Semiconductor devices - Part 18-1: Semiconductor bio sensors - Test method and data analysis for calibration of lens-free CMOS photonic array sensors

IEC 60747-18-1:2019 (E) specifies the test methods and data analysis for the calibration of lens-free CMOS photonic array sensors. This document includes the test conditions of each process, configuration of lens-free CMOS photonic array sensors, statistical analysis of test data, calibration for planarization and linearity, and test reports.

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Status
Published
Publication Date
19-May-2019
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
20-May-2019
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IEC 60747-18-1
Edition 1.0 2019-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Semiconductor devices –
Part 18-1: Semiconductor bio sensors – Test method and data analysis for
calibration of lens-free CMOS photonic array sensors
IEC 60747-18-1:2019-05(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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IEC 60747-18-1
Edition 1.0 2019-05
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Semiconductor devices –
Part 18-1: Semiconductor bio sensors – Test method and data analysis for
calibration of lens-free CMOS photonic array sensors
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 31.080.99 ISBN 978-2-8322-6909-1

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 60747-18-1:2019 © IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

4 Measurement setup ......................................................................................................... 9

4.1 General ................................................................................................................... 9

4.2 Measurement system .............................................................................................. 9

4.2.1 Overall system ................................................................................................. 9

4.2.2 Dark box ........................................................................................................ 11

4.2.3 Light source ................................................................................................... 11

4.2.4 Sensor board ................................................................................................. 11

4.2.5 Configuration parameters .............................................................................. 12

5 Measurement ................................................................................................................. 12

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 12

5.2 Case 1: Fixed wavelength (λ) of light .................................................................... 12

5.2.1 Planarization: At fixed λ and incident light intensity ........................................ 12

5.2.2 Linearity: Varying the incident light intensity with a fixed wavelength ............. 14

5.3 Case 2: Various wavelength (λ) of light ................................................................. 14

6 Data analysis ................................................................................................................. 14

6.1 Data plot ............................................................................................................... 14

6.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 14

6.1.2 Sensor screening ........................................................................................... 16

6.2 Planarization characteristics ................................................................................. 16

6.2.1 Criterion of determining the reference pixel ................................................... 16

6.2.2 Lookup table of representative value for planarization calibration of

each pixel ...................................................................................................... 17

6.3 Linearity ................................................................................................................ 17

6.3.1 Criterion of linear region of each pixel ........................................................... 17

6.3.2 Criterion of light intensity effective area for linearity....................................... 18

6.3.3 Lookup table of the representative value for linearity calibration of each

pixel .............................................................................................................. 18

7 Calibration ..................................................................................................................... 19

7.1 Calibration lookup table ........................................................................................ 19

7.2 Reference for establishing the representative output value in the effective

area ...................................................................................................................... 20

8 Test report ..................................................................................................................... 21

Annex A (informative) Test report ........................................................................................ 23

Test environment specification .............................................................................. 23

Specification of CMOS photonic array sensor ....................................................... 24

A.3 Calibration lookup table ........................................................................................ 24

Representative value look up table for planarization calibration of the sensor ....... 24

Representative value look up table for linearity calibration of the sensor ............... 25

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 26

Figure 1 – Example of box plot................................................................................................ 9

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IEC 60747-18-1:2019 © IEC 2019 – 3 –

Figure 2 – Example of measurement system with integrating sphere ..................................... 10

Figure 3 – Example of measurement system with incident parallel light ................................. 10

Figure 4 – Example of photoelectric measurement schematic ............................................... 11

Figure 5 – Measurement flow ................................................................................................ 12

Figure 6 – n trial data of frame capture ................................................................................. 13

Figure 7 – Two frame subtracted data ................................................................................... 13

Figure 8 – Dark frame subtracted data .................................................................................. 14

Figure 9 – Example of output electric signal non-linearity of 2D pixel array ........................... 15

Figure 10 – Example of output electric signal non-linearity of one row of pixels .................... 15

Figure 11 – Example of one pixel’s output electric signal according to input light power ........ 16

Figure 12 – Example of determining the reference pixel ........................................................ 17

Figure 13 – Example of the representative value for planarization ......................................... 17

Figure 14 – Example of light intensity effective area for linearity ........................................... 18

Figure 15 – Example of the representative value for linearity ................................................ 19

Figure 16 – Example of a simplified pixel structure and cross-sectional view with bio

reaction ................................................................................................................................ 19

Figure 17 – Example of the representative value of the sensor ............................................. 21

Table 1 – Calibration lookup table ......................................................................................... 20

Table 2 – Representative value table of the sensor ............................................................... 21

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– 4 – IEC 60747-18-1:2019 © IEC 2019
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
Part 18-1: Semiconductor bio sensors – Test method and data analysis
for calibration of lens-free CMOS photonic array sensors
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60747-18-1 has been prepared by subcommittee 47E: Discrete

semiconductor devices, of IEC technical committee 47: Semiconductor devices.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
47E/643A/FDIS 47E/657/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 60747-18-1:2019 © IEC 2019 – 5 –

A list of all parts of the IEC 60747 series, published under the general title Semiconductor

devices, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates that it

contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding of its

contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 60747-18-1:2019 © IEC 2019
INTRODUCTION

The IEC 60747-18 series on semiconductor bio sensors is expected to be composed of the

following parts:

• IEC 60747-18-1 defines the test method and data analysis for calibration of lens-free

CMOS photonic array sensor

• IEC 60747-18-2 defines the evaluation process of lens-free CMOS photonic array sensor

package module

• IEC 60747-18-3 defines the fluid flow characteristics of lens-free CMOS photonic array

sensor package module with fluidic system

The IEC 60747-18 series includes subjects such as noise analysis, long-term reliability tests,

test methods for lens-free CMOS photonic array sensor package module under patchable

environments, test methods under implantable environments, etc.

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) draws attention to the fact that it is

claimed that compliance with this document may involve the use of patents given in several

subclauses as indicated in the table below. These patents are held by their respective

inventors under license to SOL Inc.:
The method of calibration of photon sensor pixel Subclauses 5.1, 5.2.1,
KR1020150081134 [SOL]
array by evaluating its characteristic 5.2.2, 5.3, 7.1
PCT/KR2016/006109
Subclauses 5.1, 5.2.1,
METHOD FOR CORRECTING OPTICAL SENSOR
5.2.2, 5.3, 7.1
[SOL] ARRAY MODULE THROUGH CHARACTERISTIC
US15/577586
EVALUATION
Clause 6
JP2017562062

IEC takes no position concerning the evidence, validity and scope of this patent right.

The holder of this patent right has assured the IEC that he/she is willing to negotiate licences

under reasonable and non-discriminatory terms and conditions with applicants throughout the

world. In this respect, the statement of the holder of this patent right is registered with IEC.

Information may be obtained from:
SOL Inc.
H Business Park
C1010, 26, Beobwon-ro 9-gil, SongPa-Gu
Seoul 05838
Republic of Korea

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the

subject of patent rights other than those identified above. IEC shall not be held responsible for

identifying any or all such patent rights.
—————————
Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: IEC/PRVC 60747-18-2:2019.
Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: IEC/PRVC 60747-18-3:2019.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 60747-18-1:2019 © IEC 2019 – 7 –

ISO (www.iso.org/patents) and IEC (http://patents.iec.ch) maintain on-line data bases of

patents relevant to their standards. Users are encouraged to consult the data bases for the

most up to date information concerning patents.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 60747-18-1:2019 © IEC 2019
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES –
Part 18-1: Semiconductor bio sensors – Test method and data analysis
for calibration of lens-free CMOS photonic array sensors
1 Scope

This part of IEC 60747 specifies the test methods and data analysis for the calibration of lens-

free CMOS photonic array sensors. This document includes the test conditions of each

process, configuration of lens-free CMOS photonic array sensors, statistical analysis of test

data, calibration for planarization and linearity, and test reports.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
lens-free CMOS photonic array sensor

semiconductor-based optical detector or sensor whose sensing elements are arrayed in a

two-dimensional way and integrated with processing circuits on a chip

Note 1 to entry: Lens-free CMOS photonic array sensors are extensively utilized in bio diagnostic devices,

healthcare devices, lens-free microscopes, and patchable/implantable medical devices.

Note 2 to entry: The sensing environments of such a lens-free CMOS photonic array sensor are typically different

from those of general-purpose image sensors which are normally mounted with an external lens in module

housings.
3.2
quantum efficiency

ratio of the number of elementary events (such as release of an electron) contributing to the

detector output, to the number of incident photons

Note 1 to entry: QE is the ability of a semiconductor to produce electron from incident photons.

Note 2 to entry: QE in general depends on the wavelength of the incident photon and can be obtained from

spectral responsivity and conversion gain of the sensor.

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-845:1987, 845-05-67, modified – The abbreviated term and the notes

to entry have been added.]
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IEC 60747-18-1:2019 © IEC 2019 – 9 –
3.3
linearity

ability of a pixel of an array sensor to provide an output having a linear relationship with an

input light power
3.4
box plot

graphically depicting group of numerical data through their quartiles Q1, Q2, and Q3

SEE: Figure 1.

Note 1 to entry: In this document, the noise RMS (root mean square) and average signal are added. The average

signal is different from the median value, which is real measured data, whereas the average is calculated. Noise

RMS is the root mean square value of the difference between the incident signal and average signal.

Max
Whisker
Average + noise RMS
Average
Box
Median (Q2)
Whisker
Min
IEC
Figure 1 – Example of box plot
4 Measurement setup
4.1 General

Input factors and environmental factors affecting sensor performance are: (1) input

component: light power (wavelength, intensity, incident angle, polarization) and its

two-dimensional distribution as well as stability over time; electric inputs (drive pulses, bias

voltages, etc.); and (2) environmental factor: temperature. The evaluation environment

provides a method that allows us to control these factors and to obtain numerical results with

the necessary accuracy. The performance of the lens-free CMOS photonic array sensor

depends on the resolution, pixel size, pixel type, fill factor, quantum efficiency, conversion

gain, sensitivity, saturation level, dynamic range, image lag, black level, dark signal, temporal

noise, fixed-pattern noise, cross talk, etc. Clause A.1 and Clause A.2 show the required

parameters.
4.2 Measurement system
4.2.1 Overall system

All tests shall be performed under well certified and defined conditions to avoid any external

disturbances. Basic measurement setup schematics are depicted in Figure 2 or Figure 3.

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– 10 – IEC 60747-18-1:2019 © IEC 2019
Light source
Sensor board
Jig
Jig for alignment of sensor's position
- x, y, z, azimuth, rotation
Integrating sphere
Source
Light
source
Baffle
Sensor θ
Detection
Sensor
plane
(pixel)
Incident light Sensor board
- Wavelength - Temperature
- Intensity - Clocks
Dark box
- Biases
- Incident angle
- Two-dimensional distribution
- Temporal variation
- Polarization
IEC
Figure 2 – Example of measurement system with integrating sphere
Light source
Sensor board
Jig
Jig for alignment of sensor's position
- x, y, z, azimuth, rotation
Parallel light
Light
source
Sensor θ
Sensor
(pixel)
Dark box
Incident light Sensor board
- Wavelength - Temperature
- Intensity - Clocks
- Incident angle - Biases
- Two-dimensional distribution
- Temporal variation
- Polarization
IEC
Figure 3 – Example of measurement system with incident parallel light
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IEC 60747-18-1:2019 © IEC 2019 – 11 –

The photoelectric characteristics of a sensor board can be measured using the measurement

setup shown in Figure 4. This measurement setup utilizes a collimated light beam. The

temperature of the sensor array is measured to calibrate the thermal effect on the array

sensor. A calibrated photonic sensor will be used to provide a reference signal for the

collimated light.
Collimated light
I =
Digital number
ADC
Signal
chain
Temperature
sensor
CMOS Photonic
array sensor
Calibrated
photonic sensor
IEC
Figure 4 – Example of photoelectric measurement schematic
4.2.2 Dark box

A dark box shall block all other light sources that may affect the sensor under test except the

certified light source for test.
4.2.3 Light source
All the light source characteristics listed below shall be specified:

– spectral characteristics of peak wavelength and spectral bandwidth for monochromatic

light; correlated colour temperature for white light;
– total radiant power and angular distribution of output beam;

– incident angle of light: default condition is perpendicular to the sensor surface;

– spatial uniformity of power in the area of the detector under test (non-uniformity shall be

less than the resolution limit of digital number output);
– temporal stability;
– polarization: un-polarized.
4.2.4 Sensor board

All the properties of photonic sensor board listed below shall be specified or defined:

– temperature;
– clocks;
– biases;

– characteristics of the light absorption film or anti-reflection coating film to block second

light sources from the original light, if applied;
p n
p n
p n
p n
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
– 12 – IEC 60747-18-1:2019 © IEC 2019
– frame capture interval of the frame capture board.
4.2.5 Configuration parameters
The configuration parameters listed below shall be specified:
– integration time;
– analogue gain;
– digital gain;
– frame rate.

NOTE 1 The integration time is usually set to multiples of flicker period under half of saturation light.

NOTE 2 The analogue gain for a value is related with noise (or measurement error).

5 Measurement
5.1 General

Each pixel of the CMOS photonic array sensor experiences noise from multiple noise sources

and there are responsivity variations between pixels in the array sensor. Therefore, multiple

measurements with the same input and environment factors should be made and these should

be statistically processed in order to cope with such noise and spatial variations in

responsivity. For the linearity test, light intensities or integration time may be the variables. All

the measurements can be done with different light sources (wavelengths). Measurement flow

may be carried out in accordance with Figure 5.
Default setup configuration
(integration time, gain, etc.)
Frame measurements for different light intensities defined
and different wavelengths defined
Sensor screening, dead pixel, extraordinary wide
distribution of box plot, etc.
Planarization calibration
Linearity calibration
Establishing representative output value in effective area
IEC
Figure 5 – Measurement flow
5.2 Case 1: Fixed wavelength (λ) of light
5.2.1 Planarization: At fixed λ and incident light intensity
5.2.1.1 General

At a fixed wavelength and light intensity, the frame measurement shall be carried out

according to the three sequential steps described in 5.2.1.2 to 5.2.1.4.
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IEC 60747-18-1:2019 © IEC 2019 – 13 –
5.2.1.2 Step 1: n trial of frame capture

The data of a single frame is measured and the same measurement is repeated n times to get

the statistics of the frame shown in Figure 6.
Frame 1
Frame 2
Frame 3
Frame n–1
Frame n
σ (pixel (i, j) , pixel (i, j) , …, pixel (i, j) )
1 2 n
n trial
Ex.) n: 30 frame ∼ 100 frame
IEC
Figure 6 – n trial data of frame capture
5.2.1.3 Step 2: Subtraction of the two continual frame data

As shown in Figure 7, the differences between the current frame data and the previous frame

data are collected and the differences between the data and delta are stored to get the

statistics (the data reduction) for extracting random signals, excluding fixed signals, especially

fixed pattern noise.
Frame a Frame a+1
(= Subtracted value)
Frame 1
Frame 2
Frame 3
σ (pixel (1, 1), …, pixel (i, j))
Frame n–1
Frame n
∆ (= Subtracted value)
1-2
2-3
σ (pixel (i, j) , pixel (i, j) , …, pixel (i, j) )
1 2 n
n/2 trial
(n–1)-n
Ex.) n: 30 frame ∼ 100 frame
IEC
Figure 7 – Two frame subtracted data
5.2.1.4 Step 3: Subtraction of dark frame data (dark offset calibrated data)

As shown in Figure 8, the dark frame data without illumination and the frame data with light

are measured to remove the dark (offset) noise and these data are stored to collect statistical

information on the illuminated response or photon response of each pixel.
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
– 14 – IEC 60747-18-1:2019 © IEC 2019
Illuminated frame Dark frame Subtracted value
(n trial average) (Illuminated response)
σ (pixel (1, 1), …, pixel (i, j))
IEC
Figure 8 – Dark frame subtracted data
5.2.2 Linearity: Varying the incident light intensity with a fixed wavelength

The measurement explained in 5.2.1 shall be repeated by varying the incident light amount

while the wavelength (λ) and the integration time are fixed.

Alternatively, the measurement explained in 5.2.1 shall be repeated by varying the integration

time while the wavelength and the incident light intensity are fixed. Varying the integration

time has the benefit of exact time control according to the clock at a cost of increased dark

noise. The incremental step of the input light intensity is possibly smaller than the minimum

incremental unit of the output signal in order to obtain more prec
...

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