Vocabulary of terms relating to solid mineral fuels — Part 2: Terms relating to coal sampling and analysis

Vocabulaire des termes relatifs aux combustibles minéraux solides — Partie 2: Termes relatifs à l'échantillonnage et l'analyse du charbon

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ISO/R 1213-2:1971 - Vocabulary of terms relating to solid mineral fuels
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UDC 622.66 : 620.113 : 543 : 001.4 Ref. No. : ISO/R 1213/11-1971 (E)
R 1213
November 1971
The copyright of IS0 Recommendations and IS0 Standards
belongs to IS0 Member Bodies. Reproduction of these
documents, in any country, may be authorized therefore only
by the national standards organization of that country, being
a member of ISO.
For each individual country the only valid standard is the national standard of that country.
Printed in Switzerland
Also issued in French and Russian. Copies to be obtained through the national standards organizations.

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The IS0 Recommendation R 1213/11, Vocabulary of terms relating to solid mineral fuels - Part II - Terms
relating to coal sampling and analysis, was drawn up by Technical Committee ISO/TC 27, Solid mineral fuels, the
Secretariat of which is held by the British Standards Institution (BSI).
Work on this question led to the adoption of Draft IS0 Recommendation No. 1882, which was circulated
to all the IS0 Member Bodies for enquiry in May 1970.
The Draft was approved, subject to a few modifications of an editorial nature, by the following Member
Bodies :
Australia India Spain
Belgium Iran Sweden
Canada Italy Switzerland
Chile Netherlands Thailand
Denmark New Zealand Turkey
France Poland U.A.R.
Germany Portugal United Kingdom
South Africa, Rep. of U.S.A.
No Member Body opposed the approval of the Draft.
This Draft IS0 Recommendation was then submitted by correspondence to the IS0 Council, which decided
to accept it as an IS0 RECOMMENDATION.

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............................... 5
............................... 5
1. General.
2. Sampling and sample preparation
3. Analysis and testing .
4. Equipment. . 13
............................. 15
5. Statistical terms
Index .

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-5- ISO/R 1213/11-1971 (E)
November 197 1
IS0 Recommendation R 1213
Part II of this IS0 Recommendation consists of a systematic list of terms commonly employed in coal sampling
and analysis. Definitions are given for those terms whose meaning is not self-evident and an alphabetical index is
also provided, with a numerical cross-reference. Terms already defined in IS0 Recommendation R 121 3, Vocabulary
of terms relating to solid mineral fuels - Part I : Terns relating to coal preparation, are not included.
The use of the terms printed in italics is deprecated.
1-01 commodity
No definition
1-02 consignment
A quantity of some commodity delivered at one time. The consignment may be composed of one or
more batches.
1-03 isolated consignment
A consignment that is to be sampled without knowledge of its sampling characteristics, for example,
standard deviation, obtained from previous sampling of the same product.
1-04 batch
A quantity of some commodity produced at one time under relatively uniform conditions.
1-05 unit (of a commodity)
The total quantity of a commodity is frequently regarded as being made up of a number of discrete units
(wagons, sections of belt, daily production) for the purpose of sampling. Each sample relates to a particular
1-06 order
Command. A quantity of a commodity ordered at the same time from the supplier, which may
consist of one or more consignments.
Sequence. The arrangement of a number of observations in a particular manner.

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-6- ISO/R 1213/11-1971 (E)
1-07 run-of-mine coal
through-and-through coal
Coal produced by mining operations, before preparation.
1-08 raw coal
uncleaned coal
Coal which has received no preparation other than possibly screening.
1-09 cleaned coal
Coal which has been treated by a wet or dry cleaning process.
1-10 washed coal
Coal which has been treated by a wet cleaning process.
1-1 1 large coal
lump coal
Coal above an agreed size, without any upper size limit.
1-12 sized coal
graded coal
Coal screened between specified size limits.
1-13 through coal
Coal with a specified top size, usually above 50 mm and below 150 mm, and having no lower size limit.
1-14 smalls
Coal with a specified top size, usually below 50 mm, and no lower size limit. Sold as washed, cleaned or
untreated smalls.
1-15 coking smalls
Coal of a specified top size. usually 10 mm, used for coke production.
1-16 fines
Coal having a maximum particle size usually less than 1.5 mm and rarely above 3 mm.
1-17 granular material
No definition
1-18 high-rank coal
1-19 low-rank coal
The rank of coal is its position relative to other coals in the coalification series from brown coal
(low rank) to anthracite (high rank), indicating its maturity in terms of its general chemical and physical
1-20 shale
One of the impurities associated with coal seams; this term should not be used as a general term for
washery rejects.
dirt band
shale band
A layer of mineral matter lying parallel to the bedding plane in a seam of coal and thicker than a parting.
1-22 parting
A lamina, for example, of ankerite or fusain, occurring on or at an angle to the bedding plane of a seam
of coal; usually less than 3 mm thick.

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A material is said to be homogeneous if particles having different values of a certain characteristic are
distributed evenly through it.
A material is said to be heterogeneous if particles having different values of a certain characteristic
are distributed unevenly through it.
1-25 uniformity
A material is said to be uniform with regard to a certain characteristic if all the particles have identical
values for that Characteristic.
1-26 non-uniformity
A material is said to be non-uniform with regard to a certain characteristic if the particles have different
values for that characteristic. The material may be homogeneous or heterogenous.
1-27 trend
A material is said to show trend if the average value of the characteristic varies unidirectionally over some
interval of time, mass or space in the material.
No definition
1-29 segregation
The unintended separation and redistribution of particles within a bulk material as a result of different
physical characteristics.
No definition
1-31 standard
standard specification
No definition
1-32 purchasing specification
No definition
sampling specification
A sampling specification indicates the way in which the sample must be taken (including number and
size of increments) and how it must be dealt with (method of storing, preparation, labelling, etc.).
Equipment on which coal is transported by means of an endless belt, overlapping hinged steel plates,
or similar device. The apparatus as a whole may be fured or movable.
discharge point
The position where the coal leaves a conveyor or bunker.
1-36 falling stream
No definition.

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-8- ISO/R 1213/11-1971 (E)
1-37 chute
An inclined trough for conveying coal to a lower level.
1-38 thickness of layer
No definition.
1-39 stratum
No definition.
2-01 to sample (a commodity)
No definition.
2-02 sampler (person)
No definition.
2-03 sampling
The collection of a representative portion of coal for analysis and testing.
2-04 sampling point
No definition.
2-05 regular sampling
The sampling of the same commodity received regularly at a given point.
2-06 continuous sampling
The taking of a gross sample from every unit of a commodity.
2-07 intermittent sampling
The taking of gross samples only from certain definite units of the commodity, for example, from one
shift’s production each week.
2-08 replicate sampling
The taking of increments from the consignment (batch, unit) at equal intervals of time, mass or space.
The increments are combined in rotation to give several replicate samples of approximately equal mass.
By the procedure of replicate sampling it is possible to estimate the precision of sampling, for example,
for isolated consignments.
2-09 duplicate sampling
A particular case of replicate sampling (with only two replicate samples), for the purpose of estimating
the average precision of sampling from a number of consignments (units).
2-10 frequency of sampling
No defmition.
2-1 I sample (noun)
A part of a population collected with the object of estimating some characteristic. It is a portion extracted
from a consignment, batch or unit as being representative of it with regard to the characteristic to be

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-9- ISO/R 1213/11-1971 (E)
2-12 random sample
A sample selected in such a way that all possible samples of the same size have the same chance of being
2-13 systematic sample
A sample in which the increments are taken at equal intervals of time, space or mass over the whole
consignment, batch or unit; the first increment being taken at random within the first such interval.
stratified random sample
To obtain a “stratified random sample”, the commodity to be investigated is considered as consisting of
a number of sections (strata). The strata may be selected before sampling by any convenient method of
subdivision such as time, quantity or space. One or several increments are extracted from each section, the
position of the increments within the section being taken at random. The precision of sampling may be
increased by planned distribution of the number of increments between the stwta.
gross sample
A sample formed when all the increments collected from a consignment (batch or unit) are combined
for reduction to a laboratory sample; where two or more samples are formed from interleaved increments,
these samples are designated duplicate samples or replicate samples as the case may be.
2- 16 increment
The quantity taken by a single sampling operation.
2-17 laboratory sample
The sample delivered to the laboratory for analysis or testing.
analysis sample
The sample crushed to pass a sieve of 0.2 mm, used for general analysis.
moisture sample
A sample used exclusively for the purpose of determining moisture.
2-20 mass of sample
No definition.
2-2 1 sample preparation
The process of bringing the sample to the condition prescribed for the investigations. It covers mixing,
sample division, size reduction and sometimes drying of samples and may be performed in several stages.
2-22 stage (of sample preparation)
The group of operations comprising reduction in particle size, mixing, and decrease in mass of the
2-23 particle size reduction
The process of milling the sample to reduce the particle size.

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10 - ISO/R 1213/II-1971 (E)
2-24 to mill
To reduce the particle size of the sample by crushing, grinding or pulverizing.
2-25 to crush
To reduce the size of the sample into coarse particles.
2-26 to grind
To reduce the size of the sample into fine particles.
2-27 screen
A device for carrying out the operation of screening.
2-28 sample division
The process in the course of preparing the sample whereby part of the sample is retained whilst the
remainder may be rejected.
2-29 pass (in sample division)
The passage of all the retained sample once through a sample divider.
2-30 to reject (in sample preparation)
No definition.
3-01 inerts
of coal which decrease its efficiency in use, for example, mineral matter (ash) and moisture
in fuel for combustion, or fusain in coal for carbonization.
3-02 total ash
Residue of the mineral matter obtained by incinerating coal under defined conditions.
3-03 inherent ash
Ash derived from mineral matter which is not removable from coal by physical processes.
3-04 ash (other than inherent)
No definition.
3-05 mineral matter
No definition.
3-06 total moisture
The moisture in the coal as sampled, and removable under standardized conditions which are defined
in IS0 Recommendation R 589, Determination of total moisntre in hard coal.
3-07 free moisture
surface moisîure
The moisture which is lost by the coal sample in attaining approximate equilibrium with the air to which
it is exposed (see IS0 Recommendation R 1988*, Sampling ofhard coal.)
At present at the stage of Draft IS0 Recommendation.

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ISO/R 1213/II-1971 (E)
3-08 moisture in air-dried coal
The moisture in the coal sample after it has attained approximate equilibrium with the air to which it is
IS0 Recommendation R 1988*, Sampling of hard coal and IS0 Recommendation R 589,
exposed (see
Determination of total moisture in hard coal.)
3-09 water of constitution
Water chemically bound to the mineral matter and remaining after the determination of total moisture.
3-10 dry matter
The material in the dry state after the removal of total moisture.
3-11 volatile matter
The loss in mass, corrected for moisture, when coal is heated out of contac with air under stand d
conditions, which are defined in IS0 Recommendation R 562, Determination of the volatile matter of
hard coal and of coke.
3-12 gross calorific value
as being liberated when unit mass of coal is burned in oxygen saturated
The number of heat units measured
with water vapour in a bomb under standardized conditions (as defined in IS0 Recommendation R 1928,
Solid mineral fuels - Determination of gross calorific value by the calorimetric bomb method, and
-clculation of net calorific value), the residual materials being taken as gaseous oxygen, carbon dioxide,
sulphur dioxide and nitrogen. liquid water in equilibrium with its vapour and saturated with carbon
dioxide, and ash.
3-13 net calorific value
The gross calorific value (3-1 2) less the latent heat of evaporation of the water originally contained in the
fuel and that formed during its combustion.
3-14 particle size
No definition.
3-15 mesh size
No definition.
3-16 size distribution
size consist
The proportion of various sizes in a product
3-17 size fraction
The part of the sample belonging to a specified size class limited by either one or two sieve sizes.
3-18 size range
The interval expressed by the sieves used to denote the upper and lower sizes of the coal.
3-19 test
An experiment made in order to measure a characteristic.
3-20 general analysis
This term, frequently used in English publications, means the determination of the chemical and physical
characteristics of coal, other than the determination of moisture.
At present at the stage of Draft IS0 Recommendation.

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3-2 1 ultimate analysis
The analysis of coal expressed in terms of its carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur and oxygen contents.
3-22 proximate analysis
The analysis of coal expressed in terms of moisture, volatile matter, ash and futed carbon.
3-23 duplicate determination
No definition.
3-24 content
No definition.
3-25 percentage by mass
No definition.
3-26 to check
No definition.
3-27 to ash
to incinerate
No definition.
3-28 to dry
To remove moisture from coal by evaporation.
3-29 mass of material to be ashed or dried
No definition.
3-30 mass of residue after ashing or drying
No definition.
3-3 1 moisture in the analysis sample
The moisture in the analysis sample of coal after it has attained approximate equilibrium with the air
in the laboratory and removable under standardized conditions, which are defined in IS0 Recommendation
R 33 1, Determination of moisture in the analysis sample of coal by the direct gravimetric method, and
IS0 Recommendation R 348, Determination of moisture in the analysis sample of coal by the direct
volumetric method.
3-32 dry
No definition.
3-33 dry, ash free
No definition.
3-34 dry, mineral matter free
No definition.

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- 13 -
ISO/R 1213/11-1971 (E)
3-36 to screen
To separate solid particles of different sizes by causing one component to remain on a surface provided
with apertures through which the other component passes.
3-37 to screen out
No definition
3-38 to sieve
Sieving is the term usually applied to describe the operation of screening when using a screen (sieve) of
relatively small area, particularly a screen used in the laboratory for test purposes.
3-39 sieve test
No definition.
4-01 sampler (device)
No definition.
4-02 SCOOP
A small shovel with built-up back and sides.
4-03 probe
A sampling device designed to extract a pillar of coal from a consignment.
4-04 auger
A device for obtaining a sample of coal from a wagon or stock pile. It consists for example of two fxed
curved blades mounted on a cross piece attached to a steel or aluminium stem. The two blades, which
together form part of a cone, fork and interlace at the far end.
4-05 ladle
No definition.
4-06 sampling frame
No definition.
4-07 breeches chute
No definition.
4-08 slotted vessel
No definition.
4-09 swinging arm
No definition.
4-10 box car
No definition.

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-- 14- ISO/R 1213/11-1971 (E)
4-1 1 bucket sampler
No definition.
4-12 sample container
No definition.
4-13* rotary crusher
No definition.
4-14* jaw crusher
No definition.
4-15 mechanical sample divider
No definition.
4-16 rotary sample divider
No definition.
4-17 riffle
No definition.
double cone sample divider
No definition.
4-19 double cone mixer
No defmition.
4-20 coning and quartering
No definition.
1 air-drying cabinet
No definition.
4-22 muffle
No definition.
laboratory sieve
No definition.
4-24 sieving test machine
No definition.
filter bag
breather bag
An apparatus for removing dust from dust-laden air, employing cylinders of closely woven material which
permit passage of air but retain solid particles. Also used to reduce the flow of air through a crushing mill.
See section 5.2 of ISO/R 12 13, Part 1.

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15 - ISO/R 1213/11-1971 (E)

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