to the intended

frequency and duration of movements of the body, head and limbs. For example, the placement of loading and

unloading points on a machine shall be selected so that operation can be carried out in the preferred working area.

Account shall also be taken of the visual demands of the tasks which affect the position and movement of the head

and body. The need for additional space for associated body movements should be assessed, tables 2 and 3 give

information on the angles of movement of the head and body when seated. The influence of body movement on the

effective field of vision is also shown (see also Annex B).

The angles a, b, g and d shown in tables 2 and 3 are guidelines for use in design. However, the actual values are

highly variable and certain populations, e.g. younger or older people may have, respectively, much enlarged or

restricted abilities to move parts of the body. Wearing spectacles or personal protective equipment, which restrict the

field of vision, can increase the need for body movement. Factors, such as frequency and duration will also affect

the acceptability of such movements (see also ISO 9355-2, ISO 11226 and prEN 1005-4).

© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 14738:2002(E)
Table 2 - Horizontal working areas taking account of eye, head and body movement
Posture Notation Value Explanation of measurement
a30a = field of vision for frequent
handling and observation without
requiring head and body movement
(see ISO 9355-2 for further informa-
tion)
a30a = field of vision (eye movements)
b = head movement angle (left)
b40
a/2 + b = field of vision (left) for oc-
55 casional handling and observation
with head movement but without re-
quiring body movement.
a30a = field of vision (eye movements)
b40°b = head movement angle (left)
g55°g = angle for extended head and
body movement (left)
110a/2+b+g = field of vision (left) only
for occasional observation and light
handling where turning the head and
body is permissible.
Such postures should not be
maintained for any length of time.

NOTE 1: Only movement to the left is shown. Movements to the right are symmetrical.

NOTE 2: According to table 4, the working areas are designated by curved lines.
6 © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 18 ----------------------
ISO 14738:2002(E)
Table 3 - Vertical working areas taking account of eye, head and body movement
Posture Notation Value Explanation of measurement
a30a = field of vision for frequent hand-
ling and observation without requiring
head and body movement (see
ISO 9355-2 for further information)
a30a = field of vision (eye movements)
b30b = head movement angle without
downward body movement
60°a+b = field of vision for handling and
visual detection where
downward head movement is permis-
sible
a30a = field of vision (eye movements)
b = head movement angle without
b30 downward body movement
g = angle for extended head move-
g30° ment or head and body movement
(downwards)
a+b+g = field of vision only for
90° occasional handling and observation
where downward head and body
movement is permissible
d90°d = field of vision upwards, only for
occasional handling and observation
where head and body movement is
permissible
Such postures should not be maintained
for any length of time.
NOTE: According to table 4, the working areas are designated by curved lines.
© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 14738:2002(E)
6.1 Working height, working surface height and slope

When working on objects or on other devices there can be a certain difference between the working height and the

working surface height. Working height in this standard means the height of the hands when working, while working

surface height means the height of the supporting level. The working height should be chosen to provide an

adequate posture for the body and at the same time fulfil visual needs. The choice is a compromise between

demands on low load on the neck, arms, shoulders and back and demands on viewing distance for adequate visual

control. The optimal working surface height and the slope depend on the work task. The figure 3 provides guidelines

that can be used in most situations.
Task demands Posture Working height Working surface
height
Fine co-ordination of hand- higher than elbow high working surface
work (arm supported) com- height possible
bined with visual monitoring in
the same working area
Active movements with arms, at elbow height surface at elbow
small objects height
Handling of large, but not variable, depen- surface below elbow
excessively bulky or heavy ding on the size height if compatible
objects of the object with space for legs; a
forward sloping seat
can provide more
space
Figure 3 - Recommendations for working heights

In order to provide sufficient clearance for the thighs while allowing a good working height for the hands the working

surface should be as thin as possible; this is a prerequisite for users to achieve good working postures. The

minimum thickness of the surface will depend on the strength characteristics of the material used and other technical

demands. In practice a 30 mm thick surface will often provide an acceptable compromise between the space needs

and the strength characteristics.
8 © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14738:2002(E)

The working surface may be sloping or horizontal. The most appropriate angle for a sloping surface is a compromise

between the visual demands, the imposed loading on the neck, back and shoulders and an angle where the objects

still remain on the surface. An angle of about 15° is recommended for many fine manipulative tasks with high visual

demands.
Continuous work with raised upper arms should
...

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