Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes - Safety requirements for secondary lithium batteries for use in road vehicles not for the propulsion

IEC 63057:2020 specifies safety tests and requirements for secondary lithium batteries permanently installed in road vehicles not for the propulsion. Replacement secondary batteries permanently installed in road vehicles not for propulsion are covered by this document.
The following are typical applications that utilize the batteries under the scope of this document: a power source for the starting of internal combustion engines, lighting, on-board auxiliary equipment, and energy absorption for regeneration from braking.
This document applies to batteries with a maximum voltage less than or equal to 60 V DC.
The batteries primarily used for propulsion of electric vehicles (EVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are not covered by this document.

Accumulateurs alcalins et autres accumulateurs à électrolyte non acide - Exigences de sécurité pour les batteries d’accumulateurs au lithium destinées à être utilisées dans les véhicules routiers, mais non destinées à la propulsion

L'IEC 63057:2020 spécifie des essais et des exigences de sécurité pour les batteries d'accumulateurs au lithium installées de façon permanente dans les véhicules routiers, mais non destinées à la propulsion. Les batteries d'accumulateurs de remplacement installées de façon permanente dans les véhicules routiers, mais non destinées à la propulsion sont traitées par le présent document.
Les applications suivantes sont des applications types qui utilisent les batteries relevant du domaine d'application du présent document: source électrique dédiée au démarrage des moteurs à combustion interne, éclairage, matériel auxiliaire embarqué et source d'absorption d'énergie pour la récupération par freinage.
Le présent document s'applique aux batteries dont la tension continue maximale est inférieure ou égale à 60 V.
Les batteries utilisées principalement pour la propulsion des véhicules électriques (EV – electric vehicles) y compris les véhicules électriques à batterie (BEV – battery electric vehicles), les véhicules électriques hybrides (HEV – hybrid electric vehicles), et les véhicules électriques hybrides rechargeables (PHEV – plug-in hybrid electric vehicles) ne sont pas traitées par le présent document.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Jan-2020
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
10-Jan-2020
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IEC 63057
Edition 1.0 2020-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid
electrolytes – Safety requirements for secondary lithium batteries for use
in road vehicles not for the propulsion
Accumulateurs alcalins et autres accumulateurs à électrolyte non acide –
Exigences de sécurité pour les batteries d'accumulateurs au lithium destinées
à être utilisées dans les véhicules routiers, mais non destinées à la propulsion
IEC 63057:2020-01(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 63057
Edition 1.0 2020-01
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid
electrolytes – Safety requirements for secondary lithium batteries for use
in road vehicles not for the propulsion
Accumulateurs alcalins et autres accumulateurs à électrolyte non acide –
Exigences de sécurité pour les batteries d'accumulateurs au lithium destinées
à être utilisées dans les véhicules routiers, mais non destinées à la propulsion
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.220.30 ISBN 978-2-8322-7733-1

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 63057:2020 © IEC 2020
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 Parameter measurement tolerances ................................................................................ 8

5 General safety considerations ......................................................................................... 9

5.1 General ................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Insulation and wiring ............................................................................................... 9

5.3 Venting ................................................................................................................... 9

5.4 Temperature/voltage/current ................................................................................... 9

5.5 Terminal contacts of the battery ............................................................................ 10

5.6 Assembly of battery .............................................................................................. 10

5.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 10

5.6.2 Battery design ............................................................................................... 10

5.7 Requirements for the BMS .................................................................................... 10

5.8 Operating region of lithium cells and battery for safe use ...................................... 11

5.9 Quality plan .......................................................................................................... 11

6 Type test conditions ...................................................................................................... 11

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 11

6.2 Test items ............................................................................................................. 12

7 Specific requirements and tests ..................................................................................... 12

7.1 Specific requirements and tests for automotive battery ......................................... 12

7.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 12

7.1.2 Charging procedure for test purposes ............................................................ 12

7.1.3 Mechanical shock [intended use] ................................................................... 12

7.1.4 Vibration [intended use] ................................................................................. 13

7.1.5 Thermal cycling [intended use] ...................................................................... 13

7.1.6 Overcharge [reasonably foreseeable misuse] ................................................ 14

7.1.7 Overdischarge [reasonably foreseeable misuse] ............................................ 14

7.1.8 External short-circuit [reasonably foreseeable misuse] .................................. 15

7.1.9 Drop [reasonably foreseeable misuse] ........................................................... 15

7.1.10 Thermal abuse [reasonably foreseeable misuse] ........................................... 15

7.1.11 Crush [reasonably foreseeable misuse] ......................................................... 16

7.2 Specific requirements and tests for moped and motorcycle battery ....................... 16

7.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 16

7.2.2 Charging procedure for test purposes ............................................................ 16

7.2.3 Mechanical shock [intended use] ................................................................... 17

7.2.4 Vibration [intended use] ................................................................................. 17

7.2.5 Thermal cycling [intended use] ...................................................................... 18

7.2.6 Overcharge [reasonably foreseeable misuse] ................................................ 18

7.2.7 Overdischarge [reasonably foreseeable misuse] ............................................ 19

7.2.8 External short-circuit [reasonably foreseeable misuse] .................................. 19

7.2.9 Drop [reasonably foreseeable misuse] ........................................................... 20

7.2.10 Thermal abuse [reasonably foreseeable misuse] ........................................... 20

8 Information for safety ..................................................................................................... 20

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 21

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 63057:2020 © IEC 2020 – 3 –

Figure 1 – Examples of BMS locations and battery configurations ......................................... 11

Figure 2 – Dimensions of the crush plate .............................................................................. 16

Table 1 – Type tests ............................................................................................................. 12

Table 2 – Mechanical shock test – parameters ...................................................................... 13

Table 3 – Frequency and acceleration .................................................................................. 13

Table 4 – Mechanical shock test – parameters (gross mass of the battery less

than 12 kg) ........................................................................................................................... 17

Table 5 – Mechanical shock test – parameters (gross mass of the battery of 12 kg or

more) .................................................................................................................................... 17

Table 6 – Frequency and acceleration (gross mass of the battery less than 12 kg) .............. 18

Table 7 – Frequency and acceleration (gross mass of the battery of 12 kg or more) ............ 18

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 63057:2020 © IEC 2020
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SECONDARY CELLS AND BATTERIES CONTAINING ALKALINE
OR OTHER NON-ACID ELECTROLYTES –
SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR SECONDARY LITHIUM
BATTERIES FOR USE IN ROAD VEHICLES
NOT FOR THE PROPULSION
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as "IEC

Publication(s)"). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

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3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

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Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

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4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

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between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

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5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 63057 has been prepared by subcommittee 21A: Secondary cells

and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes, of IEC technical committee 21:

Secondary cells and batteries.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
21A/715/FDIS 21A/719/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 63057:2020 © IEC 2020 – 5 –

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 63057:2020 © IEC 2020
SECONDARY CELLS AND BATTERIES CONTAINING ALKALINE
OR OTHER NON-ACID ELECTROLYTES –
SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR SECONDARY LITHIUM
BATTERIES FOR USE IN ROAD VEHICLES
NOT FOR THE PROPULSION
1 Scope

This document specifies safety tests and requirements for secondary lithium batteries

permanently installed in road vehicles not for the propulsion. Replacement secondary

batteries permanently installed in road vehicles not for propulsion are covered by this

document.

The following are typical applications that utilize the batteries under the scope of this

document: a power source for the starting of internal combustion engines, lighting, on-board

auxiliary equipment, and energy absorption for regeneration from braking.

This document applies to batteries with a maximum voltage less than or equal to 60 V DC.

The batteries primarily used for propulsion of electric vehicles (EVs), including battery electric

vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)

are not covered by this document.
NOTE Testing on cell level is specified in IEC 62619.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

IEC 60050-482, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Part 482: Primary and

secondary cells and batteries (available at http://www.electropedia.org/)

IEC 62619:2017, Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid

electrolytes – Safety requirements for secondary lithium cells and batteries, for use in

industrial applications
ISO/IEC Guide 51, Safety aspects – Guidelines for their inclusion in standards
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60050-482,

ISO/IEC Guide 51 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 63057:2020 © IEC 2020 – 7 –
3.1
battery
unit comprising one or more cells, modules and a battery management system
3.2
battery management system
BMS

set of protection functions associated with a battery to prevent overcharge, overcurrent, over

temperature, under temperature and if applicable overdischarge

Note 1 to entry: The function of the BMS can be assigned to the battery or to the vehicle that uses the battery.

See Figure 1.

Note 2 to entry: The BMS can be divided and it can be found partially in the battery and partially on the

equipment that uses the battery. See Figure 1.

Note 3 to entry: The BMS is sometimes also referred to as a BMU (battery management unit).

Note 4 to entry: This term applies to the French language only.
3.3
cell

secondary cell where electrical energy is derived from the insertion or extraction reactions of

lithium ions or oxidation/reduction reaction of lithium between the negative electrode and the

positive electrode

Note 1 to entry: The cell typically has an electrolyte that consists of a lithium salt and organic solvent compound

in liquid, gel or solid form and has a metal or a laminate film casing. It is not ready for use in an application

because it is not yet fitted with its final housing, terminal arrangement and electronic control device.

3.4
cell block

group of cells connected together in parallel configuration with or without protective devices

(e.g. fuse or positive temperature coefficient device) and monitoring circuitry

Note 1 to entry: It is not ready for use in an application because it is not yet fitted with its final housing, terminal

arrangement and electronic control device.
3.5
explosion

failure that occurs when a battery case opens violently, and solid components are forcibly

expelled
Note 1 to entry: Liquid, gas, and smoke can be erupted.
3.6
final voltage

specified closed circuit voltage at which the discharge of a battery is terminated

Note 1 to entry: The final voltage should be declared by the battery manufacturer.

3.7
fire
emission of flames from a battery
3.8
harm

physical injury or damage to the health of people or damage to property or to the environment

3.9
hazard
potential source of harm
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 63057:2020 © IEC 2020
3.10
intended use

use of a product, process or service in accordance with specifications, instructions and

information provided by the battery manufacturer
3.11
leakage
visible escape of liquid electrolyte
3.12
module

group of cells connected together in a series and/or parallel configuration with or without

protective devices (e.g. fuse or positive temperature coefficient device) and monitoring

circuitry
3.13
rated capacity

capacity value of a battery determined under specified conditions and declared by the battery

manufacturer

Note 1 to entry: The rated capacity is the quantity of electricity Cn Ah (ampere-hours) declared by the battery

manufacturer which a battery can deliver during an n h period when charging, storing and discharging under the

conditions specified in IEC 62620:2014, 6.3.1.
3.14
reasonably foreseeable misuse

use of a product, process or service in a way which is not intended by the battery

manufacturer, but which can result from readily predictable human behaviour
3.15
risk

combination of the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that harm

3.16
rupture

mechanical failure of a cell container or battery case induced by an internal or external cause,

resulting in exposure or spillage but not ejection of materials
3.17
safety
freedom from unacceptable risk
3.18
venting

release of excessive internal pressure from a cell, module, or battery in a manner intended by

design to preclude rupture or explosion
4 Parameter measurement tolerances

The overall accuracy of controlled or measured values, relative to the specified or actual

values, shall be within the following tolerances unless otherwise noted in the individual test

procedure:
a) ±0,5 % for voltage;
b) ±1 % for current;
c) ±2 °C for temperature;
d) ±0,1 % for time;
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC 63057:2020 © IEC 2020 – 9 –
e) ±1 % for dimensions
f) ±1 % for mass.

These tolerances comprise the combined accuracy of the measuring instruments, the

measurement techniques used, and all other sources of error in the test procedure.

The details of the instrumentation used shall be provided in any report of results.

5 General safety considerations
5.1 General

The safety of lithium secondary batteries requires the consideration of two sets of applied

conditions:
1) intended use;
2) reasonably foreseeable misuse.

Batteries shall be so designed and constructed that they are safe under conditions of both

intended use and reasonably foreseeable misuse.

It is expected that batteries subjected to misuse can fail to function. However, even if such a

situation occurs, they shall not present any significant hazards.
Potential hazards which are the subject of this document are:
a) fire,
b) explosion.

Conformity with 5.1 to 5.7 is checked by the tests of Clauses 6 and 7, and in accordance with

the appropriate standard.
5.2 Insulation and wiring

Wiring and its insulation shall be sufficient to withstand the maximum anticipated voltage,

current, and temperature requirements. The design of wiring shall be such that adequate

clearances and creepage distances are maintained between conductors. The mechanical

integrity of the battery and its connections shall be sufficient to accommodate conditions of

reasonably foreseeable misuse.
5.3 Venting

The casing of the battery shall incorporate a pressure relief function that will preclude rupture

or explosion. If encapsulation is used to support cells within an outer case, the type of

encapsulant and the method of encapsulation shall neither cause the battery to overheat

during normal operation nor inhibit pressure relief.
5.4 Temperature/voltage/current

The design of batteries shall be such that abnormal temperature-rise conditions are prevented.

The battery shall be designed within voltage, current, and temperature limitations specified by

the cell manufacturer. The battery shall be provided with specifications and charge

instructions for vehicle manufacturer or battery-charger manufacturer so that associated

chargers are designed to maintain charging within the voltage, current and temperature limits

specified.

NOTE Where necessary, means can be provided to limit current or voltage to safe levels during charging and

discharging.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC 63057:2020 © IEC 2020
5.5 Terminal contacts of the battery

Terminals shall have clear polarity marking(s) on the external surface of the battery, and the

polarity marking(s) should be located near the terminal in order to be understood easily.

The size and shape of the terminal contacts shall ensure that they can carry the maximum

anticipated current. External terminal contact surfaces shall be formed from conductive

materials with good mechanical strength and corrosion resistance. Terminal contacts shall be

arranged so as to minimize the risk of short-circuits (caused by metal tools, for example).

5.6 Assembly of battery
5.6.1 General
• The battery should have an independent control and protection method.
• The cell manufacturer shall provide recommendations about current, voltage and

temperature limits so that the battery manufacturer or designer can ensure proper design

and assembly.

• Protective circuit components should be added as appropriate, and consideration given to

the vehicle.
5.6.2 Battery design

The voltage control function of the battery design shall ensure that the voltage of each cell or

cell block shall not exceed the upper limit of the charging voltage specified by the cell

manufacturer, except in the case where the vehicle system provides an equivalent voltage

control function.

The following should be considered at battery level and by the battery manufacturer:

For a battery that has several series-connected cells or modules, it is recommended that the

voltages of any one of the single cells or cell blocks do not exceed the upper limit of the

charging voltage, specified by the cell manufacturer, by monitoring the voltage of every single

cell or cell block.
5.7 Requirements for the BMS

The BMS evaluates the condition of cells and batteries, and it maintains cells and batteries

within the specified cell operating region. Key factors of the cell operating region are voltage,

temperature and current for charging and discharging.

The functions of the BMS can be incorporated into the battery or into the vehicle that uses the

battery. The BMS can also be divided so that it can be found partially in the battery and

partially in the vehicle that uses the battery (see Figure 1).
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
IEC 63057:2020 © IEC 2020 – 11 –
a) All functions of BMS are in the battery b) BMS functions are divided between
battery and vehicle side
Figure 1 – Examples of BMS locations and battery configurations

A hazard analysis and risk assessment in accordance with Clause 8 of IEC 62619:2017 shall

be conducted on the battery and BMS combination.
5.8 Operating region of lithium cells and battery for safe use

Cells shall comply with the cell criteria outlined in IEC 62619:2017. The cell manufacturer

shall specify the cell's operating region. The battery manufa
...

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