Space systems — Programme management and quality — Vocabulary

This document provides definitions of all common terms used in the area of space systems and operations for programme management and quality. It does not contain terms specific to an individual International Standard in the area of space systems and operations, which are defined in that particular International Standard.

Systèmes spatiaux — Management de programme et qualité — Vocabulaire

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Second edition
Space systems — Programme
management and quality —
Systèmes spatiaux — Management de programme et qualité —
Reference number
ISO 10795:2019(E)
ISO 2019

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ISO 10795:2019(E)

© ISO 2019
All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may
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ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved

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ISO 10795:2019(E)

Contents Page
Foreword .iv
Introduction .v
1 Scope . 1
2 Normative references . 1
3 Terms and definitions . 1
4 Abbreviated terms .39
Bibliography .40
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ISO 10795:2019(E)

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards
bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out
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electrotechnical standardization.
The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are
described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the
different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the
editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of
patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of
any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or
on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).
Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not
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For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and
expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the
World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso
.org/iso/foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,
Subcommittee SC 14, Space systems and operations.
This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 10795:2011), which has been technically
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— the following terms have been added: acceptable risk, acceptance of risk, assurance, authorization,
availability, breadboard, breakdown structure, cause, caution condition, certificate of conformity,
certification, commissioning, counterfeit part, critical , critical , flight spare,
functional specification, ground segment, implementation document, information system, interface
control document, key characteristic, milestone, orbital disposal, qualification model, re-entry,
review board, space segment, space segment element, special requirements, systems engineering,
and systems engineering management;
— the following terms have been removed: audit client, audit conclusion, audit criteria, audit evidence,
audit findings, availability of an item, certificate of compliance, certification procedure, Critical,
launch vehicle, non-conformance, normative reference, organizational structure, part, quality
manual, quality planning, space element, and spare parts.
Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A
complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
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ISO 10795:2019(E)

It is intended that this document be applied for the management, engineering, and product assurance in
space projects and applications. The definitions in this document specify what is accomplished, rather
than how the necessary work is organized and carried out. This allows the application of existing
organizational structures and methods where they are effective, and for the structures and methods
to evolve as necessary without rewriting the standards. The formulation of this document takes into
account the existing International Standards prepared by ISO/TC 176, Quality management and quality
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Space systems — Programme management and quality —
1 Scope
This document provides definitions of all common terms used in the area of space systems and
operations for programme management and quality. It does not contain terms specific to an individual
International Standard in the area of space systems and operations, which are defined in that particular
International Standard.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
acceptable risk
safety (3.210) risk (3.206), the severity (3.215) and the probability of which may be reasonably accepted
by humanity, without durable or irreversible foreseeable consequence on health, Earth, and the
environment (3.92), at the present time and in the future
EXAMPLE A safety risk may be acceptable for crew members of a manned space vehicle (3.225) when it
is comparable to that of test (3.239) pilots, for the personnel participating in hazardous activities when it is
comparable to that of industrial workers, for people, public and private property, and the environment, when it is
comparable to that of other hazardous human activities (e.g. high-speed surface travel).
[SOURCE: ISO 14620-2:2011, 3.1]
act, means of which customer (3.78) certifies that the object developed and manufactured in
accordance with his/her specification (3.227), and he/she agrees with the reveal deviations (3.86) and
failures (3.98) ("complaints") and that this object is free from defects (3.79) under its delivery by the
supplier (3.232)
part of the verification (3.244) process (3.171), which demonstrates that the product (3.173)
meets specified acceptance margins
[SOURCE: EN 16601-00-01:2015, 2.3.2]
acceptance criteria
minimum requirements (3.201) that it is necessary for an item (3.134) to satisfy for formal acceptance
(3.2, 3.3)
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ISO 10795:2019(E)

acceptance of risk
decision to cope with consequences, should a risk (3.206) scenario materialize
Note 1 to entry: A risk can be accepted when its magnitude is less than a given threshold, defined in the risk
management policy (3.209).
Note 2 to entry: In the context of risk management (3.208), acceptance (3.2, 3.3) can mean that even though a risk
is not eliminated, its existence and magnitude are acknowledged and tolerated.
[SOURCE: ISO 17666:2016, 3.1.1]
accepted risk
hazard (3.120) that has not been eliminated and for which the residual risk (3.202) is deemed low enough
to continue operation and that has been accepted by project (3.178)/program management (3.146) on
the basis of documented risk (3.206) acceptance (3.2, 3.3) rationale
acceptance test
test (3.239) to determine that a system (3.234), subsystem (3.231), component (3.48) or functional part
is capable of meeting performance (3.166) requirements (3.201) prescribed in a purchase specification
(3.227) or other document (3.88) specifying what constitutes the adequate performance capability for
the item (3.134) and to demonstrate that the item is free from manufacturing defects (3.79)
undesired event arising from operation of any project (3.178)-specific items (3.134) which results in:
a) human death or injury;
b) loss of, or damage to, hardware (3.119), software (3.217) or facilities which could then affect the
accomplishment of the mission (3.154);
c) loss of, or damage to, public or private property; or
d) detrimental effects on the environment (3.92)
[SOURCE: ISO 14620-1:2018, 3.1.1, modified — The term "mishap" has been added as an alternative.]
task negotiated between two and only two persons, one decision maker and one holder, whose result
leads to an expected result as a description of an operation in the formulation of a solution, and is
characterized by objectives in terms of cost, quality (3.188) and due date
action item
assignment to a designated organization (3.163) or individual the accomplishment of a defined objective
within a specified time frame
formal notification to users, informing them of a failure (3.98) or nonconformity (3.157) of an item
(3.134), already released for use or not, that can also be present on other items already delivered (e.g.
items with identical design (3.82, 3.83) concept, material (3.148), component (3.48) or process (3.171))
Note 1 to entry: An alert can also be raised when a deficiency in a specified requirement (3.201) that can affect
the fitness for purpose in the defined application has been identified.
[SOURCE: EN 16601-00-01:2015, 2.3.6]
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ISO 10795:2019(E)

verification (3.244) method utilizing techniques and tools such as math models (3.155), compilation
similarity assessments (3.24), validation (3.243) of records (3.194), etc., to confirm that verification
requirements (3.201) have been satisfied
gap between a current situation and an expected one
Note 1 to entry: An anomaly justifies an investigation that can lead to the discovery of a nonconformance, a defect
(3.79) or a “non-lieu” (deviation (3.86) without impact, e.g. product (3.173) peculiarity).
Note 2 to entry: A deviation may be declared, foreseen or requested.
Note 3 to entry: An anomaly is often detected in comparison with what seems to be standard or with the
expected use.
applicable document
document (3.88) that contains provisions (3.181) which, through reference in the source document,
incorporates additional provisions in the source document
Note 1 to entry: In this context, a provision is an expression that takes the form of a statement, an instruction, a
recommendation or a requirement (3.201).
formal agreement by a designated management (3.146) official to use or apply an item (3.134) or
proceed with a proposed course of action (3.9)
Note 1 to entry: Approvals shall be documented.
Note 2 to entry: Approval implies that the approving authority has verified that the item conforms to its
requirements (3.201).
[SOURCE: EN 16601-00-01:2015, 2.3.11]
as-built configuration
configuration (3.50) of one product (3.173) item (3.134) identified by its gaps of conformity (3.60) with
respect to its applicable configuration
Note 1 to entry: The relevant “as-designed configuration (3.19)” corresponds to the same “part number”.
Note 2 to entry: “As-built configuration” includes any impacts from technical events, anomalies, repairs (3.199),
life potential consumption that occurred before the product delivery and any potential modifications (3.156)
applied on the product but not embodied in the relevant design (3.82, 3.83) data file.
as-built configuration list
reporting instrument defining the “as-built status” for each serial number of a configuration item (3.55)
subject to formal acceptance (3.2, 3.3)
Note 1 to entry: The ABCL shall identify the “as-manufactured” and “as-tested” statuses applicable to a part
comprising a configuration item.
Note 2 to entry: Using the configuration item data list (3.56) as a reference, any difference between the ABCL and
the CIDL (3.56) shall be documented in the ABCL with reference to the applicable NCR and RFW (3.200).
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ISO 10795:2019(E)

as-delivered configuration
as-built configuration (3.16) at the time of delivery
as-designed configuration
current design (3.82, 3.83) status at any point of time providing the complete definition of a configuration
item (3.55)
Note 1 to entry: The starting point of the “as-designed” configuration (3.50) with regard to the “as-planned”
configuration is based on changes (3.39) the company has approved internally but has not yet incorporated in the
design, and on changes already implemented but not yet approved in the “as-planned” configuration.
as-ordered configuration
contractual configuration
configuration (3.50) of a product (3.173) configuration item (3.55), effectively given by its contractual
approved changes (3.39) from the configuration baseline (3.51)
Note 1 to entry: At a given moment, a product may have several applicable configurations.
as-planned configuration
planned to be built statement for each configuration item (3.55) unit (3.93) being delivered
Note 1 to entry: The as-planned configuration (3.50) is composed of the current configuration baseline (3.51)
and any changes (3.39) that the company has approved internally but has not yet embodied in the current
configuration baseline.
as-qualified configuration
as-built configuration (3.16) that was certified to have satisfactorily passed specified qualification
tests (3.187)
combination of parts, components (3.48) and units (3.93) that form a functional entity
[SOURCE: ISO 10786:2011, 3.5, modified — The definition has been editorially revised.]
systematic process (3.171) of collecting and analysing data to determine the current status of a product
(3.173), a process, a system (3.234), a person or an organization (3.163)
planned and systematic activities implemented, and demonstrated as needed, to provide adequate
confidence that an entity fulfils its requirements (3.201)
[SOURCE: EN 16601-00-01:2015, 2.3.13]
systematic, independent and documented process (3.171) for obtaining objective evidence and
evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which the audit criteria are fulfilled
Note 1 to entry: The fundamental elements of an audit include the determination of the conformity (3.60) of an
object according to a procedure (3.170) carried out by personnel not being responsible for the object audited.
Note 2 to entry: An audit can be an internal audit (first party), or an external audit (second party or third party),
and it can be a combined audit or a joint audit.
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ISO 10795:2019(E)

Note 3 to entry: Internal audits, sometimes called first-party audits, are conducted by, or on behalf of, the
organization (3.163) itself for management (3.146) review (3.203) and other internal purposes, and can form the
basis for an organization’s declaration of conformity. Independence can be demonstrated by the freedom from
responsibility for the activity being audited.
Note 4 to entry: External audits include those generally called second and third-party audits. Second party audits
are conducted by parties having an interest in the organization, such as customers (3.78), or by other persons
on their behalf. Third-party audits are conducted by external, independent auditing organizations such as those
providing certification (3.37)/registration of conformity or governmental agencies.
Note 5 to entry: This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system
(3.147) standards (3.228) given in Annex SL of the Consolidated ISO Supplement to the ISO/IEC Directives, Part
1. The original definition and Notes to entry have been modified to remove effect of circularity between audit
criteria and audit evidence term entries, and Notes 3 and 4 to entry have been added.
[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.13.1]
permission granted to an operator by a responsible authority to perform specified space activities
Note 1 to entry: Space activities include conducting space operations, conducting launch operations (3.137),
operating one or more sites, and operating one or more space vehicles (3.225) on or from one or more launch sites.
[SOURCE: ISO 14620-2:2011, 3.2]
ability of an item (3.134) to be in a state to perform a required function (3.110) under given conditions
at a given instant of time or over a given time interval, assuming that the required external resources
are provided
Note 1 to entry: This ability depends on the combined aspects of the reliability (3.198) performance (3.166), the
maintainability (3.144) performance and the maintenance (3.145) support performance.
Note 2 to entry: Required external resources, other than maintenance resources, do not affect the availability
performance of the item.
Note 3 to entry: When referring to the measure for availability, the preferred term is “instantaneous availability”.
[SOURCE: ISO 16091:2018, 3.1.1]
physical model (3.155) designed to test functionality and tailored to the demonstration need
[SOURCE: ISO 16290:2013, 2.1]
breakdown structure
framework for efficiently controlling some aspect of the activities of a programme (3.177) or project
[SOURCE: ISO 27026:2011, 3.1.1]
set of information which describes exhaustively a situation at a given instant of time or over a given
time interval
Note 1 to entry: It is generally used as a reference for comparison with an analysis (3.12) of subsequent evolutions
of the information.
[SOURCE: EN 16601-00-01:2015, 2.3.22]
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ISO 10795:2019(E)

business agreement
legally binding agreement, for the supply of goods or services, between two or more actors in the
customer-supplier chain
Note 1 to entry: Business agreements are recorded in a variety of forms, such as
— contracts,
— memoranda of understanding,
— inter-governmental agreements,
— inter-agency agreements,
— partnerships,
— bartering agreements,
— purchase orders.
[SOURCE: EN 16601-00-01:2015, 2.3.25]
all operations for the purpose of determining the values of the errors (3.94) and, if necessary, other
metrological properties of a measuring instrument
capable of causing death or major system (3.234) destruction
circumstance, condition, event or action (3.9) that produces an effect or gives rise to any action,
phenomenon or condition
Note 1 to entry: Cause and effect are correlative terms (Oxford English Dictionary).
Note 2 to entry: Specific to this document, cause, when used in the context of hazard analysis (3.121), is the action
or condition by which a hazardous event (3.122) is initiated (an initiating event). The cause can arise as the result
of failure (3.98), human error (3.94), design (3.82, 3.83) inadequacy, induced or natural environment (3.92), system
(3.234) configuration (3.50) or operational mode(s).
caution condition
condition which has the potential to degrade into a warning condition, and which might require specific
action (3.9), including the implementation of special procedures (3.170) or restrictions on the operation
of the system (3.234)
[SOURCE: ISO 14620-1:2018, 3.1.3]
procedure (3.170) by which a party gives formal assurance that a person or an organization (3.163) acts,
or a product (3.173) is, in compliance with specified requirements (3.201)
Note 1 to entry: Certification can be carried out by a first, second or third party.
[SOURCE: EN 16601-00-01:2015, 2.3.29]
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ISO 10795:2019(E)

certificate of conformity
documented information that attests to product (3.173) conformity (3.60), conformance to defined
process (3.171), design (3.82, 3.83), and specification (3.227) requirements (3.201)
official numerically issued alterations to a document (3.88) or any portion thereof, usually brought
about by changed conditions or more complete information
Note 1 to entry: Such correction (3.67) may consist of requiring re-issuance and reprinting of the entire
document, or an instruction to replace several pages with a later publication page. However, such documents
must be revised.
Note 2 to entry: “Class 1” (“major” for deviation (3.86)) are changes that impact the contractual/technical
agreement reached between the contractor (3.66) and the customer (3.78). It is necessary that such changes be
submitted to the customer for review (3.203) and approval (3.15) before implementation.
Note 3 to entry: “Class 2” (“minor” for deviation) are changes that do not impact the customer contract (3.65)
and that are necessary for the project (3.178) and its supply chain to meet the technical/contractual requirements
(3.201) and provisions (3.181). Such changes can be implemented after configuration control board (CCB)
[SOURCE: ISO 21886:2019, 3.7, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added; in Note 2 and 3 to entry, the
words "for deviation" has been added.]
change request
document (3.88) containing a call for a change (3.39) of a requirement (3.201) of a product (3.173) or
process (3.171)
Note 1 to entry: It is of great importance in the change management (3.146) process.
Note 2 to entry: A change request is declarative (i.e. it states what it is necessary to accomplish) but leaves out
how the change should be carried out.
distinguishing feature
Note 1 to entry: A characteristic can be inherent or assigned.
Note 2 to entry: A characteristic can be qualitative or quantitative.
Note 3 to entry: There are various classes of characteristic, such as the following:
a) physical (e.g. mechanical, electrical, chemical or biological characteristics);
b) sensory (e.g. related to smell, touch, taste, sight, hearing);
c) behavioural (e.g. courtesy, honesty, veracity);
d) temporal (e.g. punctuality, reliability (3.198), availability (3.28), continuity);
e) ergonomic (e.g. physiological characteristic, or related to human safety (3.210));
f) functional (e.g. maximum speed of an aircraft).
[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.10.1]
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ISO 10795:2019(E)

clean room
clean area controlled according to specified levels
Note 1 to entry: Levels specified include humidity, temperature, particulates number versus size and volume and
chemical contamination (3.62).
certification (3.37) of a spacecraft (3.224) as ready for mission (3.154) operations
[SOURCE: ISO 10784-1:2011, 3.1.1]
common-cause failure
failure (3.98) of multiple items (3.134) occurring from a single cause (3.35) which is common to all of them
[SOURCE: ISO 14620-1:2018, 3.1.4]
common-mode failure
failure (3.98) of multiple identical items (3.134) that fail in the same mode
Note 1 to entry: Common mode failures are a particular case of common-cause failures (3.44).
[SOURCE: ISO 14620-1:2018, 3.1.5]
common-mode fault
fault (3.101, 3.102) of multiple items (3.134) that exhibit the same fault mode
demonstrated ability to apply knowledge and skills
Note 1 to entry: Technical competence is defined by the know-how, such as working practices, special skills
(“tours de main”), mastery of technology, etc.
Note 2 to entry: Cognitive competence is knowledge, such as specific fundamental knowledge, scientific “capital”,
expertise in a domain, history, etc.
Note 3 to entry: Methodological competence is defined by the working methods, such as problem solving, manner
of decision.
Note 4 to entry: Experimental competence is the experience related to relations with different interlocutors (e.g.
customer (3.78) relations), to participation, to events, to “personal” actions (3.9), etc.
[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.10.4, modified — “[.]to achieve intended results” has been removed
from definition; Notes 1 and 2 to entry had been replaced with new ones; Notes to entry 3 and 4
have been added.]
set of materials (3.148), assembled according to defined and controlled processes (3.171), which cannot
be disassembled without destroying its capability and which performs a simple function (3.110) that
can be evaluated against expected performance (3.166) requirements (3.201)
[SOURCE: EN 16601-00-01:2015, 2.3.37, modified — NOTE 1 and 2 have been removed.]
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ISO 10795:2019(E)

permission to use or release a product (3.173) or service that does not conform to specified
requirements (3.201)
Note 1 to entry: A concession is generally limited to the delivery of products and services that have nonconforming
characteristics (3.41) within specified limits and is generally given for a limited quantity of products and services
or period of time, and for a specific use.
[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.12.5]
interrelated functional and physical characteristics (3.41) of a product (3.173) or service defined in
product configuration (3.50) information
[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.10.6]
configuration baseline
approved product (3.173) configuration (3.50) information that establishes the characteristics (3.41) of
a product or service at a point in time that serves as reference for activities throughout the life cycle
(3.141) of the product or service
[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.10.7]
configuration control
coordinated activities for controlling modifications (3.156) to a configuration baseline (3.51)
Note 1 to entry: Request for deviations (3.86) are also considered modifications to a configuration baseline.
[SOURCE: EN 16601-00-01:2015, 2.3.41]
configuration document
document (3.88) that defines the requirements (3.201) for the function (3.110), design (3.82, 3.83), build,
production, and verification (3.244) for a configuration item (3.55)
Note 1 to entry: For space systems, configuration documents can include documents relating to the operation
and disposal of the configuration item.
[SOURCE: ISO 21886:2019, 3.4]
configuration identification
coordinated activities to establish rules for configuration item (3.55) selection, configuration baseline
(3.51) content definition, and product (3.173) and document (3.88) identifiers definition
[SOURCE: EN 16601-00-01:2015, 2.3.43]
configuration item
entity within a configuration (3.50) that satisfies an end use function (3.110)
[SOURCE: ISO 10007:2017, 3.3]
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ISO 10795:2019(E)

configuration item data list
document (3.88) generated from the central configuration (3.50) database giving the current design
(3.82, 3.83) status of a configuration item (3.55) at a given point of time in sufficient detail and/or
providing its complete definition
Note 1 to entry: A CIDL includes the list of applicable changes (3.39) not yet incorporated into the

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