Virtual reality equipment and systems - Market, technology and standards requirements

IEC TR 63308:2021 discusses the market of virtual reality (VR) and the technical domains pertaining to a VR system. This document provides clarity on how existing standards can be used and highlights further requirements for standards within the scope of TC 100.

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Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Jul-2021
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
09-Jul-2021
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IEC TR 63308
Edition 1.0 2021-07
TECHNICAL
REPORT
Virtual reality equipment and systems – Market, technology and standards
requirements
IEC TR 63308:2021-07(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TR 63308
Edition 1.0 2021-07
TECHNICAL
REPORT
Virtual reality equipment and systems – Market, technology and standards
requirements
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 31.120; 33.160.99 ISBN 978-2-8322-9945-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 63308:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 6

4 Markets for VR equipment and systems ........................................................................... 6

4.1 Overview of VR markets ......................................................................................... 6

4.2 Customer requirements ........................................................................................... 7

4.3 Typical VR ecosystem ............................................................................................. 7

5 Typical use cases of VR .................................................................................................. 8

6 Technologies of VR ......................................................................................................... 9

6.1 Technical domains of VR equipment and systems ................................................... 9

6.2 Factors for display quality of VR equipment and systems ...................................... 10

6.3 Visual comfort considerations of VR equipment and systems ................................ 11

6.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 11

6.3.2 Binocular disparity ......................................................................................... 11

6.3.3 Screen door effect ......................................................................................... 11

6.3.4 Motion-to-photon latency ............................................................................... 12

6.3.5 Blue light ....................................................................................................... 12

7 Related work of other SDOs .......................................................................................... 12

7.1 IEC TC 110 ........................................................................................................... 12

7.2 ISO/IEC JTC 1 ...................................................................................................... 13

7.2.1 JTC1 ............................................................................................................. 13

7.2.2 ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 24 .................................................................................... 13

7.2.3 ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 .................................................................................... 14

7.2.4 ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 36 .................................................................................... 15

7.3 ITU ....................................................................................................................... 16

8 Potential standardization items in TC 100 ...................................................................... 16

8.1 Expected standard framework for VR systems ...................................................... 16

8.2 Possible new work items ....................................................................................... 17

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 19

Figure 1 – VR ecosystem ........................................................................................................ 7

Figure 2 – VR technical domains .......................................................................................... 10

Figure 3 – VR standard framework ........................................................................................ 17

Table 1 – Typical use cases of VR .......................................................................................... 8

Table 2 – Existing and future standards of TC 110 ................................................................ 13

Table 3 – Existing standards of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 24 .......................................................... 14

Table 4 – Existing and future standards of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 .......................................... 15

Table 5 – Existing standards of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 36 .......................................................... 16

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IEC TR 63308:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
VIRTUAL REALITY EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS –
MARKET, TECHNOLOGY AND STANDARDS REQUIREMENTS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

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rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC TR 63308 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 100: Audio, video and multimedia

systems and equipment. It is a Technical Report.
The text of this Technical Report is based on the following documents:
DTR Report on voting
100/3484/DTR 100/3519/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this Technical Report is English.

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.
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– 4 – IEC TR 63308:2021 © IEC 2021

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The "colour inside" logo on the cover page of this document indicates that it

contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding of its

contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.
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IEC TR 63308:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

Virtual reality (VR) is an interactive computer-generated experience, which allows the user to

feel he is in a virtual world where he can interact in and control a virtual environment. The

interaction between the user and the virtual world is mainly through auditory and visual stimuli,

but it can also include other types of sensory feedback, such as haptic technology.

This Technical Report focuses on VR equipment and systems that are within the scope of

TC 100. Firstly, the ecosystem of VR is described, based on a brief view of market trends and

analysis of some typical use cases of VR equipment and systems. Then technologies used in

VR equipment and systems are listed, in order to introduce a C-P-N-D (Content, Product,

Network and Device) based VR system model. Finally, after studying the standardization

activities of related standards developing organizations (SDOs), some suggestions are given,

including potential standardization topics within the scope of TC 100.
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– 6 – IEC TR 63308:2021 © IEC 2021
VIRTUAL REALITY EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS –
MARKET, TECHNOLOGY AND STANDARDS REQUIREMENTS
1 Scope

This document discusses the market of virtual reality (VR) and the technical domains pertaining

to a VR system. This document provides clarity on how existing standards can be used and

highlights further requirements for standards within the scope of TC 100.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
head mounted device
HMD

type of computer display device or monitor which is worn on the head or is built in as part of a

helmet
3.2
virtual reality

simulation of the physical presence of the user, which is primarily experienced through two of

the five senses such as sight and sound, in an environment produced with the help of a

computer, enabling the user to interact with this environment
4 Markets for VR equipment and systems
4.1 Overview of VR markets

In the 1980s, the arrival of stereoscopic '3D' games such as Virtuality and Virtual Boy drew

attention to virtual display techniques. Even some films, like Lawnmower Man and Virtuosity,

and books, such as Snow Crash, demonstrated the powerful potential of VR. But the technology

at the time could not match people's imagination or their expectations; poor image quality,

significant latency and high device prices made the first trials of VR products fail in the end.

Since 2014, there has been a second wave of VR technology, and, like most new technologies,

VR has had a rocky – but predicable start.
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IEC TR 63308:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –

According to the predictions of business intelligence, the market of VR hardware will continue

to grow. In 2020, cheaper and high-quality VR headsets rolled out to the market, improving the

quality in virtual world experiences. In 2021, the same trend will continue [1] .

4.2 Customer requirements

Compared with other media, such as film, which intent is also to show a 'real' world to the

audience, customers have additional special requirements when it comes to VR experiences.

These requirements are similar to other 3D techniques.

– Immersive: Immersive is the basic feature for VR equipment and systems. VR needs to

engage both the body and the mind of the viewer: to feel real and to respond as if it was

real.

– Believable: VR equipment and systems need to give the feeling of complete belief in the

virtual world. This can be achieved through consistent use of logic, physics, and narrative.

If the experience is not consistent with user expectations for that virtual world, then the

illusion of virtual reality will disappear.

– Interactive: VR equipment and systems can encourage the interaction between the user and

the virtual world. As the user moves around, the virtual world needs to move with them. This

is a quite unique experience compared with watching a 3D film, the latter cannot provide

any interactive experience.

– Response time: Any delay will make the user uncomfortable with the illusion of the virtual

world. A powerful processor is required in order to deal with high quality 3D computer

graphics. The processor should be powerful enough to provide a believable, interactive,

alternative world that changes in real time.
4.3 Typical VR ecosystem
Figure 1 shows a typical VR ecosystem.
Figure 1 – VR ecosystem

A VR ecosystem normally consists of image capturing, content producing, content distribution

and displaying, which explains how users can reach VR contents.

Analysing a VR ecosystem can be helpful to focus on the audio and video equipment and

systems, and other related technologies that are within the scope of TC 100, in order to conduct

further studies, so that the standardization gap can be filled.
___________
Numbers in square brackets refer to the bibliography.
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– 8 – IEC TR 63308:2021 © IEC 2021
5 Typical use cases of VR

In the past 30 years, VR equipment and systems have been used by scientists, doctors, dentists,

engineers, architects, archaeologists, and the military, and have been well known to common

customers.

In 4.2, the key unique features of VR, which made VR one of the preferred solutions in many

specific use cases, are listed.
Table 1 – Typical use cases of VR
Used area
Examples

Design and Airbus uses VR programmes to carry out verifications in a virtual space, which can save up

manufacture to 80 % time compared with traditional methods.
Boeing used VR systems in designing the shape and architecture of the B-777.

Rolls Royce uses VR technology to observe the detail of engines in its developing steps.

Neusoft uses VR systems to assemble and debug a whole manufacture system without
establishing real plant and equipment.

VR systems are used to estimate and calibrate the assembly procedure in Audi vehicles.

JLIANCO uses VR systems to check the failure of boilers, in order to ensure standard

operation and reduce maintenance costs.

Education IBM and Google developed VR systems which can allow teachers and students to create a

virtual world for education, in a vivid and interesting way.

VRSCHOOL used VR to set up a VR classroom which is used in physics, astronomy and

biology experiments.
JD used VR systems to train the delivery men for the sorting of goods.

NASA used VR systems to train their astronauts on how to perform spacewalking, and

what it is like to work with tools in space. The VR systems also simulated a zero-gravity

environment in outer space.

Art and VR was used to produce a film to introduce Luoyang ancient city and DunHuang MoGao

entertainment grottoes in the 2019 Smart China Expo.
BNC broadcast a TV series called "Halcyon".
BBC provided VR live broadcasting for the Russian World Cup.

CCTV has been providing VR live broadcasting for the Spring Festival party since 2017.

www.huajiao.com is a live broadcasting platform, it used VR technology in online live

broadcasting to give users more immersive experiences.
China built a VR theme park in Nanchang, which used VR equipment and systems to
provide immersive experiences to users.

The Forbidden City in China provided 6 VR tour plans for visitors, including a building

introduction, a cultural relic show and ancient history interactive.
Meiwu365 is a decoration design company in China, it used VR in the design and
modification process of their costumes before construction started.
The new launched VR games such as Batman: Arkham VR and Superhot VR. These are

based on games designed for normal controllers, but these versions change so many

mechanics and scenarios, that they have essentially become brand new experiences.

___________

This information is given for the convenience of users of this document. This information does not constitute an

endorsement by IEC of the products named.
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IEC TR 63308:2021 © IEC 2021 – 9 –
Used area
Examples

Medical care Taipei Medical University used VR anatomy courses which achieved better results

compared with using traditional 2D paper material.

Japan Jikei University established a VR operation simulation system, which can give

physical feedback.

Japan Nagasaki Institute uses VR to establish recovery treatment plan for patients,

including biological status simulation and movement positioning.

A drug addiction treatment centre in China used VR for psychotherapy purposes for

addicts to help them get rid of the effects of drugs.

Applied VR was used by some hospitals to release the pain and anxiety of patients during

treatment and operation.
Shenzhen People Hospital in China used a VR+5G system to perform remote

biliopancreatic surgery together with an expert group in Beijing, with a physical distance of

over 1 000 km.

Besides the existing use cases listed in Table 1, VR will be used more widely in future, which

will bring more attention to this area.
6 Technologies of VR
6.1 Technical domains of VR equipment and systems

VR is an integrated technology that consists of 3D modelling, 3D display, sensor technology,

real time graphic processing, etc. The VR equipment and systems are designed to provide an

accurate, real and interactive experience to the customer.
The relationship between the different technical domains is shown in Figure 2.
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– 10 – IEC TR 63308:2021 © IEC 2021
Figure 2 – VR technical domains
6.2 Factors for display quality of VR equipment and systems

Because VR is intended to be used as a human-machine interface, the display, optical relay

and sensors on VR are important for human visual characteristics. Human factors should be

considered in this case, as follows:

a) factors affecting detection and recognition with luminance, contrast viewing distance,

binocular vision, field of view and colour;

b) geometry factors which are interpupillary distance, pupil size and eye relief;

c) tolerance of aberration such as lateral colour, line distortion and field curvature.

For satisfying human factors, the ideal display for VR should have the following attributes:

d) wide FOV (field of view);
e) small display size with very high resolution;
f) binocular display alignment;
g) high frame rate;
h) adequate luminance and wide colour;
i) low optical distortion;
j) light weight and small size.
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IEC TR 63308:2021 © IEC 2021 – 11 –

One of the immersive factors is a wide FOV. A VR FOV should ideally be the same as that of

the human eye, for example 190° to approximately 210° horizontally and 120° to approximately

135° vertically [2], [3].

The eye's ability to detect objects clearly is natural. Because pixels corresponding to an object

remain stationary in the video frame for a complete refresh cycle while the eyes move in

anticipation of motion, frame frequency of the VR display should be fast enough for the eye's

tracking system to catch smooth image movements in pixels corresponding to a moving object.

There is an adaption of human eyes under lighting conditions. Eyes have a very wide dynamic

range to see stars at night as well as very bright objects under sunny conditions. So, the

contrast range of display would be up to 1:10 , because the VR condition is very dark.

One of the functions of the eye is that the human eye can discern a variation of very similar

colours. The contrast range and distinguishing the colour difference require a wider colour

space than standard red, blue, green (sRGB) and bit rate over 8 bits.
6.3 Visual comfort considerations of VR equipment and systems
6.3.1 General

In order to give more immersive VR experiences to users, VR equipment and systems have to

satisfy the requirements of human senses. If there is a mismatch between the human senses

and VR equipment and systems, users can experience negative effects such as dizziness and

vomiting. Indeed, many users have reported visual discomfort due to the prolonged use of VR

equipment and systems. Therefore, visual comfort is one of the important elements for VR

equipment and systems.
6.3.2 Binocular disparity

Humans see an object with two eyes, and recognize stereoscopic senses through them. It is

one of the ways in which humans perceive depth. This kind of visual perception is called a

binocular disparity. The binocular disparity is caused by a pupillary distance or physical distance

between two eyes. Since there is pupillary distance, each eye sees a slightly different image of

the object. The human brain then combines the two different images and creates a stereo image.

Most of VR equipment and systems have adopted the binocular disparity. In other words, VR

equipment and systems send different visual information to each eye, respectively. Then it

makes our brain mistaking virtual reality as a real space. Therefore, for giving a VR experience

without visual discomfort to users, VR equipment and systems have to be well organized to give

appropriate images to which binocular disparity is applied.
6.3.3 Screen door effect

The screen door effect is a visual artifact caused by a display which is adopted in VR equipment

and systems. The display consists of numerous pixels, and there are some spaces between

each pixel. The space is the area which is not lit, and it could look like a black grid when users

use VR equipment and systems. This phenomenon is called the screen door effect.

The screen door effect can occur for all kinds of displays, but it is worse on VR equipment and

systems, because our eyes are so close and are looking at the display through magnifying

lenses. Therefore, the screen door effect is one of visual discomfort when using VR equipment

and systems.
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– 12 – IEC TR 63308:2021 © IEC 2021

The screen door effect is less noticeable on high resolution displays where the pixels are

arranged more tightly and there is less space between pixels. As the space between pixels

reduces, the screen door effect becomes less noticeable and can practically be eliminated. In

other words, to reduce or to solve the screen door effect, VR equipment and systems need

higher resolution displays. Also, diffusion filter can be adopted in order to make the screen door

effect less noticeable.
6.3.4 Motion-to-photon latency

A variety of VR equipment and systems utilizing sensor-based technology have been released.

One of these types of sensors detects motion of the head, and it improves the immersive

experience for users. However, if there is a mismatch between motion and vision, users can

experience motion sickness and dizziness.

The motion-to-photon latency describes the length of time between the user performing a

motion and the display showing the appropriate content for that particular motion. Humans are

highly perceptive to latency. In VR equipment and systems, up to 20 ms of lag can remain

undetected by the user. That is, to prevent the visual discomfort when using VR equipment and

systems, the delay time is required to be no more than 20 ms.
6.3.5 Blue light

Viewing conditions of VR equipment and systems are totally different from other types of

displays such as TV and monitor. TVs and monitors are used under various ambient conditions.

Also, these are large size displays, so users watch TV and monitors from a relatively long

distance. On the other hand, VR equipment and systems are used under completely dark

conditions, and in very short distances, less than 5 cm from the eyes. Therefore, the optical

properties of the display which is adopted for VR equipment and systems directly affect the eye.

Regarding the optical radiation effect on the eyes, most of the ultraviolet that reaches the eye

is absorbed by the cornea or the crystalline lens. And the cornea and crystalline lens also block

infrared. The net result of light filtering by the ocular media is that the retina is exposed almost

exclusively to the visual portion of the solar spectrum. Among these visible portions, blue light

can induce photochemical damage. The phototoxicity has been studied and appears to be

concentrated in a narrow band of wavelengths centred on 435 nm ± 20 nm. Considering the

viewing environment and blue light effect, eyes would be affected by
...

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