Single crystal wafers for surface acoustic wave (SAW) device applications - Specifications and measuring methods

IEC 62276:2016 applies to the manufacture of synthetic quartz, lithium niobate (LN), lithium tantalate (LT), lithium tetraborate (LBO), and lanthanum gallium silicate (LGS) single crystal wafers intended for use as substrates in the manufacture of surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters and resonators. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- Corrections of Euler angle indications in Table 1 and axis directions in Figure 3.
- Definition of "twin" is not explained clearly enough in 3.3.3. Therefore it is revised by a more detailed definition.
- Etch channels maximum number at quartz wafer of seed which do not pass through from surface to back surface are classified for three grades in 4.2.13 a). Users use seed portions of quartz wafers for devices. They request quartz wafers with less etch channels in seeds to reduce defects of devices. The classification of etch channels in seed may prompt a rise in quartz wafer quality.

Tranches monocristallines pour applications utilisant des dispositifs à ondes acoustiques de surface (OAS) - Spécifications et méthodes de mesure

L'IEC 62276:2016 s'applique à la fabrication de tranches monocristallines de quartz synthétique, de niobate de lithium (LN), de tantalate de lithium (LT), de tétraborate de lithium (LBO) et de silicate de gallium et de lanthane (LGS) destinées à être utilisées comme substrats dans la fabrication de résonateurs et de filtres à ondes acoustiques de surface (OAS).
La présente édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente:
- Corrections des indications de l'angle d'Euler au Tableau 1 et des directions des axes à la Figure 3.
- La définition de "cristal jumeau" n'était pas expliquée de manière suffisamment claire en 3.3.3. Elle a été révisée par une définition plus détaillée.
- Le nombre maximal de canaux de gravure dans un germe de tranche de quartz qui ne traverse pas de la surface avant à la surface arrière est déterminé pour trois classes en 4.2.13 a). Les utilisateurs utilisent des parties de germes de tranches de quartz pour les dispositifs. Ces tranches de quartz nécessitent moins de canaux de gravure dans un germe pour réduire les défauts dans les dispositifs. La classification des canaux de gravure dans un germe peut nécessiter une augmentation de la qualité des tranches de quartz.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
23-Oct-2016
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
24-Oct-2016
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IEC 62276
Edition 3.0 2016-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Single crystal wafers for surface acoustic wave (SAW) device applications –
Specifications and measuring methods
Tranches monocristallines pour applications utilisant des dispositifs à ondes
acoustiques de surface (OAS) – Spécifications et méthodes de mesure
IEC 62276:2016-10(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 62276
Edition 3.0 2016-10
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Single crystal wafers for surface acoustic wave (SAW) device applications –
Specifications and measuring methods
Tranches monocristallines pour applications utilisant des dispositifs à ondes
acoustiques de surface (OAS) – Spécifications et méthodes de mesure
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 31.140 ISBN 978-2-8322-5271-00

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 62276:2016 © IEC 2016
CONTENTS

CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................ 2

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

3.1 Single crystals for SAW wafer ................................................................................. 8

3.2 Terms and definitions related to LN and LT crystals ................................................ 9

3.3 Terms and definitions related to all crystals ............................................................ 9

3.4 Flatness ................................................................................................................ 10

3.5 Definitions of appearance defects ......................................................................... 12

3.6 Other terms and definitions ................................................................................... 13

4 Requirements ................................................................................................................ 14

4.1 Material specification ............................................................................................ 14

4.1.1 Synthetic quartz crystal ................................................................................. 14

4.1.2 LN ................................................................................................................. 15

4.1.3 LT .................................................................................................................. 15

4.1.4 LBO, LGS ...................................................................................................... 15

4.2 Wafer specifications .............................................................................................. 15

4.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 15

4.2.2 Diameters and tolerances .............................................................................. 15

4.2.3 Thickness and tolerance ................................................................................ 15

4.2.4 Orientation flat ............................................................................................... 15

4.2.5 Secondary flat ............................................................................................... 16

4.2.6 Back surface roughness ................................................................................ 16

4.2.7 Warp ............................................................................................................. 16

4.2.8 TV5 or TTV .................................................................................................... 16

4.2.9 Front (propagation) surface finish .................................................................. 17

4.2.10 Front surface defects ..................................................................................... 17

4.2.11 Surface orientation tolerance ......................................................................... 18

4.2.12 Inclusions ...................................................................................................... 18

4.2.13 Etch channel number and position of seed for quartz wafer ........................... 18

4.2.14 Bevel ............................................................................................................. 18

4.2.15 Curie temperature and tolerance.................................................................... 18

4.2.16 Lattice constant ............................................................................................. 18

4.2.17 Bulk resistivity (conductivity) for reduced LN and LT ...................................... 19

5 Sampling plan ................................................................................................................ 19

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 19

5.2 Sampling............................................................................................................... 19

5.3 Sampling frequency .............................................................................................. 19

5.4 Inspection of whole population .............................................................................. 19

6 Test methods ................................................................................................................. 19

6.1 Diameter ............................................................................................................... 19

6.2 Thickness ............................................................................................................. 20

6.3 Dimension of OF ................................................................................................... 20

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 62276:2016 © IEC 2016 – 3 –

6.4 Orientation of OF .................................................................................................. 20

6.5 TV5 ....................................................................................................................... 20

6.6 Warp ..................................................................................................................... 20

6.7 TTV ...................................................................................................................... 20

6.8 Front surface defects ............................................................................................ 20

6.9 Inclusions ............................................................................................................. 20

6.10 Back surface roughness ........................................................................................ 20

6.11 Orientation ............................................................................................................ 20

6.12 Curie temperature ................................................................................................. 20

6.13 Lattice constant .................................................................................................... 20

6.14 Bulk resistivity ....................................................................................................... 21

7 Identification, labelling, packaging, delivery condition .................................................... 21

7.1 Packaging ............................................................................................................. 21

7.2 Labelling and identification .................................................................................... 21

7.3 Delivery condition ................................................................................................. 21

8 Measurement of Curie temperature ................................................................................ 21

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 21

8.2 DTA method .......................................................................................................... 21

8.3 Dielectric constant method .................................................................................... 22

9 Measurement of lattice constant (Bond method) ............................................................ 23

10 Measurement of face angle by X-ray.............................................................................. 24

10.1 Measurement principle .......................................................................................... 24

10.2 Measurement method ........................................................................................... 25

10.3 Measuring surface orientation of wafer.................................................................. 25

10.4 Measuring OF flat orientation ................................................................................ 25

10.5 Typical wafer orientations and reference planes.................................................... 25

11 Measurement of bulk resistivity ...................................................................................... 26

11.1 Resistance measurement of a wafer ..................................................................... 26

11.2 Electrode .............................................................................................................. 27

11.3 Bulk resistivity ....................................................................................................... 28

12 Visual inspections – Front surface inspection method .................................................... 28

Annex A (normative) Expression using Euler angle description for piezoelectric single

crystals .......................................................................................................................... 29

A.1 Wafer orientation using Euler angle description .................................................... 29

Annex B (informative) Manufacturing process for SAW wafers ............................................. 32

B.1 Crystal growth methods ........................................................................................ 32

B.1.1 Czochralski growth method ............................................................................ 32

B.1.2 Vertical Bridgman method .............................................................................. 34

B.2 Standard mechanical wafer manufacturing ............................................................ 35

B.2.1 Process flow-chart ......................................................................................... 35

B.2.2 Cutting both ends and cylindrical grinding ...................................................... 36

B.2.3 Marking orientation ........................................................................................ 37

B.2.4 Slicing ........................................................................................................... 37

B.2.5 Double-sided lapping ..................................................................................... 37

B.2.6 Bevelling (edge rounding) .............................................................................. 37

B.2.7 Mirror polishing .............................................................................................. 37

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 38

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 62276:2016 © IEC 2016

Figure 1 – Wafer sketch and measurement points for TV5 determination .............................. 10

Figure 2 – Schematic diagram of TTV ................................................................................... 11

Figure 3 – Schematic diagram of warp .................................................................................. 11

Figure 4 – Schematic diagram of Sori ................................................................................... 11

Figure 5 – Example of site distribution for LTV measurement ................................................ 12

Figure 6 – LTV value of each site .......................................................................................... 12

Figure 7 – Schematic of a DTA system ................................................................................. 22

Figure 8 – Schematic of a dielectric constant measurement system ...................................... 22

Figure 9 – The Bond method ................................................................................................. 24

Figure 10 – Measurement method by X-ray ........................................................................... 24

Figure 11 – Relationship between cut angle and lattice planes ............................................. 25

Figure 12 – Measuring circuit ................................................................................................ 26

Figure 13 – Resistance measuring equipment ....................................................................... 27

Figure 14 – Shape of electrode ............................................................................................. 27

Figure A.1 – Definition of Euler angles to rotate coordinate system (X, Y, Z) onto

( x , x , x ) .............................................................................................................................. 29

1 2 3

Figure A.2 – SAW wafer coordinate system .......................................................................... 30

Figure A.3 – Relationship between the crystal axes, Euler angles, and SAW orientation

for some wafer orientations ................................................................................................... 31

Figure B.1 – Czochralski crystal growth method .................................................................... 32

Figure B.2 – Example of non-uniformity in crystals grown from different starting melt

compositions ......................................................................................................................... 34

Figure B.3 – Schematic of a Vertical Bridgman furnace and example of temperature

distribution ............................................................................................................................ 35

Figure B.4 – Process flow-chart ............................................................................................ 36

Table 1 – Description of wafer orientations ........................................................................... 14

Table 2 – Roughness, warp, TV5 and TTV specification limits .............................................. 17

Table 3 – Maximum number of etch channels in seed position .............................................. 18

Table 4 – Crystal planes to determine surface and OF orientations ....................................... 26

Table 5 – Electrode size ....................................................................................................... 27

Table A.1 – Selected SAW substrate orientations and corresponding Euler angles ............... 30

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 62276:2016 © IEC 2016 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SINGLE CRYSTAL WAFERS FOR SURFACE
ACOUSTIC WAVE (SAW) DEVICE APPLICATIONS –
SPECIFICATIONS AND MEASURING METHODS
FOREWORD

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International Standard IEC 62276 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 49:

Piezoelectric, dielectric and electrostatic devices and associated materials for frequency

control, selection and detection.

This bilingual version (2018-01) corresponds to the monolingual English version, published in

2016-10.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition of IEC 62276 published in 2012. It

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

– Corrections of Euler angle indications in Table 1 and axis directions in Figure 3.

– Definition of “twin“ is not explained clearly enough in 3.3.3. Therefore it is revised by a

more detailed definition.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 62276:2016 © IEC 2016

– Etch channels maximum number at quartz wafer of seed which do not pass through from

surface to back surface are classified for three grades in 4.2.13 a). Users use seed

portions of quartz wafers for devices. They request quartz wafers with less etch channels

in seeds to reduce defects of devices. The classification of etch channels in seed may

prompt a rise in quartz wafer quality.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
49/1144/CDV 49/1170/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.
The French version of this standard has not been voted upon.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 62276:2016 © IEC 2016 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

A variety of piezoelectric materials are used for surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter and

resonator applications. Prior to an IEC meeting in 1996 in Rotterdam, wafer specifications

were typically negotiated between users and suppliers. During this meeting, a proposal was

announced to address wafer standardization. This standard has been prepared in order to

provide industry standard technical specifications for manufacturing piezoelectric single

crystal wafers to be used in surface acoustic wave devices.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 62276:2016 © IEC 2016
SINGLE CRYSTAL WAFERS FOR SURFACE
ACOUSTIC WAVE (SAW) DEVICE APPLICATIONS –
SPECIFICATIONS AND MEASURING METHODS
1 Scope

This document applies to the manufacture of synthetic quartz, lithium niobate (LN), lithium

tantalate (LT), lithium tetraborate (LBO), and lanthanum gallium silicate (LGS) single crystal

wafers intended for use as substrates in the manufacture of surface acoustic wave (SAW)

filters and resonators.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.
IEC 60758:2016, Synthetic quartz crystal – Specifications and guidelines for use

ISO 2859-1: 1999, Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes – Part 1: Sampling

schemes indexed by acceptance quality limit (AQL) for lot-by-lot inspection
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1 Single crystals for SAW wafer
3.1.1
as-grown synthetic quartz crystal
right-handed or left-handed single crystal quartz grown hydrothermally

Note 1 to entry: The term “as-grown” indicates a state prior to mechanical fabrication.

Note 2 to entry: See IEC 60758 for further information concerning crystalline quartz.

3.1.2
lithium niobate

single crystals approximately described by chemical formula LiNbO , grown by Czochralski

(crystal pulling from melt) or other growing methods
3.1.3
lithium tantalate
sin
...

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