Interior air of road vehicles — Part 1: Whole vehicle test chamber — Specification and method for the determination of volatile organic compounds in cabin interiors

This document specifies the whole vehicle test chamber, the vapour sampling assembly and the operating conditions for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and carbonyl compounds in vehicle cabin air. There are three measurements performed: one (for VOCs and carbonyl compounds) during the simulation of ambient conditions (ambient mode) at standard conditions of 23 °C - 25 °C with no air exchange; a second only for the measurement of formaldehyde at elevated temperatures (parking mode); and a third for VOCs and carbonyl compounds simulating driving after the vehicle has been parked in the sun starting at elevated temperatures (driving mode). For the simulation of the mean sun irradiation, a fixed irradiation in the whole vehicle test chamber is employed. The VOC method is valid for measurement of non-polar and slightly polar VOCs in a concentration range of sub-micrograms per cubic metre up to several milligrams per cubic metre. Using the principles specified in this method, some semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) can also be analysed. Compatible compounds are those which can be trapped and released from the Tenax TA®[1] sorbent tubes described in ISO 16000‑6, which includes VOCs ranging in volatility from n-C6 to n-C16. The sampling and analysis procedure for formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds is performed by collecting air on to cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and subsequent analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection by ultraviolet absorption. Formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds can be determined in the approximate concentration range 1 µg/m3 to 1 mg/m3. The method is valid for passenger cars, as defined in ECE-TRANS-WP.29/1045. This document gives guidelines for: a) transport and storage of the test vehicles until the start of the test; b) conditioning for the surroundings of the test vehicle and the test vehicle itself as well as the whole vehicle test chamber; c) conditioning of the test vehicle prior to measurements; d) simulation of ambient air conditions (ambient mode); e) formaldehyde sampling at elevated temperatures (parking mode); f) simulation of driving after the test vehicle has been parked in the sun (driving mode). [1] Tenax TA® is the trade name of a product supplied by Buchem. This information is given for the convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the product named. Equivalent products may be used if they can be shown to lead to the same results.

Air intérieur des véhicules routiers — Partie 1: Enceinte d'essai pour un véhicule complet — Spécification et méthode de détermination des composés organiques volatils dans les habitacles d'automobiles

Notranji zrak v cestnih vozilih - 1. del: Preskusna komora za celotno vozilo - Specifikacija in metoda za določevanje hlapnih organskih spojin v notranjosti kabine

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Published
Publication Date
30-Aug-2021
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
31-Aug-2021
Completion Date
31-Aug-2021

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12219-1
Second edition
2021-08
Interior air of road vehicles —
Part 1:
Whole vehicle test chamber —
Specification and method for the
determination of volatile organic
compounds in cabin interiors
Air intérieur des véhicules routiers —
Partie 1: Enceinte d'essai pour un véhicule complet — Spécification et
méthode de détermination des composés organiques volatils dans les
habitacles d'automobiles
Reference number
ISO 12219-1:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 12219-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 12219-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Apparatus and materials.............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Heating radiator ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Sampling trains ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3.1 Sampling in the test vehicle .................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3.2 Sampling in the whole vehicle test chamber ........................................................................................... 4

4.3.3 Sampling line ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.4 Analytical equipment and materials .................................................................................................................................... 5

4.5 Test vehicle ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6 Requirements of the whole vehicle test chamber, test vehicle and measurement

procedures .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.1 Requirements for the whole vehicle test chamber .................................................................................................. 6

6.2 Requirements for the test vehicle ........................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.2 Restricting influencing factors ............................................................................................................................. 8

6.2.3 Requirements for sampling train set up ...................................................................................................... 8

6.2.4 Temperature and ventilation................................................................................................................................. 9

6.3 Requirements for VOC and carbonyl compound air sampling and measurement methods 9

6.4 Blank measurements ......................................................................................................................................................................10

6.4.1 Field blanks .......................................................................................................................................................................10

6.4.2 Analytical blanks ...........................................................................................................................................................10

7 Standard test procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................11

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.2 Preparation of the test chamber, vehicle and field blanks ..............................................................................11

7.2.1 Pre-arrangements ........................................................................................................................................................11

7.2.2 Preconditioning of the whole vehicle test chamber .......................................................................11

7.2.3 Preconditioning of the test vehicle ................................................................................................................11

7.2.4 Field blanks .......................................................................................................................................................................11

7.3 Detailed description of the test procedure ..................................................................................................................12

7.3.1 Ambient mode .................................................................................................................................................................12

7.3.2 Parking mode ...................................................................................................................................................................12

7.3.3 Driving mode ....................................................................................................................................................................13

8 Results ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

9 Performance characteristics .................................................................................................................................................................13

10 Quality assurance/quality control ..................................................................................................................................................14

Annex A (informative) Whole vehicle test chamber ..........................................................................................................................15

Annex B (informative) Temperature measuring points for parking mode ...............................................................16

Annex C (informative) Test report .......................................................................................................................................................................17

Annex D (normative) Overview of the number of samples to be taken ........................................................................28

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................29

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 12219-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 146, Air quality, Subcommittee SC 6,

Indoor air.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 12219-1:2012), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— Adaption of temperatures, number of samples to be taken and the pre-conditioning and measuring

times to be consistent with the UN mutual resolution concerning the common definitions of vehicle

categories, masses and dimensions.
A list of all parts in the ISO 12219 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 12219-1:2021(E)
Introduction

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are widely used in industry and can be emitted by many everyday

products and materials. They have attracted attention in recent years because of their impact on indoor

air quality. After homes and workplaces, people spend a lot of time in their vehicles. It is important to

determine the material emissions of interior parts and to reduce them to an acceptable level, if required.

Therefore, it is necessary to obtain comprehensive and reliable information about the types of organic

compounds in the interior air of vehicles and also their concentrations.

This document outlines a method of measuring the types and levels of VOCs in vehicle cabin air under

controlled conditions. It describes requirements for a whole vehicle test chamber and a test protocol.

Measurements are carried out according to ISO 16000-6 (VOCs) and ISO 16000-3 (carbonyl compounds).

There are several national test methods available for measuring in-vehicle air quality, e.g. References [2]

[4]. However, this document requires a fixed heating radiation system whereas the methods of

References [2][3] define a fixed temperature programme.

Before setting a fixed radiation density for heating the test vehicle, several validation measurements

were performed (Reference [1]).
[6] [7] [8] [9]
ISO 16000-3, ISO 16000-5, ISO 16000-6, ISO 16000-9, ISO 16000-10, ISO 16000-11,
[10] [11] [12]

ISO 16000-24, ISO 16000-25, as well as ISO 16017-1 and ISO 16017-2 also focus on volatile

organic compound (VOC) measurements.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12219-1:2021(E)
Interior air of road vehicles —
Part 1:
Whole vehicle test chamber — Specification and method
for the determination of volatile organic compounds in
cabin interiors
1 Scope

This document specifies the whole vehicle test chamber, the vapour sampling assembly and the operating

conditions for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and carbonyl compounds in

vehicle cabin air. There are three measurements performed: one (for VOCs and carbonyl compounds)

during the simulation of ambient conditions (ambient mode) at standard conditions of 23 °C - 25 °C with

no air exchange; a second only for the measurement of formaldehyde at elevated temperatures (parking

mode); and a third for VOCs and carbonyl compounds simulating driving after the vehicle has been

parked in the sun starting at elevated temperatures (driving mode). For the simulation of the mean sun

irradiation, a fixed irradiation in the whole vehicle test chamber is employed.

The VOC method is valid for measurement of non-polar and slightly polar VOCs in a concentration range

of sub-micrograms per cubic metre up to several milligrams per cubic metre. Using the principles

specified in this method, some semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) can also be analysed.

®1)

Compatible compounds are those which can be trapped and released from the Tenax TA sorbent

tubes described in ISO 16000-6, which includes VOCs ranging in volatility from n-C to n-C .

6 16

The sampling and analysis procedure for formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds is performed

by collecting air on to cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and subsequent

analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection by ultraviolet absorption.

Formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds can be determined in the approximate concentration

3 3
range 1 µg/m to 1 mg/m .
The method is valid for passenger cars, as defined in ECE-TRANS-WP.29/1045.
This document gives guidelines for:
a) transport and storage of the test vehicles until the start of the test;

b) conditioning for the surroundings of the test vehicle and the test vehicle itself as well as the whole

vehicle test chamber;
c) conditioning of the test vehicle prior to measurements;
d) simulation of ambient air conditions (ambient mode);
e) formaldehyde sampling at elevated temperatures (parking mode);

f) simulation of driving after the test vehicle has been parked in the sun (driving mode).

1) Tenax TA® is the trade name of a product supplied by Buchem. This information is given for the convenience of

users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the product named. Equivalent products

may be used if they can be shown to lead to the same results.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 12219-1:2021(E)
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 9060, Solar energy — Specification and classification of instruments for measuring hemispherical solar

and direct solar radiation

ISO 16000-3, Indoor air — Part 3: Determination of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds in indoor

air and test chamber air — Active sampling method

ECE-TRANS-WP.29/1045, Special resolution No 1, Concerning the common definitions of vehicle categories,

masses and dimensions (S.R. 1)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
background concentration

substance concentrations in the whole vehicle test chamber when the test vehicle is inside

3.2
test vehicle

new category 1-1 vehicle (3.12), not older than 28 d ± 5 d after the production date (3.13) to be tested.

Note 1 to entry: Excludes busses used for public transport and trucks only used for the transport of goods

3.3
total volatile organic compounds
TVOCs
®1)

sum of volatile organic compounds sampled on Tenax TA and eluting between and including n-hexane

and n-hexadecane, detected with a flame ionization detector (TVOC ) or mass spectrometric detector

FID

(TVOC ) and quantified converting the total area of the chromatogram in that analytical window to

toluene equivalents
3.4
carbonyl compound

compound containing the functional group -C(=) determined according to specified procedure

Note 1 to entry: For the purposes of this document. The procedure is that specified in ISO 16000-3.

3.5
ambient mode

mode in which sampling of substances in the interior air of a test vehicle under standardized ambient

temperature conditions is performed, defined by 23 °C - 25 °C, as close as possible to 25 °C

3.6
parking mode

mode in which sampling of substances in the interior air of a test vehicle under elevated temperatures

resulting from defined external heat radiation is performed
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 12219-1:2021(E)
3.7
driving mode

mode in which sampling of substances in the interior air of a test vehicle, under standardized conditions

starting at elevated temperatures and with the engine on using air conditioning

Note 1 to entry: Driving is simulated with an idle test procedure of a vehicle driven after being parked in the sun

3.8
breathing zone
semi-sphere area with 50 cm radius in front of the drivers face
3.9
sampling train

apparatus to collect the air sample inside the test vehicle cabin from the breathing zone and to collect

the air sample from in the whole vehicle test chamber, trapping the test substances in sorbent tubes

under standardized conditions
3.10
volatile organic compound (VOC)
volatile organic compound, ranging in volatility from n-C to n-C
6 16
EXAMPLE Benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene and styrene.
3.11
production date
date a new vehicle leaves the production line
3.12
category 1 vehicle

power-driven vehicle with four or more wheels designed and constructed primarily for the carriage of

(a) person(s)
3.13
category 1-1 vehicle

category 1 vehicle (3.12) comprising not more than eight seating positions in addition to the driver's

seating position
Note 1 to entry: A category 1-1 vehicle cannot have standing passengers.
4 Apparatus and materials
4.1 General

The whole vehicle test chamber is big enough to house the test vehicle completely. An air-conditioning

system is installed to allow standardized air conditions for a temperature of 23 °C - 25 °C and for a

humidity of 50 % RH ± 10 % RH. A solar radiator system is installed to heat the test vehicle cabin with a

fixed irradiation. The resulting temperature inside the cabin depends on the insulation and the window

glass material (the minimum requirements are specified in 6.1) (see also Figure 1).

4.2 Heating radiator

Infrared radiator, halogen radiator or other radiators (simulating sunlight) (wavelengths < 300 nm

shall be filtered out). The heating radiators used shall be powered to create a radiation density at the

reference measurement point in the middle of the roof surface of the test vehicle of 350 W/m to 450 W/

2 2 2
m (400 W/m ± 50 W/m ).

The heating area shall cover at least the area of the test vehicle cabin and an additional 0,5 m more to

each side of the lower part of the glazing (footprint) (see Figure 1). Position the heating radiators on the

roof with a shining angle of 90° to the heating area. There shall be no heating radiators shining from the

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 12219-1:2021(E)

side. The heating area shall be calibrated in squares of 25 cm × 25 cm with a radiation density of 400 W/

2 2

m ± 50 W/m . The required radiation density shall be available directly after the lamps are switched

on (within a few minutes).
The irradiation shall be measured in accordance with ISO 9060.

Take care not to have too short a distance between radiator and surface in order to avoid hot spots.

4.3 Sampling trains
4.3.1 Sampling in the test vehicle

Four sampling trains are employed: two for the VOC measurements in parallel and two for the carbonyl

compound measurements in parallel in the test vehicle (to check the repeatability) (see ISO 16000-3

for carbonyl compounds and ISO 16000-6 or ISO 16017-1 for VOCs). There is one sampling line with a

manifold for the division of the sampling flow outside the test vehicle (see 4.3.3). It consists of the probe,

the sampling line (heated, if necessary), the sorbent tube for VOC or the DNPH cartridge for carbonyl

compound sampling respectively, the gas meters and the pumps (see 4.5).

Prior to sampling, the sampling system shall be checked under sampling load conditions for air

tightness. Do not skip this critical step because leaks have a high impact on the test results due to the

large backpressure of the tubes and cartridges. To check for leaks, plug the inlet to the sample system.

Then use a vacuum pump to bring the sampling system to 71 kPa vacuum, then close a valve between

the sample system and the pump. After 30 seconds, the sample system vacuum shall be greater than

68 kPa to proceed. Do not change the sample trains in any way after the leak check procedure is

performed. Other equivalent leak checks can be performed.
4.3.2 Sampling in the whole vehicle test chamber

Four sampling trains are used to determine the background concentration in the whole vehicle test

chamber. The sampling trains are identical to those of 4.3.1, apart from the sampling line, which is much

shorter and not heated.

All sampling trains shall have a maximum vacuum decay rate of 30 kPa for an average of 10 s. The

nozzle is plugged for the leak check. Other equivalent leak checks can be employed.

4.3.3 Sampling line

Tubing, between the sampling point (probe) inside the test vehicle, via the manifold outside the test

vehicle to the VOC sorbent tubes or DNPH cartridges respectively (see Figure 1).
The sampling line shall be constructed so as to be:
a) as short as possible (maximum 5 m) with an internal diameter of 4 mm or more;

b) of inert, non-emitting and non-absorbing/non-adsorbing material [e.g. stainless steel or

polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or glass/quartz (deactivated)];
c) proven that there are no contaminations or sink effects in the sampling line;

d) with heating device, if necessary, to prevent condensation/deposition on the inner walls (best

practice: temperature controlled to about 20 °C above air temperature inside the test vehicle).

The tubing should be inserted between the door and the door frame or between the door frame and the

glazing and should be sufficiently non-compressible to ensure an unimpeded flow of air.

The second sampling line [tubing, between the sampling point (probe) in the whole vehicle test chamber

in the vicinity of the test vehicle [see 6.1 a)] and the manifold and to the VOC sorbent tubes or DNPH

cartridges, respectively] is identical to that described in the preceding, but no heating is necessary. This

second sampling line is needed to monitor the background analyte concentration of the whole vehicle

4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 12219-1:2021(E)

test chamber. This measurement is taken after the 24 h temperature acclimation phase and just prior to

opening the vehicle doors for the VOC conditioning phase.
4.4 Analytical equipment and materials

The analytical equipment used for the determination of VOCs and carbonyl compounds or formaldehyde

alone shall be in accordance with ISO 16000-6 (VOCs) or ISO 16000-3 (carbonyl compounds),

respectively.

It shall be proven for the VOC sorbent tubes and the DNPH cartridges that there is no breakthrough.

This can be identified by a back-up sorbent tube which is analysed separately (see ISO 16017-1).

4.5 Test vehicle

A new vehicle to be tested shall have been manufactured by the normal production process. The test

data are dependent on the trim level and exterior colour of the selected test vehicle. The colour of the

test vehicles for the determination of the official VOC and carbonyl compound emissions is black. If

there is no black test vehicle available, take the darkest colour.
All manual glazing shades shall remain open.

The test vehicle shall be stored and transported under conditions preventing direct solar heating,

otherwise the vehicle shall be conditioned after arrival overnight with open doors and windows before

it is transferred into the whole vehicle test chamber. No transport waxes for protection should be used.

All transport foils or transit lacquers shall be removed at least 24 h before the test.

To establish quality control, it is recommended to measure several vehicles and take multiple air

samples of one vehicle for one result. Therefore, it was decided because of cost reasons that measuring

one vehicle and taking just one sample of VOC and one sample of aldehydes are sufficient for one result.

However, general quality measures shall not be neglected and should be periodically assessed.

5 Principle

A whole vehicle test chamber (see Annex A for an example) reserved for this purpose is assembled.

The air in the test vehicle cabin is measured according to a uniform standardized programme (see

Figure 1). Sampling of VOCs and carbonyl compounds is performed for the ambient mode at 23 °C -

25 °C, as close as possible to 25 °C. Subsequently, formaldehyde is determined alone under elevated

temperature conditions in the parking mode (see Table 1). Sunshine is simulated by the use of heating

radiators providing a mean fixed irradiation for 4,5 h, after which a third sample is taken in the driving

mode.

The humidity and temperature of the air inside the whole vehicle test chamber are measured. The

VOC and carbonyl compound vapour samples are taken in the driver breathing zone and collected on

VOC sorbent tubes and DNPH cartridges. Substances to be measured are: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde,

benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, and acrolein.

Later the samples shall be analysed in the laboratory according to ISO 16000-6 or ISO 16000-3,

respectively.

Furthermore, VOC and carbonyl compound vapour samples are taken in the whole vehicle test chamber

to determine the background concentrations. The sampling trains are identical to those of 4.3, but

the sampling line is shorter and not heated. Altogether a minimum of 24 samples are required (see

Annex D).

The temperature resulting from use of the heating radiators inside the test vehicle cabin depends upon

the model of the test vehicle and is influenced by the insulation, the window material, etc.

The analytical part of the overall measurement procedure is based on the use of sorbent tubes

with subsequent thermal desorption and gas chromatographic analysis for VOCs (according to

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 12219-1:2021(E)

ISO 16000-6) and the use of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridges for the determination of

®1)

carbonyl compounds (according to ISO 16000-3). The sampling of VOCs is referenced to Tenax

...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 12219-1
ISO/TC 146/SC 6
Interior air of road vehicles —
Secretariat: DIN
Voting begins on:
Part 1:
2021-04-20
Whole vehicle test chamber —
Voting terminates on:
Specification and method for the
2021-06-15
determination of volatile organic
compounds in cabin interiors
Air intérieur des véhicules routiers —
Partie 1: Enceinte d'essai pour un véhicule complet — Spécification et
méthode de détermination des composés organiques volatils dans les
habitacles d'automobiles
Member bodies are requested to consult relevant national interests in ISO/TC
22 before casting their ballot to the e-Balloting application.
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 12219-1:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 12219-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 12219-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Apparatus and materials.............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Heating radiator ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Sampling trains ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3.1 Sampling in the test vehicle .................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3.2 Sampling in the whole vehicle test chamber ........................................................................................... 4

4.3.3 Sampling line ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.4 Analytical equipment and materials .................................................................................................................................... 5

4.5 Test vehicle ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6 Requirements of the whole vehicle test chamber, test vehicle and measurement

procedures .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.1 Requirements for the whole vehicle test chamber .................................................................................................. 6

6.2 Requirements for the test vehicle ........................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.2 Restricting influencing factors ............................................................................................................................. 8

6.2.3 Requirements for sampling train set up ...................................................................................................... 8

6.2.4 Temperature and ventilation................................................................................................................................. 9

6.3 Requirements for VOC and carbonyl compound air sampling and measurement methods 9

6.4 Blank measurements ......................................................................................................................................................................10

6.4.1 Field blanks .......................................................................................................................................................................10

6.4.2 Analytical blanks ...........................................................................................................................................................10

7 Standard test procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................11

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.2 Preparation of the test chamber, vehicle and field blanks ..............................................................................11

7.2.1 Pre-arrangements ........................................................................................................................................................11

7.2.2 Preconditioning of the whole vehicle test chamber .......................................................................11

7.2.3 Preconditioning of the test vehicle ................................................................................................................11

7.2.4 Field blanks .......................................................................................................................................................................11

7.3 Detailed description of the test procedure ..................................................................................................................12

7.3.1 Ambient mode .................................................................................................................................................................12

7.3.2 Parking mode ...................................................................................................................................................................12

7.3.3 Driving mode ....................................................................................................................................................................13

8 Results ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

9 Performance characteristics .................................................................................................................................................................13

10 Quality assurance/quality control ..................................................................................................................................................14

Annex A (informative) Whole vehicle test chamber ..........................................................................................................................15

Annex B (informative) Temperature meausuring points for parking mode ............................................................16

Annex C (informative) Test report .......................................................................................................................................................................17

Annex D (normative) Overview of the number of samples to be taken ........................................................................28

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................29

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 12219-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 146, Air quality, Subcommittee SC 6,

Indoor air.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 12219-1:2012), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— Adaption of temperatures, number of samples to be taken and the pre-conditioning and measuring

times to be consistent with the UN mutual resolution concerning the common definitions of vehicle

categories, masses and dimensions.
A list of all parts in the ISO 12219 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 12219-1:2021(E)
Introduction

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are widely used in industry and can be emitted by many everyday

products and materials. They have attracted attention in recent years because of their impact on indoor

air quality. After homes and workplaces, people spend a lot of time in their vehicles. It is important to

determine the material emissions of interior parts and to reduce them to an acceptable level, if required.

Therefore it is necessary to obtain comprehensive and reliable information about the types of organic

compounds in the interior air of vehicles and also their concentrations.

This document outlines a method of measuring the types and levels of VOCs in vehicle cabin air under

controlled conditions. It describes requirements for a whole vehicle test chamber and a test protocol.

Measurements are carried out according to ISO 16000-6 (VOCs) and ISO 16000-3 (carbonyl compounds).

There are several national test methods available for measuring in-vehicle air quality, e.g. References

[2][4]. However, this document requires a fixed heating radiation system whereas the methods of

References [2][3] define a fixed temperature programme.

Before setting a fixed radiation density for heating the test vehicle, several validation measurements

were performed (Reference [1]).
[6] [7] [8] [9]
ISO 16000-3, ISO 16000-5, ISO 16000-6, ISO 16000-9, ISO 16000-10, ISO 16000-11,
[10] [11] [12]

ISO 16000-24, ISO 16000-25, as well as ISO 16017-1 and ISO 16017-2 also focus on volatile

organic compound (VOC) measurements.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 12219-1:2021(E)
Interior air of road vehicles —
Part 1:
Whole vehicle test chamber — Specification and method
for the determination of volatile organic compounds in
cabin interiors
1 Scope

This document specifies the whole vehicle test chamber, the vapour sampling assembly and the operating

conditions for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and carbonyl compounds in

vehicle cabin air. There are three measurements performed: one (for VOCs and carbonyl compounds)

during the simulation of ambient conditions (ambient mode) at standard conditions of 23-25 °C with no

air exchange; a second only for the measurement of formaldehyde at elevated temperatures (parking

mode); and a third for VOCs and carbonyl compounds simulating driving after the vehicle has been

parked in the sun starting at elevated temperatures (driving mode). For the simulation of the mean sun

irradiation, a fixed irradiation in the whole vehicle test chamber is employed.

The VOC method is valid for measurement of non-polar and slightly polar VOCs in a concentration range

of sub-micrograms per cubic metre up to several milligrams per cubic metre. Using the principles

specified in this method, some semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) can also be analysed.

®1)

Compatible compounds are those which can be trapped and released from the Tenax TA sorbent

tubes described in ISO 16000-6, which includes VOCs ranging in volatility from n-C to n-C .

6 16

The sampling and analysis procedure for formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds is performed

by collecting air on to cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and subsequent

analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection by ultraviolet absorption.

Formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds can be determined in the approximate concentration

3 3
range 1 µg/m to 1 mg/m .
The method is valid for passenger cars, as defined in ECE-TRANS-WP.29/1045.
This document give guidelines for:
a) transport and storage of the test vehicles until the start of the test;

b) conditioning for the surroundings of the test vehicle and the test vehicle itself as well as the whole

vehicle test chamber;
c) conditioning of the test vehicle prior to measurements;
d) simulation of ambient air conditions (ambient mode);
e) formaldehyde sampling at elevated temperatures (parking mode);

f) simulation of driving after the test vehicle has been parked in the sun (driving mode).

1) Tenax TA® is the trade name of a product supplied by Buchem. This information is given for the convenience of

users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of the product named. Equivalent products

may be used if they can be shown to lead to the same results.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/FDIS 12219-1:2021(E)
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 9060, Solar energy — Specification and classification of instruments for measuring hemispherical solar

and direct solar radiation

ISO 16000-3, Indoor air — Part 3: Determination of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds in indoor

air and test chamber air — Active sampling method

ECE-TRANS-WP.29/1045, Special resolution No 1, Concerning the common definitions of vehicle categories,

masses and dimensions (S.R. 1)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
background concentration

substance concentrations in the whole vehicle test chamber when the test vehicle is inside

3.2
test vehicle

new category 1-1 vehicle (3.12), not older than 28 d ± 5 d after the production date (3.13) to be tested.

Note 1 to entry: Excludes busses used for public transport and trucks only used for the transport of goods

3.3
total volatile compounds
TVOCs
®1)

sum of volatile organic compounds sampled on Tenax TA and eluting between and including n-hexane

and n-hexadecane, detected with a flame ionization detector (TVOC ) or mass spectrometric detector

FID

(TVOC ) and quantified converting the total area of the chromatogram in that analytical window to

toluene equivalents
3.4
carbonyl compound

compound containing the functional group -C(=) determined according to specified procedure

Note 1 to entry: For the purposes of this document. The procedure is that specified in ISO 16000-3.

3.5
ambient mode

mode in which sampling of substances in the interior air of a test vehicle under standardized ambient

temperature conditions is performed, defined by 23-25 °C, as close as possible to 25 °C

3.6
parking mode

mode in which sampling of substances in the interior air of a test vehicle under elevated temperatures

resulting from defined external heat radiation is performed
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 12219-1:2021(E)
3.7
driving mode

mode in which sampling of substances in the interior air of a test vehicle, under standardized conditions

starting at elevated temperatures and with the engine on using air conditioning

Note 1 to entry: Driving is simulated with an idle test procedure of a vehicle driven after being parked in the sun

3.8
breathing zone
semi-sphere area with 50 cm radius in front of the drivers face
3.9
sampling train

apparatus to collect the air sample inside the test vehicle cabin from the breathing zone and to collect

the air sample from in the whole vehicle test chamber, trapping the test substances in sorbent tubes

under standardized conditions
3.10
volatile organic compound (VOC)
volatile organic compound, ranging in volatility from n-C to n-C
6 16
EXAMPLE Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethylbenzene and Styrene
3.11
production date
date a new vehicle leaves the production line
3.12
category 1 vehicle

power-driven vehicle with four or more wheels designed and constructed primarily for the carriage of

(a) person(s)
3.13
cateogory 1-1 vehicle

category 1 vehicle (3.12) comprising not more than eight seating positions in addition to the driver's

seating position
Note 1 to entry: A category 1-1 vehicle cannot have standing passengers.
4 Apparatus and materials
4.1 General

The whole vehicle test chamber is big enough to house the test vehicle completely. An air-conditioning

system is installed to allow standardized air conditions for a temperature of 23-25 °C and for a humidity

of 50 % RH ± 10 % RH. A solar radiator system is installed to heat the test vehicle cabin with a fixed

irradiation. The resulting temperature inside the cabin depends on the insulation and the window glass

material (the minimum requirements are specified in 6.1) (see also Figure 1).
4.2 Heating radiator

Infrared radiator, halogen radiator or other radiators (simulating sunlight) (wavelengths < 300 nm

shall be filtered out). The heating radiators used shall be powered to create a radiation density at the

reference measurement point in the middle of the roof surface of the test vehicle of 350 W/m to 450 W/

2 2 2
m (400 W/m ± 50 W/m ).

The heating area shall cover at least the area of the test vehicle cabin and an additional 0,5 m more to

each side of the lower part of the glazing (footprint) (see Figure 1). Position the heating radiators on the

roof with a shining angle of 90° to the heating area. There shall be no heating radiators shining from the

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/FDIS 12219-1:2021(E)

side. The heating area shall be calibrated in squares of 25 cm × 25 cm with a radiation density of 400 W/

2 2

m ± 50 W/m . The required radiation density shall be available directly after the lamps are switched

on (within a few minutes).
The irradiation shall be measured in accordance with ISO 9060.

Take care not to have too short a distance between radiator and surface in order to avoid hot spots.

4.3 Sampling trains
4.3.1 Sampling in the test vehicle

Four sampling trains are employed: two for the VOC measurements in parallel and two for the carbonyl

compound measurements in parallel in the test vehicle (to check the repeatability) (see ISO 16000-3

for carbonyl compounds and ISO 16000-6 or ISO 16017-1 for VOCs). There is one sampling line with a

manifold for the division of the sampling flow outside the test vehicle (see 4.3.3). It consists of the probe,

the sampling line (heated, if necessary), the sorbent tube for VOC or the DNPH cartridge for carbonyl

compound sampling respectively, the gas meters and the pumps (see 4.5).

Prior to sampling, the sampling system shall be checked under sampling load conditions for air

tightness. Do not skip this critical step because leaks have a high impact on the test results due to the

large backpressure of the tubes and cartidges. To check for leaks, plug the inlet to the sample system.

Then use a vacuum pump to bring the sampling system to 71 kPa vacuum, then close a valve between

the sample system and the pump. After 30 seconds, the sample system vacuum shall be greater than

68 kPa to proceed. Do not change the sample trains in any way after the leak check procedure is

performed. Other equivalent leak checks can be performed.
4.3.2 Sampling in the whole vehicle test chamber

Four sampling trains are used to determine the background concentration in the whole vehicle test

chamber. The sampling trains are identical to those of 4.3.1, apart from the sampling line, which is much

shorter and not heated.

All sampling trains shall have a maximum vacuum decay rate of 30 kPa for an average of 10 s. The

nozzle is plugged for the leak check. Other equivalent leak checks can be employed.

4.3.3 Sampling line

Tubing, between the sampling point (probe) inside the test vehicle, via the manifold outside the test

vehicle to the VOC sorbent tubes or DNPH cartridges respectively (see Figure 1).
The sampling line shall be constructed so as to be:
a) as short as possible (maximum 5 m) with an internal diameter of 4 mm or more;

b) of inert, non-emitting and non-absorbing/non-adsorbing material [e.g. stainless steel or

polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or glass/quartz (deactivated)];
c) proven that there are no contaminations or sink effects in the sampling line;

d) with heating device, if necessary, to prevent condensation/deposition on the inner walls (best

practice: temperature controlled to about 20 °C above air temperature inside the test vehicle).

The tubing should be inserted between the door and the door frame or between the door frame and the

glazing and should be sufficiently non-compressible to ensure an unimpeded flow of air.

The second sampling line [tubing, between the sampling point (probe) in the whole vehicle test chamber

in the vicinity of the test vehicle [see 6.1 a)] and the manifold and to the VOC sorbent tubes or DNPH

cartridges, respectively] is identical to that described in the preceding, but no heating is necessary. This

second sampling line is needed to monitor the background analyte concentration of the whole vehicle

4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 12219-1:2021(E)

test chamber. This measurement is taken after the 24 h temperature acclimation phase and just prior to

opening the vehicle doors for the VOC conditioning phase.
4.4 Analytical equipment and materials

The analytical equipment used for the determination of VOCs and carbonyl compounds or formaldeyde

alone shall be in accordance with ISO 16000-6 (VOCs) or ISO 16000-3 (carbonyl compounds),

respectively.

It shall be proven for the VOC sorbent tubes and the DNPH cartridges that there is no breakthrough.

This can be identified by a back-up sorbent tube which is analysed separately (see ISO 16017-1).

4.5 Test vehicle

A new vehicle to be tested shall have been manufactured by the normal production process. The test

data are dependent on the trim level and exterior colour of the selected test vehicle. The colour of the

test vehicles for the determination of the official VOC and carbonyl compound emissions is black. If

there is no black test vehicle available, take the darkest colour.
All manual glazing shades shall remain open.

The test vehicle shall be stored and transported under conditions preventing direct solar heating,

otherwise the vehicle shall be conditioned after arrival overnight with open doors and windows before

it is transferred into the whole vehicle test chamber. No transport waxes for protection should be used.

All transport foils or transit lacquers shall be removed at least 24 h before the test.

To establish quality control, it is recommended to measure several vehicles and take multiple air

samples of one vehicle for one result. Therefore, it was decided because of cost reasons that measuring

one vehicle. However, general quality measures shall not be neglected and should be periodically

assessed.
5 Principle

A whole vehicle test chamber (see Annex A for an example) reserved for this purpose is assembled.

The air in the test vehicle cabin is measured according to a uniform standardized programme (see

Figure 1). Sampling of VOCs and carbonyl compounds is performed for the ambient mode at 23-25 °C, as

close as possible to 25 °C. Subsequently, formaldehyde is determined alone under elevated temperature

conditions in the parking mode (see Table 1). Sunshine is simulated by the use of heating radiators

providing a mean fixed irradiation for 4,5 h, after which a third sample is taken in the driving mode.

The humidity and temperature of the air inside the whole vehicle test chamber are measured. The

VOC and carbonyl compound vapour samples are taken in the driver breathing zone and collected on

VOC sorbent tubes and DNPH cartridges. Substances to be measured are: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde,

benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, and acrolein.

Later the samples shall be analysed in the laboratory according to ISO 16000-6 or ISO 16000-3,

respectively.

Furthermore, VOC and carbonyl compound vapour samples are taken in the whole vehicle test chamber

to determine the background concentrations. The sampling trains are identical to those of 4.3, but

the sampling line is shorter and not heated. Altogether a minimum of 24 samples are required (see

Annex D).
The temperature resulting from use of the heat
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST ISO/DIS 12219-1:2021
01-februar-2021
Notranji zrak v cestnih vozilih - 1. del: Preskusna komora za celotno vozilo -
Specifikacija in metoda za določevanje hlapnih organskih spojin v notranjosti
kabine

Interior air of road vehicles - Part 1: Whole vehicle test chamber - Specification and

method for the determination of volatile organic compounds in cabin interiors

Air intérieur des véhicules routiers - Partie 1: Enceinte d'essai pour un véhicule complet -

Spécification et méthode de détermination des composés organiques volatils dans les

habitacles d'automobiles
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO/DIS 12219-1
ICS:
13.040.20 Kakovost okoljskega zraka Ambient atmospheres
43.020 Cestna vozila na splošno Road vehicles in general
oSIST ISO/DIS 12219-1:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST ISO/DIS 12219-1:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST ISO/DIS 12219-1:2021
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 12219-1
ISO/TC 146/SC 6 Secretariat: DIN
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2020-06-18 2020-09-10
Interior air of road vehicles —
Part 1:
Whole vehicle test chamber — Specification and method
for the determination of volatile organic compounds in
cabin interiors
Air intérieur des véhicules routiers —

Partie 1: Enceinte d'essai pour un véhicule complet — Spécification et méthode de détermination des

composés organiques volatils dans les habitacles d'automobiles
ICS: 13.040.20; 43.020
Member bodies are requested to consult relevant national interests in ISO/TC
22 before casting their ballot to the e-Balloting application.
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 12219-1:2020(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST ISO/DIS 12219-1:2021
ISO/DIS 12219-1:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST ISO/DIS 12219-1:2021
ISO/DIS 12219-1:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Apparatus and materials.............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Heating radiator ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Sampling trains ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3.1 Sampling in the test vehicle .................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3.2 Sampling in the whole vehicle test chamber ........................................................................................... 4

4.3.3 Sampling line ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.4 Analytical equipment and materials .................................................................................................................................... 5

4.5 Test vehicle ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6 Requirements of the whole vehicle test chamber, test vehicle and measurement

procedures .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.1 Requirements for the whole vehicle test chamber .................................................................................................. 6

6.2 Requirements for the test vehicle ........................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.2 Restricting influencing factors ............................................................................................................................. 8

6.2.3 Requirements for sampling train set up ...................................................................................................... 8

6.2.4 Temperature and ventilation................................................................................................................................. 9

6.3 Requirements for VOC and carbonyl compound air sampling and measurements

methods ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

6.4 Blank measurements ......................................................................................................................................................................10

6.4.1 Field blanks .......................................................................................................................................................................10

6.4.2 Analytical blanks ...........................................................................................................................................................10

7 Standard test procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................11

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.2 Preparation of the test chamber, vehicle and field blanks ..............................................................................11

7.2.1 Pre-arrangements ........................................................................................................................................................11

7.2.2 Preconditioning of the whole vehicle test chamber .......................................................................11

7.2.3 Preconditioning of the test vehicle ................................................................................................................11

7.2.4 Field blanks .......................................................................................................................................................................11

7.3 Detailed description of the test procedure ..................................................................................................................12

7.3.1 Ambient mode .................................................................................................................................................................12

7.3.2 Parking mode ...................................................................................................................................................................12

7.3.3 Driving mode ....................................................................................................................................................................13

8 Results ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

9 Performance characteristics .................................................................................................................................................................13

10 Quality assurance/quality control ..................................................................................................................................................14

Annex A (informative) Whole vehicle test chamber ..........................................................................................................................15

Annex B (informative) Temperature meausring points for parking mode ...............................................................16

Annex C (informative) Test report .......................................................................................................................................................................17

Annex D (normative) Overview of the number of samples to be taken ........................................................................28

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
oSIST ISO/DIS 12219-1:2021
ISO/DIS 12219-1:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 146, Air quality, Subcommittee SC 6,

Indoor air.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 12219-1:2012), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— Adaption of temperatures, number of samples to be taken and the pre-conditioning and measuring

times to be consistent with the UN mutual resolution.
A list of all parts in the ISO 12219 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
oSIST ISO/DIS 12219-1:2021
ISO/DIS 12219-1:2020(E)
Introduction

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are widely used in industry and can be emitted by many everyday

products and materials. They have attracted attention in recent years because of their impact on indoor

air quality. After homes and workplaces, people spend a lot of time in their vehicles. It is important to

determine the material emissions of interior parts and to reduce them to an acceptable level, if required.

Therefore it is necessary to obtain comprehensive and reliable information about the types of organic

compounds in the interior air of vehicles and also their concentrations.

This part of ISO 12219 outlines a method of measuring the types and levels of VOCs in vehicle cabin

air under controlled conditions. It describes requirements for a whole vehicle test chamber and a test

protocol. Measurements are carried out according to ISO 16000-6 (VOCs) and ISO 16000-3 (carbonyl

compounds).

There are several national test methods available for measuring in-vehicle air quality, e.g. References

[2][4]. However, this part of ISO 12219 requires a fixed heating radiation system whereas the methods

of References [2][3] define a fixed temperature programme.

Before setting a fixed radiation density for heating the test vehicle, several validation measurements

were performed (Reference [1]).
[6] [7] [8] [9]
ISO 16000-3, ISO 16000-5, ISO 16000-6, ISO 16000-9, ISO 16000-10, ISO 16000-11,
[10] [11] [12]

ISO 16000-24, ISO 16000-25, as well as ISO 16017-1 and ISO 16017-2 also focus on volatile

organic compound (VOC) measurements.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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oSIST ISO/DIS 12219-1:2021
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
oSIST ISO/DIS 12219-1:2021
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 12219-1:2020(E)
Interior air of road vehicles —
Part 1:
Whole vehicle test chamber — Specification and method
for the determination of volatile organic compounds in
cabin interiors
1 Scope

This part of ISO 12219 describes and specifies the whole vehicle test chamber, the vapour sampling

assembly and the operating conditions for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs),

and carbonyl compounds in vehicle cabin air. There are three measurements performed: one (for VOCs

and carbonyl compounds) during the simulation of ambient conditions (ambient mode) at standard

conditions of 23-25 °C with no air exchange; a second only for the measurement of formaldehyde at

elevated temperatures (parking mode); and a third for VOCs and carbonyl compounds simulating

driving after the vehicle has been parked in the sun starting at elevated temperatures (driving mode).

For the simulation of the mean sun irradiation, a fixed irradiation in the whole vehicle test chamber is

employed.

The VOC method is valid for measurement of non-polar and slightly polar VOCs in a concentration range

of sub-micrograms per cubic metre up to several milligrams per cubic metre. Using the principles

described in this method, some semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) can also be analysed.

®1)

Compatible compounds are those which can be trapped and released from the Tenax TA sorbent

tubes described in ISO 16000-6, which includes VOCs ranging in volatility from n-C to n-C .

6 16

The sampling and analysis procedure for formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds is performed

by collecting air on to cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and subsequent

analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection by ultraviolet absorption.

Formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds can be determined in the approximate concentration

3 3
range 1 µg/m to 1 mg/m .
The method is valid for passenger cars, as defined in ECE-TRANS-WP.29/1045.
This part of ISO 12219 describes:
a) transport and storage of the test vehicles until the start of the test;

b) conditioning for the surroundings of the test vehicle and the test vehicle itself as well as the whole

vehicle test chamber;
c) conditioning of the test vehicle prior to measurements;
d) simulation of ambient air conditions (ambient mode);
e) formaldehyde sampling at elevated temperatures (parking mode);

f) simulation of driving after the test vehicle has been parked in the sun (driving mode).

Tenax TA® is the trade name of a product supplied by Buchem. This information is given for the convenience of users of this document and does not

constitute an endorsement by ISO of the product named. Equivalent products may be used if they can be shown to lead to the same results.

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2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 9060, Solar energy — Specification and classification of instruments for measuring hemispherical solar

and direct solar radiation

ISO 16000-3, Indoor air — Part 3: Determination of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds in indoor

air and test chamber air — Active sampling method

ISO 16000-6:2011, Indoor air — Part 6: Determination of volatile organic compounds in indoor and test

chamber air by active sampling on Tenax TA sorbent, thermal desorption and gas chromatography using

MS or MS-FID

ISO 16017-1, Indoor, ambient and workplace air — Sampling and analysis of volatile organic compounds by

sorbent tube/thermal desorption/capillary gas chromatography — Part 1: Pumped sampling

ECE-TRANS-WP.29/1045, Special resolution No 1, Concerning the common definitions of vehicle categories,

masses and dimensions (S.R. 1)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purpose of this document, the terms and definitions of ISO 16000-3, ISO 16000-6 and the

following apply.
3.1
background concentration

substance concentrations in the whole vehicle test chamber when the test vehicle is inside

3.2
test vehicle

new, category 1-1 vehicle (3.13) to be tested. The test age of the vehicle shall not be older than 28d±5

days after the production date

Note 1 to entry: Excludes busses used for public transport and trucks only used for the transport of goods

3.3
total volatile compounds
TVOCs
®1)

sum of volatile organic compounds sampled on Tenax TA and eluting between and including n-hexane

and n-hexadecane, detected with a flame ionization detector (TVOC ) or mass spectrometric detector

FID

(TVOC ) and quantified converting the total area of the chromatogram in that analytical window to

toluene equivalents
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 16000-6:2011, 3.4
3.4
carbonyl compound
includes formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein
3.5
ambient mode

mode in which sampling of substances in the interior air of a test vehicle under standardized ambient

temperature conditions is performed, defined by 23-25 °C, as close as possible to 25°C

3.6
parking mode

mode in which sampling of substances in the interior air of a test vehicle under elevated temperatures

resulting from defined external heat radiation is performed
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3.7
driving mode

mode in which sampling of substances in the interior air of a test vehicle, under standardized conditions

starting at elevated temperatures and with the engine on using air conditioning. Driving is simulated

with an idle test procedure of a vehicle driven after being parked in the sun
3.8
breathing zone
semi-sphere area with 50 cm radios in front of the drivers face
3.9
sampling train

apparatus to collect the air sample inside the test vehicle cabin from the breathing zone and to collect

the air sample from in the whole vehicle test chamber, trapping the test substances in sorbent tubes

under standardized conditions
3.10
VOCs
volatile organic compounds, ranging in volatility from n-C6 to n-C16
EXAMPLE Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethylbenzene and Styrene
3.11
production date
date a new vehicle leaves the production line
3.12
category 1 vehicle

means a power driven vehicle with four or more wheels designed and constructed primarily for the

carriage of (a) person(s)
3.13
cateogory 1-1 vehicle

means a category 1 vehicle (3.12) comprising not more than eight seating positions in addition to the

driver's seating position
Note 1 to entry: A category 1-1 vehicle cannot have standing passengers.
4 Apparatus and materials
4.1 General

The whole vehicle test chamber is big enough to house the test vehicle completely. An air-conditioning

system is installed to allow standardized air conditions for a temperature of 23 -25 °C, humidity of

50 % RH ± 10 % RH. A solar radiator system is installed to heat the test vehicle cabin with a fixed

irradiation. The resulting temperature inside the cabin depends on the insulation and the window glass

material (the minimum requirements are specified in 6.1) (see also Figure 1).
4.2 Heating radiator

Infrared radiator, halogen radiator or other radiators (simulating sunlight) (wavelengths <300 nm

shall be filtered out). The heating radiators used shall be powered to create a radiation density at the

reference measurement point in the middle of the roof surface of the test vehicle of 350 W/m to 450 W/

2 2 2
m (400 W/m ± 50 W/m ).

The heating area shall cover at least the area of the test vehicle cabin and an additional 0,5 m more to

each side of the lower part of the glazing (footprint) (see Figure 1). Position the heating radiators on the

roof with a shining angle of 90° to the heating area. There shall be no heating radiators shining from the

side. The heating area shall be calibrated in squares of 25 cm × 25 cm with a radiation density of 400 W/

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m ±□50 W/m . The required radiation density shall be available directly after the lamps are switched

on (within a few minutes).
The irradiation shall be measured in accordance with ISO 9060.

Take care not to have too short a distance between radiator and surface in order to avoid hot spots.

4.3 Sampling trains
4.3.1 Sampling in the test vehicle

Four sampling trains are employed: two for the VOC measurements in parallel and two for the carbonyl

compound measurements in parallel in the test vehicle (to check the repeatability) (see ISO 16000-3

for carbonyl compounds and ISO 16000-6 or ISO 16017-1 for VOCs). There is one sampling line with a

manifold for the division of the sampling flow outside the test vehicle (see 4.3.3). It consists of the probe,

the sampling line (heated, if necessary), the sorbent tube for VOC or the DNPH cartridge for carbonyl

compound sampling respectively, the gas meters and the pumps (see 4.5).

Prior to sampling, the sampling system shall be checked under sampling load conditions for air

tightness. Do not skip this critical step because leaks have a high impact on the test results due to the

large backpressure of the tubes and cartidges. To check for leaks plug the inlet to the sample system.

Then use a vacuum pump to bring the sampling system to 21 inHg vacuum, then close a valve between

the sample system and the pump. After 30 seconds, the sample system vacuum must be greater than

20 inHg to proceed. Do not change the sample trains in any way after the leak check procedure is

performed. Other equivalent leak checks can be performed.
4.3.2 Sampling in the whole vehicle test chamber

Four sampling trains are used to determine the background concentration in the whole vehicle test

chamber. The sampling trains are identical to those of 4.3.1, apart from the sampling line, which is much

shorter and not heated.

All sampling trains shall have a maximum vacuum decay rate of 30 kPa for an average of 10 s. The

nozzle is plugged for the leak check. Other equivalent leak checks can be employed.

4.3.3 Sampling line

Tubing, between the sampling point (probe) inside the test vehicle, via the manifold outside the test

vehicle to the VOC sorbent tubes or DNPH cartridges respectively (see Figure 1).
The sampling line shall be constructed so as to be
a) as short as possible (maximum 5 m) with an internal diameter of 4 mm or more;

b) of inert, non-emitting and non-absorbing/non-adsorbing material [e.g. stainless steel or

polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or glass/quartz (deactivated)];
c) proven that there are no contaminations or sink effects in the sampling line;

d) with heating device, if necessary, to prevent condensation/deposition on the inner walls (best

practice: temperature controlled to about 20 °C above air temperature inside the test vehicle).

The tubing should be inserted between the door and the door frame or between the door frame and the

glazing and should be sufficiently non-compressible to ensure an unimpeded flow of air.

The second sampling line [tubing, between the sampling point (probe) in the whole vehicle test chamber

in the vicinity of the test vehicle [see 6.1 b)] and the manifold and to the VOC sorbent tubes or DNPH

cartridges, respectively] is identical to that described in the preceding, but no heating is necessary.

This second sampling line is needed to monitor the background analyte concentration of the whole

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vehicle test chamber. This measurement is taken after the 24 hours temperature acclimation phase and

just prior to opening the vehicle doors for the VOC conditioning phase.
4.4 Analytical equipment and materials

The analytical equipment used for the determination of VOCs and carbonyl compounds or formaldeyde

alone shall be in accordance with ISO 16000-6 (VOCs) or ISO 16000-3 (carbonyl compounds),

respectively.

It shall be proven for the VOC sorbent tubes and the DNPH cartridges that there is no breakthrough.

This can be identified by a back-up sorbent tube which is analysed separately (see ISO 16017-1).

4.5 Test vehicle

A new vehicle (i.e. one not driven more than 80 km and within 28 d ± 5 d after the completion of

manufacture) to be tested shall have been manufactured by the normal production process. The test

data are dependent on the trim level and exterior colour of the selected test vehicle. The colour of the

test vehicles for the determination of the official VOC and carbonyl compound emissions is black. If

there is no black test vehicle available, take the darkest colour.
All manual glazing shades shall remain open.

The test vehicle shall be stored and transported under conditions preventing direct solar heating,

otherwise the vehicle shall be conditioned after arrival overnight with open doors and windows before

it is transferred into the whole vehicle test chamber. No transport waxes for protection should be used.

All transport foils or transit lacquers shall be removed at least 24 h bef
...

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