Environmental management — Vocabulary

This document defines terms used in documents in the fields of environmental management systems and tools in support of sustainable development. These include management systems, auditing and other types of assessment, communications, footprinting studies, greenhouse gas mitigation and adaptation to climate change.

Management environnemental — Vocabulaire

Le présent document définit les termes dans les documents relatifs aux domaines des systèmes de management environnemental et aux outils venant à l'appui du développement durable, ce qui inclut les systèmes de management, les audits et les autres types d'évaluation, les communications, les études d'empreinte, l'atténuation des gaz à effet de serre et l'adaptation au changement climatique.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
29-Jul-2020
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
30-Jul-2020
Completion Date
30-Jul-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14050
Fourth edition
2020-07
Environmental management —
Vocabulary
Management environnemental — Vocabulaire
Reference number
ISO 14050:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 14050:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14050:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 General terms relating to management systems ....................................................................................................... 1

3.2 General terms relating to environmental management ...................................................................................... 3

3.3 Terms relating to environmental management systems .................................................................................... 6

3.4 Terms relating to verification, validation and audit................................................................................................ 6

3.5 Terms relating to product systems .....................................................................................................................................10

3.6 Terms relating to life cycle assessment ..........................................................................................................................12

3.7 Terms relating to environmental labelling, declarations and communication .............................17

3.8 Terms relating to climate change and climate action .........................................................................................19

3.9 Terms relating to greenhouse gases ..................................................................................................................................21

3.10 Terms relating to water footprint ........................................................................................................................................25

3.11 Terms relating to carbon footprint .....................................................................................................................................27

3.12 Terms relating to economy and finance .........................................................................................................................27

Annex A (informative) Concept relations and concept systems ............................................................................................32

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................55

Alphabetical index .............................................................................................................................................................................................................57

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 14050:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 207, Environmental management, in

collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/

SS S26, Environmental management, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation

between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO 14050:2009), which has been technically

revised. The fourth edition is structured differently from the third edition. It presents a more generic

vocabulary of environmental management terminology.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14050:2020(E)
Introduction

Communication is important in the implementation and operation of environmental management

systems. This communication will be most effective if there is a common understanding of the terms used.

To simplify the harmonization of terms and definitions in the field of environmental management, each

terminological entry in this document contains a generic term and its definition. Notes to entry and

examples have been included only in a few cases to provide additional information or clarification.

The terminology is arranged in subclauses, each representing a specific sub-domain. The sequence of

the term entries corresponds to the concept diagrams in Annex A.

This document has been developed in close cooperation with the committees and working groups

involved in the development and revision of the ISO 14000 family of standards. A list of published

documents in the ISO 14000 family of standards is presented in the Bibliography.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14050:2020(E)
Environmental management — Vocabulary
1 Scope

This document defines terms used in documents in the fields of environmental management systems

and tools in support of sustainable development. These include management systems, auditing and

other types of assessment, communications, footprinting studies, greenhouse gas mitigation and

adaptation to climate change.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 General terms relating to management systems
3.1.1
organization

person or group of people that has its own functions with responsibilities, authorities and relationships

to achieve its objectives (3.1.6)
3.1.2
interested party
stakeholder

person or organization (3.1.1) that can affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a

decision or activity
3.1.3
top management

person or group of people who directs and controls an organization (3.1.1) at the highest level

3.1.4
management system

set of interrelated or interacting elements of an organization (3.1.1) to establish policies (3.1.5) and

objectives (3.1.6), as well as processes (3.1.9) to achieve those objectives
3.1.5
policy

intentions and direction of an organization (3.1.1), as formally expressed by its top management (3.1.3)

3.1.6
objective
result to be achieved
3.1.7
risk
effect of uncertainty
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ISO 14050:2020(E)
3.1.8
hazard

potential source of injury or damage to the health of people, or damage to property or the

environment (3.2.2)
3.1.9
process

set of interrelated or interacting activities that uses or transforms inputs to deliver a result

3.1.10
competence
ability to apply knowledge and skills to achieve intended results
3.1.11
documented information

information required to be controlled and maintained by an organization (3.1.1) and the medium on

which it is contained
3.1.12
performance
measurable result
3.1.13
continual improvement
recurring activity to enhance performance (3.1.12)
3.1.14
effectiveness
extent to which planned activities are realized and planned results achieved
3.1.15
requirement
need or expectation that is stated, generally implied or obligatory
3.1.16
conformity
fulfilment of a requirement (3.1.15)
3.1.17
nonconformity
non-fulfilment of a requirement (3.1.15)
3.1.18
corrective action

action to eliminate the cause(s) of a nonconformity (3.1.17) and to prevent recurrence

3.1.19
audit

systematic and independent process (3.1.9) for obtaining evidence and evaluating it objectively to

determine the extent to which the audit criteria (3.4.44) are fulfilled
3.1.20
measurement
process (3.1.9) to determine a value
3.1.21
monitoring
determining the status of a system, a process (3.1.9) or an activity
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ISO 14050:2020(E)
3.2 General terms relating to environmental management
3.2.1
environmental management

set of coordinated activities within an organization (3.1.1) related to its environmental aspects (3.2.20)

3.2.2
environment

surroundings in which an organization (3.1.1) operates, including air, water, land (3.8.16), natural

resources (3.2.5), flora, fauna, humans and their interrelationships
3.2.3
ecosystem

dynamic complex of communities of plants, animals and microorganisms and their non-living

environment, interacting as a functional entity
3.2.4
ecosystem service
benefit people obtain from one or several ecosystems (3.2.3)
3.2.5
natural resource
part of nature that provides benefits to humans or underpins human well-being
3.2.6
environmental baseline
state of the environment (3.2.2) without the change that is considered
3.2.7
target group

interested party (3.1.2) or interested parties selected as the focus of an organization’s (3.1.1)

environmental communication (3.7.19) activity
3.2.8
third party

person or body that is recognized as being independent of the parties involved, as concerns the issues

in question
3.2.9
sustainable development

development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations

to meet their own needs
3.2.10
prevention of pollution

use of processes (3.1.9), practices, techniques, materials, products (3.5.12), or energy to avoid, reduce

or control (separately or in combination) the creation, emission or discharge of any type of pollutant or

waste, in order to reduce adverse environmental impacts (3.2.22)
3.2.11
area of concern

aspect of the natural environment, human health or resources of interest to society

3.2.12
environmental topic area

area of interest or concern for environmental management (3.2.1) in an organization (3.1.1) in relation to

its surroundings
3.2.13
methodology
set of means or procedures (3.3.6) used for a specific purpose
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ISO 14050:2020(E)
3.2.14
transparency
open, comprehensive and understandable presentation of information
3.2.15
benchmark
reference point against which comparisons can be made
3.2.16
equity share

extent of the rights an organization (3.1.1) has to the risks (3.1.7) and rewards from an operation based

on its equity interest
3.2.17
local authority

public body given the authority by legislation or directives of a higher level of government to set general

policies (3.1.5), plans or requirements (3.1.15)
3.2.18
site

location with geographical boundaries and on which activities under the control of an organization

(3.1.1) can be carried out
3.2.19
facility

single installation, set of installations or production processes (3.1.9) (stationary or mobile), which can

be defined within a single geographical boundary, organizational unit or production process

3.2.20
environmental aspect

element of an organization’s (3.1.1) activities or products (3.5.12) that interacts or can interact with the

environment (3.2.2)
3.2.21
environmental impact pathway

series of consecutive, causal relationships, ultimately starting at an environmental aspect (3.2.20) and

ending at an environmental impact (3.2.22)
3.2.22
environmental impact

change to the environment (3.2.2), whether adverse or beneficial, including possible consequences,

wholly or partially resulting from an organization’s (3.1.1) environmental aspects (3.2.20)

3.2.23
environmental impact factor

quantity of environmental impact (3.2.22) per quantity of environmental aspect (3.2.20)

3.2.24
indicator

quantitative, qualitative or binary variable that can be measured, calculated or described, representing

the status of operations, management, conditions or impacts
3.2.25
key performance indicator
KPI

indicator (3.2.24) of performance (3.1.12) deemed by an organization (3.1.1) to be significant and giving

prominence and attention to certain aspects of operations, management, conditions or impacts

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ISO 14050:2020(E)
3.2.26
combined indicator

indicator (3.2.24) that includes information on more than one aspect of operations, management,

conditions or impacts
3.2.27
environmental performance
performance (3.1.12) related to the management of environmental aspects (3.2.20)
3.2.28
environmental performance evaluation
EPE

process (3.1.9) to facilitate management decisions regarding an organization’s (3.1.1) environmental

performance (3.2.27) by selecting indicators (3.2.24), collecting and analysing data, assessing

information against environmental performance criteria, reporting and communicating, and

periodically reviewing and improving this process
3.2.29
environmental performance indicator
EPI

indicator (3.2.24) that provides information about an organization’s (3.1.1) environmental performance

(3.2.27)
3.2.30
management performance indicator
MPI

environmental performance indicator (3.2.29) that provides information about the management efforts

to influence an organization’s (3.1.1) environmental performance (3.2.27)
3.2.31
operational performance indicator
OPI

environmental performance indicator (3.2.29) that provides information about the environmental

performance (3.2.27) of an organization’s (3.1.1) operation
3.2.32
environmental condition indicator

indicator (3.2.24) that provides information about the local, regional, national or global environmental

condition (3.2.33)
3.2.33
environmental condition

state or characteristic of the environment (3.2.2) as determined at a certain point in time

3.2.34
sphere of influence

range or extent of political, contractual, economic or other relationships through which an organization

(3.1.1) has the ability to affect the decisions or activities of individuals or organizations

3.2.35
trade-off

decision-making actions that select from various requirements (3.1.15) and alternative solutions on the

basis of net benefit to interested parties (3.1.2)
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ISO 14050:2020(E)
3.3 Terms relating to environmental management systems
3.3.1
environmental management system
EMS

part of the management system (3.1.4) used to manage environmental aspects (3.2.20), fulfil compliance

obligations (3.3.4), and address risks (3.1.7) and opportunities
3.3.2
environmental policy
policy (3.1.5) related to environmental performance (3.2.27)
3.3.3
environmental objective

objective (3.1.6) set by the organization (3.1.1) and consistent with its environmental policy (3.3.2)

3.3.4
compliance obligation

legal requirement that an organization (3.1.1) has to comply with or other requirement (3.1.15) that an

organization has to or chooses to comply with
3.3.5
maturity level

level of achievement in the implementation process measured on a scale of maturity for environmental

management system (3.3.1) elements
3.3.6
procedure
specified way to carry out an activity or a process (3.1.9)
3.4 Terms relating to verification, validation and audit
3.4.1
verification
conformity assessment

confirmation through the provision of objective evidence (3.4.32), that specified requirements (3.1.15)

have been fulfilled
3.4.2
verification statement
formal declaration of the outcome of a verification (3.4.1)
3.4.3
verification team

one or more verifiers (3.4.5) conducting a verification (3.4.1), supported if needed by technical experts

(3.4.36)
3.4.4
verification body
organization (3.1.1) that performs verifications (3.4.1)
3.4.5
verifier

competent and independent person or persons with responsibility for performing and reporting on a

verification (3.4.1) process (3.1.9)
3.4.6
verification plan
planning document detailing the implementation of verification (3.4.1)
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ISO 14050:2020(E)
3.4.7
verification report
document detailing a verification (3.4.1) and its results
3.4.8
environmental claim verification

confirmation of the validity of an environmental claim (3.7.3) using specific predetermined criteria and

procedures (3.3.6) with an assurance of data reliability
3.4.9
technology

application of scientific knowledge, tools, techniques, crafts or systems in order to solve a problem or to

achieve an objective (3.1.6), which can result in a product (3.5.12) or process (3.1.9)

3.4.10
environmental technology

technology (3.4.9) that either results in an environmental added value (3.4.12) or measures parameters

that indicate an environmental impact (3.2.22)
3.4.11
environmental technology verification

verification (3.4.1) of the performance (3.1.12) of an environmental technology (3.4.10) by a verifier (3.4.5)

3.4.12
environmental added value

more beneficial or less adverse environmental impact (3.2.22) of a technology (3.4.9) with respect to the

relevant alternative
3.4.13
intrusive investigation
sampling and testing requiring physical interference
3.4.14
professional scepticism
attitude that includes a questioning mind and a critical assessment of evidence
3.4.15
completeness check

process (3.1.9) of verifying whether information from the phases of a life cycle assessment (3.6.2) is

sufficient for reaching conclusions in accordance with the goal and scope definition

3.4.16
consistency check

process (3.1.9) of verifying that the assumptions, methods and data are consistently applied

throughout the study and are in accordance with the goal and scope definition performed before

conclusions are reached
3.4.17
sensitivity check

process (3.1.9) to determine that the information obtained from a sensitivity analysis (3.6.25) is relevant

for reaching conclusions, changing results, have influence on results and giving recommendations

3.4.18
test body

organization (3.1.1) providing an environment for testing, test implementation and means for

performing and reporting on the testing
3.4.19
test plan

planning document detailing the principles, test methods, conditions, procedures (3.3.6) and data

quality (3.6.46) required to carry out testing and to produce test data
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 14050:2020(E)
3.4.20
test report

document describing conditions and results of testing, and usually including a description of or

reference to procedures (3.3.6)
3.4.21
validation

confirmation through the provision of objective evidence (3.4.32) that the requirements (3.1.15) for a

specific intended use or application have been fulfilled
3.4.22
validation statement
formal declaration of the outcome of a validation (3.4.21)
3.4.23
validation team

one or more validators (3.4.25) conducting a validation (3.4.21), supported if needed by technical experts

(3.4.36)
3.4.24
validation body
organization (3.1.1) that performs validations (3.4.21)
3.4.25
validator

competent and independent person or persons with responsibility for performing a validation (3.4.21)

and reporting on the results of the validation
3.4.26
complaint

expression of dissatisfaction, other than by appeal, by any person or organization (3.1.1) to another

person or organization, relating to its activities, where a response is expected
3.4.27
validation criteria

policy (3.1.5), procedure (3.3.6) or requirement (3.1.15) used as a reference against which evidence is

compared
3.4.28
level of assurance

degree of reliability the intended user requires in a validation (3.4.21) or verification (3.4.1)

3.4.29
conflict of interest

situation in which, because of other activities or relationships, impartiality in performing validation

(3.4.21) or verification (3.4.1) activities is or could be compromised
3.4.30
accreditation

third-party attestation related to a validation body (3.4.24), verification body (3.4.4) or certification body

conveying a formal demonstration of its competence (3.1.10) to carry out specific validation (3.4.21) or

verification (3.4.1) tasks
3.4.31
accreditation body
authority that performs accreditation (3.4.30)
3.4.32
objective evidence
data supporting the existence or verity of something
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ISO 14050:2020(E)
3.4.33
audit client
organization (3.1.1) or person requesting an audit (3.1.19)
3.4.34
auditee
organization (3.1.1) being audited
3.4.35
audit team

one or more persons conducting an audit (3.1.19), supported if needed by technical experts (3.4.36)

3.4.36
technical expert
person who provides specific knowledge on a specified subject
3.4.37
auditor
person who conducts an audit (3.1.19)
3.4.38
combined audit

audit (3.1.19) carried out together at a single auditee (3.4.34) on two or more management systems (3.1.4)

3.4.39
joint audit

audit (3.1.19) carried out at a single auditee (3.4.34) by two or more auditing organizations (3.1.1)

3.4.40
internal audit
audit (3.1.19) where the audit team (3.4.35) belongs to the auditee (3.4.34)
3.4.41
audit programme

set of one or more audits (3.1.19) planned for a specific time frame and directed towards a specific purpose

3.4.42
audit scope
extent and boundaries of an audit (3.1.19)
3.4.43
audit plan
description of the activities and arrangements for an audit (3.1.19)
3.4.44
audit criteria

set of requirements (3.1.15) used as a reference against which objective evidence (3.4.32) is compared

3.4.45
audit evidence

records, statements of fact or other information, which are relevant to the audit criteria (3.4.44) and

verifiable
3.4.46
audit findings

results of the evaluation of the collected audit evidence (3.4.45) against audit criteria (3.4.44)

3.4.47
audit conclusion

outcome of an audit (3.1.19), after consideration of the audit objectives (3.1.6) and all audit findings

(3.4.46)
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ISO 14050:2020(E)
3.4.48
certification

third-party attestation related to an object of conformity assessment, with the exception of accreditation

(3.4.30)
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 17000:2020, 7.6]
3.4.49
environmental information validation

process (3.1.9) to evaluate the reasonableness of the assumptions, limitations, and methods that support

an environmental information statement (3.4.51) about the outcome of future activities

3.4.50
environmental information verification

process (3.1.9) for evaluating an environmental information statement (3.4.51) based on historical data

and information to determine whether the statement is materially correct and conforms to criteria

3.4.51
environmental information statement
environmental information claim
declaration of environmental information
3.5 Terms relating to product systems
3.5.1
product system

collection of unit processes (3.6.9) with elementary flows (3.6.12) and product flows (3.5.3), performing

one or more defined functions and which models the life cycle (3.6.1) of a product (3.5.12)

3.5.2
process energy

energy input required for operating the process (3.1.9) or equipment within a unit process (3.6.9),

excluding energy inputs for production and delivery of the process energy itself
3.5.3
product flow
products (3.5.12) entering from or leaving to another product system (3.5.1)
3.5.4
energy use
manner or kind of application of energy
3.5.5
product system value
worth or desirability ascribed to a product system (3.5.1)
3.5.6
product system value indicator
numerical quantity representing the product system value (3.5.5)
3.5.7
product standard

standard that specifies requirements (3.1.15) to be fulfilled by a product (3.5.12) or group of products to

establish its fitness for purpose (3.5.8)
3.5.8
fitness for purpose

ability of a product (3.5.12) or a process (3.1.9) to serve a defined purpose under specific conditions

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ISO 14050:2020(E)
3.5.9
product environmental criteria

environmental requirements (3.1.15) that the product (3.5.12) has to meet in

order to be awarded an environmental label (3.7.1)
3.5.10
product environmental aspect

element of a product (3.5.12) that, during its life cycle (3.6.1), can interact with the environment (3.2.2)

3.5.11
performance tracking of an organization

comparison of the performance (3.1.12) of the same organization’s (3.1.1) products (3.5.12) and unit

processes (3.6.9) over time, based on the same time period, system boundary (3.6.8) and reporting unit

3.5.12
product
any goods or service
3.5.13
co-product

product (3.5.12) coming from the same unit process (3.6.9) or product system (3.5.1) as one or more

other products
3.5.14
intermediate product

output from a unit process (3.6.9) within a system that is input to one or more other unit process(es)

within the same system, where it is transformed
3.5.15
final product

product (3.5.12) that requires no additional transformation (3.8.26) prior to its use

3.5.16
service life

period of time during which a product (3.5.12) in use meets or exceeds the performance (3.1.12)

requirements (3.1.15)
3.5.17
consumer

individual member of the general public purchasing or using products (3.5.12) and property for private

purposes
3.5.18
raw material
primary or secondary material that is used to produce a product (3.5.12)
3.5.19
release
emission to air or discharge to water or soil
3.5.20
design and development
process (3.1.9) that transforms requirements (3.1.15) into a product (3.5.12)
3.5.21
product function characteristic

attribute or characteristic in the performance (3.1.12) and use of a product (3.5.12)

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ISO 14050:2020(E)
3.5.22
ecodesign

systematic approach that considers environmental aspects (3.2.20) in design and development (3.5.20)

with the aim to reduce adverse environmental impacts (3.2.22) throughout the life cycle (3.6.1) of a

product (3.5.12)
3.5.23
recyclable

characteristic of a product (3.5.12), including packaging (3.5.26) and associated components, that can

be diverted from the waste stream through available processes (3.1.9) and programmes, an

...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 14050
Quatrième édition
2020-07
Management environnemental —
Vocabulaire
Environmental management — Vocabulary
Numéro de référence
ISO 14050:2020(F)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 14050:2020(F)
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© ISO 2020

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ii © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 14050:2020(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Termes généraux relatifs aux systèmes de management ................................................................................... 1

3.2 Termes généraux relatifs au management environnemental ......................................................................... 3

3.3 Termes relatifs aux systèmes de management environnemental ............................................................... 6

3.4 Termes relatifs à la vérification, la validation et l’audit ....................................................................................... 6

3.5 Termes relatifs aux systèmes de produits ....................................................................................................................10

3.6 Termes relatifs à l’analyse du cycle de vie ....................................................................................................................12

3.7 Termes relatifs au label environnemental, aux déclarations et à la communication ..............17

3.8 Termes relatifs au changement climatique et aux mesures en faveur du climat ........................19

3.9 Termes relatifs aux gaz à effet de serre...........................................................................................................................21

3.10 Termes relatifs à l’empreinte eau.........................................................................................................................................26

3.11 Termes relatifs à l’empreinte carbone .............................................................................................................................28

3.12 Termes relatifs à l’économie et la finance .....................................................................................................................28

Annexe A (informative) Relations entre concepts et systèmes de concepts .............................................................33

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................57

Index alphabétique............................................................................................................................................................................................................60

© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés iii
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ISO 14050:2020(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier, de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/ directives).

L’attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l’élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l’ISO (voir www .iso .org/ brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l’ISO liés à l’évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l’adhésion

de l’ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir www .iso .org/ avant -propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 207, Management environnemental, en

collaboration avec le comité technique CEN/SS S26, Management environnemental, du Comité européen

de normalisation (CEN) conformément à l’Accord de coopération technique entre l’ISO et le CEN (Accord

de Vienne).

Cette quatrième édition annule et remplace la troisième édition (ISO 14050:2009), qui a fait l’objet

d’une révision technique. La structure de cette quatrième édition a été remaniée par rapport à celle de

la troisième édition afin de présenter un vocabulaire plus générique de la terminologie utilisée dans le

domaine du management environnemental.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www .iso .org/ fr/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 14050:2020(F)
Introduction

La communication est importante dans la réalisation et le fonctionnement des systèmes de management

environnemental. Cette communication sera d’autant plus efficace qu’il existera une définition

commune des termes employés.

Pour simplifier l’harmonisation des termes et définitions dans le domaine du management

environnemental, chaque article terminologique du présent document contient un terme générique et

sa définition. Des notes à l’article et des exemples ont été ajoutés dans plusieurs cas afin de fournir des

informations complémentaires ou une clarification.

La terminologie est organisée en paragraphes qui représentent chacun un sous-domaine spécifique.

L’ordre des articles terminologiques correspond aux diagrammes de concepts de l’Annexe A.

Le présent document a été élaboré en coopération étroite avec les comités et les groupes de travail

impliqués dans l’élaboration et la révision de la famille de normes ISO 14000. Une liste des documents

publiés dans la famille de norme ISO 14000 est présentée dans la Bibliographie.
© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés v
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 14050:2020(F)
Management environnemental — Vocabulaire
1 Domaine d’application

Le présent document définit les termes dans les documents relatifs aux domaines des systèmes de

management environnemental et aux outils venant à l’appui du développement durable, ce qui inclut

les systèmes de management, les audits et les autres types d’évaluation, les communications, les études

d’empreinte, l’atténuation des gaz à effet de serre et l’adaptation au changement climatique.

2 Références normatives
Le présent document ne contient aucune référence normative.
3 Termes et définitions

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse https:// www .iso .org/ obp

— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Termes généraux relatifs aux systèmes de management
3.1.1
organisme

personne ou groupe de personnes ayant un rôle avec les responsabilités, l’autorité et les relations lui

permettant d’atteindre ses objectifs (3.1.6)
3.1.2
partie intéressée
partie prenante

personne ou organisme (3.1.1) qui peut soit influer sur une décision ou une activité, soit être influencée

ou s’estimer influencée par une décision ou une activité
3.1.3
direction

personne ou groupe de personnes qui oriente et dirige un organisme (3.1.1) au plus haut niveau

3.1.4
système de management

ensemble d’éléments corrélés ou en interaction d’un organisme (3.1.1), utilisés pour établir des politiques

(3.1.5), et des objectifs (3.1.6), ainsi que des processus (3.1.9) de façon à atteindre lesdits objectifs

3.1.5
politique

intentions et orientations d’un organisme (3.1.1), telles qu’elles sont officiellement formulées par sa

direction (3.1.3)
3.1.6
objectif
résultat à atteindre
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ISO 14050:2020(F)
3.1.7
risque
effet de l’incertitude
3.1.8
danger

source potentielle de blessure ou d’atteinte à la santé des personnes, ou d’atteinte aux biens ou à

l’environnement (3.2.2)
3.1.9
processus

ensemble d’activités corrélées ou en interaction qui utilise ou transforme des éléments d’entrée pour

fournir un résultat
3.1.10
compétence

aptitude à mettre en pratique des connaissances et des savoir-faire pour obtenir les résultats escomptés

3.1.11
information documentée

information devant être maîtrisée et tenue à jour par un organisme (3.1.1) ainsi que le support sur

lequel elle figure
3.1.12
performance
résultat mesurable
3.1.13
amélioration continue
activité récurrente menée pour améliorer les performances (3.1.12)
3.1.14
efficacité

niveau de réalisation des activités planifiées et d’obtention des résultats escomptés

3.1.15
exigence
besoin ou attente formulé, généralement implicite ou obligatoire
3.1.16
conformité
satisfaction d’une exigence (3.1.15)
3.1.17
non-conformité
non-satisfaction d’une exigence (3.1.15)
3.1.18
action corrective

action visant à éliminer la ou les causes d’une non-conformité (3.1.17) et à éviter qu’elle ne réapparaisse

3.1.19
audit

processus (3.1.9) méthodique et documenté, permettant d’obtenir des preuves objectives et de les

évaluer de manière objective pour déterminer dans quelle mesure les critères d’audit (3.4.44) sont

satisfaits
3.1.20
mesure
processus (3.1.9) visant à déterminer une valeur
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ISO 14050:2020(F)
3.1.21
surveillance
détermination de l’état d’un système, d’un processus (3.1.9) ou d’une activité
3.2 Termes généraux relatifs au management environnemental
3.2.1
management environnemental

ensemble d’activités coordonnées au sein d’un organisme (3.1.1) liées à ses aspects environnementaux

(3.2.20)
3.2.2
environnement

milieu dans lequel un organisme (3.1.1) fonctionne, incluant l’air, l’eau, le sol (3.8.16), les ressources

naturelles (3.2.5), la flore, la faune, les êtres humains et leurs interrelations

3.2.3
écosystème

complexe dynamique formé de communautés de plantes, d’animaux et de micro-organismes et de leur

environnement non vivant qui, par leur interaction, forment une entité fonctionnelle

3.2.4
service écosystémique
bénéfice que les individus retirent d’un ou plusieurs écosystèmes (3.2.3)
3.2.5
ressource naturelle

partie de la nature qui est bénéfique pour les êtres humains ou qui contribue à leur bien-être

3.2.6
situation environnementale de référence

état de l’environnement (3.2.2) en l’absence de la ou des modifications qui sont évaluées

3.2.7
groupe cible

partie intéressée (3.1.2) ou parties intéressées sélectionnées comme cible privilégiée de l’activité de

communication environnementale (3.7.19) d’un organisme (3.1.1)
3.2.8
tierce partie

personne ou organisme reconnu(e) comme indépendant(e) des parties en cause, en ce qui concerne le

sujet en question
3.2.9
développement durable

développement qui répond aux besoins du présent sans compromettre la capacité des générations

futures à répondre aux leurs
3.2.10
prévention de la pollution

utilisation de processus (3.1.9), pratiques, techniques, matériaux, produits (3.5.12) ou énergie pour

éviter, réduire ou maîtriser (séparément ou par combinaison) la création, l’émission ou le rejet de tout

type de polluant ou déchet, afin de réduire les impacts environnementaux (3.2.22) négatifs

3.2.11
sujet d’intérêt

aspect de l’environnement naturel, de la santé humaine ou des ressources auquel s’intéresse la société

© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés 3
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ISO 14050:2020(F)
3.2.12
domaine environnemental

domaine d’intérêt ou de préoccupation relatif au management environnemental (3.2.1) au sein d’un

organisme (3.1.1) concernant le milieu dans lequel il opère
3.2.13
méthodologie
ensemble de moyens ou de procédures (3.3.6) utilisés pour un emploi spécifique
3.2.14
transparence
présentation ouverte, complète et compréhensible des informations
3.2.15
référence
point de référence par rapport auquel des comparaisons peuvent être effectuées
3.2.16
quote-part

étendue des droits que possède un organisme (3.1.1) sur les risques (3.1.7) et les gains dégagés par une

opération, en fonction de sa part de capitaux propres
3.2.17
autorité locale

organisme public habilité, par la législation ou par des directives d’un niveau administratif plus élevé, à

définir des politiques (3.1.5) générales, des plans d’action ou des exigences (3.1.15)

3.2.18
site

emplacement ayant des limites géographiques définies sur lequel des activités peuvent être conduites

sous le contrôle d’un organisme (3.1.1)
3.2.19
installation

installation unique, groupe d’installations ou de processus (3.1.9) de production (fixes ou mobiles),

pouvant être définis à l’intérieur d’un périmètre géographique, d’une unité organisationnelle ou d’un

processus de production unique
3.2.20
aspect environnemental

élément des activités ou produits (3.5.12) d’un organisme (3.1.1) interagissant ou susceptible

d’interactions avec l’environnement (3.2.2)
3.2.21
voie d’impact environnemental

série de relations causales, consécutives, débutant en définitive par un aspect environnemental (3.2.20)

et s’achevant par un impact environnemental (3.2.22)
3.2.22
impact environnemental

modification de l’environnement (3.2.2), négative ou bénéfique, incluant les conséquences possibles,

résultant totalement ou partiellement des aspects environnementaux (3.2.20) d’un organisme (3.1.1)

3.2.23
facteur d’impact environnemental

quantité d’impact environnemental (3.2.22) par quantité d’aspect environnemental (3.2.20)

3.2.24
indicateur

variable quantitative, qualitative ou binaire qui peut être mesurée, calculée ou décrite, représentant le

statut des opérations, du management, des conditions ou des impacts
4 © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 14050:2020(F)
3.2.25
indicateur de performance clé
IPC

indicateur (3.2.24) de performance (3.1.12) jugé significatif par un organisme (3.1.1) et mettant l’accent

sur certains aspects des opérations, du management, des conditions ou des impacts

3.2.26
indicateur combiné

indicateur (3.2.24) incluant des informations sur plus d’un aspect des opérations, du management, des

conditions ou des impacts
3.2.27
performance environnementale
performance (3.1.12) liée au management des aspects environnementaux (3.2.20)
3.2.28
évaluation de la performance environnementale
EPE

processus (3.1.9) visant à faciliter les décisions de la direction concernant la performance

environnementale (3.2.27) d’un organisme (3.1.1) et qui comprend le choix des indicateurs (3.2.24), le

recueil et l’analyse des données, l’évaluation des informations concernant les critères de performance

environnementale, les rapports et modes de communication, la revue périodique et l’amélioration

continue de ce processus
3.2.29
indicateur de performance environnementale
IPE

indicateur (3.2.24) qui fournit des informations sur la performance environnementale (3.2.27) d’un

organisme (3.1.1)
3.2.30
indicateur de performance de management
IPM

indicateur de performance environnementale (3.2.29) qui fournit des informations sur les activités de

management visant à influencer la performance environnementale (3.2.27) d’un organisme (3.1.1)

3.2.31
indicateur de performance opérationnelle
IPO

indicateur de performance environnementale (3.2.29) qui fournit des informations sur la performance

environnementale (3.2.27) du processus opérationnel d’un organisme (3.1.1)
3.2.32
indicateur d’état environnemental

indicateur (3.2.24) qui fournit des informations sur la condition environnementale (3.2.33) locale,

régionale, nationale ou mondiale
3.2.33
condition environnementale

état ou caractéristique de l’environnement (3.2.2) tel que déterminé à un moment donné

3.2.34
sphère d’influence

portée ou étendue des relations politiques, contractuelles, économiques ou autres par lesquelles un

organisme (3.1.1) a la capacité d’influer sur les décisions ou activités d’individus ou d’organismes

3.2.35
compromis

actions décisionnelles qui découlent d’un choix entre plusieurs exigences (3.1.15) et solutions

alternatives sur la base d’un bénéfice net pour les parties intéressées (3.1.2)
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ISO 14050:2020(F)
3.3 Termes relatifs aux systèmes de management environnemental
3.3.1
système de management environnemental
SME

composante du système de management (3.1.4) utilisée pour gérer les aspects environnementaux (3.2.20),

satisfaire aux obligations de conformité (3.3.4) et traiter les risques (3.1.7) et opportunités

3.3.2
politique environnementale
politique (3.1.5) en matière de performance environnementale (3.2.27)
3.3.3
objectif environnemental

objectif (3.1.6) fixé par l’organisme (3.1.1) en cohérence avec sa politique environnementale (3.3.2)

3.3.4
obligation de conformité

exigence légale à laquelle un organisme (3.1.1) doit se conformer ou autre exigence (3.1.15) à laquelle un

organisme doit se conformer ou choisit de se conformer
3.3.5
niveau de maturité

niveau d’avancement du processus de mise en œuvre des éléments d’un système de management

environnemental (3.3.1) mesuré sur une échelle de maturité
3.3.6
procédure
manière définie de réaliser une activité ou un processus (3.1.9)
3.4 Termes relatifs à la vérification, la validation et l’audit
3.4.1
vérification
évaluation de la conformité

confirmation par des preuves objectives (3.4.32) que les exigences (3.1.15) spécifiées ont été satisfaites

3.4.2
rapport de vérification
déclaration formelle des résultats d’une vérification (3.4.1)
3.4.3
équipe de vérification

un ou plusieurs vérificateurs (3.4.5) réalisant une vérification (3.4.1), assistés, si nécessaire, par des

experts techniques (3.4.36)
3.4.4
organisme de vérification
organisme (3.1.1) qui effectue des vérifications (3.4.1)
3.4.5
vérificateur

personne(s) impartiale(s) et compétente(s) qui est (sont) responsable(s) de la réalisation et de la

communication des résultats d’un processus (3.1.9) de vérification (3.4.1)
3.4.6
plan de vérification
document de planification détaillant la mise en œuvre de la vérification (3.4.1)
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ISO 14050:2020(F)
3.4.7
rapport de vérification
document détaillant une vérification (3.4.1) et ses résultats
3.4.8
vérification d’une allégation environnementale

confirmation de la validité d’une allégation environnementale (3.7.3) en utilisant des critères et des

procédures (3.3.6) prédéterminés spécifiques avec une garantie de fiabilité des données

3.4.9
technologie

application de connaissances scientifiques, d’outils, de techniques, de métiers ou de systèmes en vue de

résoudre un problème ou d’atteindre un objectif (3.1.6) et qui peut se concrétiser par un produit (3.5.12)

ou un processus (3.1.9)
3.4.10
technologie environnementale

technologie (3.4.9) qui soit engendre une valeur ajoutée environnementale (3.4.12), soit mesure des

paramètres qui indiquent un impact environnemental (3.2.22)
3.4.11
vérification de la technologie environnementale

vérification (3.4.1) de la performance (3.1.12) d’une technologie environnementale (3.4.10) par un

vérificateur (3.4.5)
3.4.12
valeur ajoutée environnementale

impact environnemental (3.2.22) plus bénéfique ou moins négatif d’une technologie (3.4.9) par rapport à

la technologie alternative
3.4.13
mesure sur le terrain
échantillonnage et essais nécessitant une intervention physique
3.4.14
scepticisme professionnel
attitude incluant un esprit curieux et une évaluation critique des preuves
3.4.15
contrôle de complétude

processus (3.1.9) permettant de vérifier si les informations des phases précédentes d’une analyse du

cycle de vie (3.6.2) suffisent pour arriver à des conclusions conformément à la définition des objectifs et

du champ de l’étude
3.4.16
contrôle de cohérence

processus (3.1.9), mis en œuvre avant d’arriver aux conclusions, permettant de vérifier que les

hypothèses, les méthodes et les données sont appliquées de manière cohérente tout au long de l’étude,

et conformément à la définition des objectifs et du champ de l’étude
3.4.17
contrôle de sensibilité

processus (3.1.9) permettant de déterminer que les informations obtenues à partir d’une analyse

de sensibilité (3.6.25) sont pertinentes pour établir des conclusions, changer des résultats, avoir de

l’influence sur des résultats et donner des recommandations
3.4.18
structure d’essai

organisme (3.1.1) fournissant un environnement d’essai, assurant la réalisation d’essais et procurant

des moyens d’exécution et de consignation des essais
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ISO 14050:2020(F)
3.4.19
plan d’essai

document de planification détaillant les principes, les méthodes d’essai, les conditions, les procédures

(3.3.6) et la qualité des données (3.6.46) requise pour réaliser les essais et obtenir les données d’essai

3.4.20
rapport d’essai

document décrivant les conditions et les résultats des essais, et incluant en général une description des

procédures (3.3.6) ou une référence à ces dernières
3.4.21
validation

confirmation par des preuves objectives (3.4.32) que les exigences (3.1.15) pour une utilisation spécifique

ou une application prévues ont été satisfaites
3.4.22
rapport de validation
déclaration formelle des résultats d’une validation (3.4.21)
3.4.23
équipe de validation

un ou plusieurs validateurs (3.4.25) réalisant une validation (3.4.21), assistés, si nécessaire, par des

experts techniques (3.4.36)
3.4.24
organisme de validation
organisme (3.1.1) qui effectue des validations (3.4.21)
3.4.25
validateur

personne(s) impartiale(s) et compétente(s) qui est (sont) responsable(s) de la réalisation et de la

communication des résultats d’une validation (3.4.21)
3.4.26
plainte

expression d’insatisfaction, autre que par appel, émise par une personne ou un organisme (3.1.1) à

l’encontre d’une autre personne ou d’un autre organisme, relative à ses activités, à laquelle une réponse

est attendue
3.4.27
critères de validation

politique (3.1.5), procédure (3.3.6) ou exigence (3.1.15) utilisée comme référence vis-à-vis de laquelle les

preuves sont comparées
3.4.28
niveau d’assurance

degré de fiabilité que requiert l’utilisateur cible dans un avis de validation (3.4.21) ou de vérification (3.4.1)

3.4.29
conflit d’intérêt

situation dans laquelle, en raison d’autres activités ou relations, la réalisation des activités de validation

(3.4.21) ou de vérification (3.4.1) en toute impartialité est, ou risque d’être, compromise

3.4.30
accréditation

attestation délivrée par une tierce partie, se rapportant à un organisme de validation (3.4.24), de

vérification (3.4.4) ou de certification, constituant une reconnaissance formelle de la compétence

(3.1.10) de ce dernier à réaliser des activités spécifiques de validation (3.4.21) ou de vérification (3.4.1)

8 © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 14050:2020(F)
3.4.31
organisme d’accréditation
autorité qui procède à l’accréditation (3.4.30)
3.4.32
preuves objectives
données démontrant l’existence ou la véracité de quelque chose
3.4.33
client de l’audit
organisme (3.1.1) ou personne demandant un audit (3.1.19)
3.4.34
audité
organisme (3.1.1) qui est audité
3.4.35
équipe d’audit

une ou plusieurs personnes réalisant un audit (3.1.19), assistées, si nécessaire, par des experts techniques

(3.4.36)
3.4.36
expert technique
personne apportant des connaissances spécifiques sur un sujet spécifié
3.4.37
auditeur
personne qui réalise un audit (3.1.19)
3.4.38
audit combiné

audit (3.1.19) réalisé simultanément auprès d’un seul audité (3.4.34) sur deux systèmes de management

(3.1.4) ou plus
3.4.39
audit conjoint

audit (3.1.19) réalisé auprès d’un seul audité (3.4.34) par deux organismes (3.1.1) d’audit ou plus

3.4.40
audit interne
audit (3.1.19) où l’équipe d’audit (3.4.35) fait partie de l’audité (3.4.34)
3.4.41
programme d’audit

ensemble d’un ou plusieurs audits (3.1.19) planifié pour une durée spécifique et dirigé dans un but

spécifique
3.4.42
champ de l’audit
étendue et limites d’un audit (3.1.19)
3.4.43
plan d’audit

description des activités et des dispositions nécessaires pour réaliser un audit (3.1.19)

3.4.44
critères d’audit

ensemble d’exigences (3.1.15) utilisées comme référence vis-à-vis de laquelle les preuves objectives

(3.4.32) sont comparées
© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés 9
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ISO 14050:2020(F)
3.4.45
preuves d’audit

enregistrements, énoncés de faits ou autres informations pertinents pour les critères d’audit (3.4.44) et

vérifiables
3.4.46
constatations d’audit

résultats de l’évaluation des preuves d’audit (3.4.45) recueillies, par rapport aux critères d’audit (3.4.44)

3.4.47
conclusion d’audit

résultat d’un audit (3.1.19), après avoir pris en considération les objectifs (3.1.6) de l’audit et toutes les

constatations d’audit (3.4.46)
3.4.48
certification

attestation par tierce partie portant sur un objet de l’évaluation de la conformité, à l’exception de

l’accréditation (3.4.30)
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 17000:2020, 7.6]
3.4.49
validation des informations environnementales

processus (3.1.9) d’évaluation du caractère raisonnable des hypothèses, limitations et méthodes qui

soutiennent une déclaration des informations environnementales (3.4.51) sur les résultats d’activités

futures
3.4.50
vérification des informations environnementales

processus (3.1.9) d’évaluation d’une déclaration des informations environnementales (3.4.51) fondée

sur des données historiques et des informations pour déterminer si la déclaration est matériellement

correcte et conforme aux critères
3.4.51
déclaration des informations environnementales
allégation relative aux informations environnementales
déclaration relative aux informations environnementales
3.5 Termes relatifs aux systèmes de produits
3.5.1
système de produits

ensemble de processus élémentaires (3.6.9) comportant des flux élémentaires (3.6.12) et des flux de

produits (3.5.3), remplissant une ou plusieurs fonctions définies, qui sert de modèle au cycle de vie

(3.6.1) d’un produit (3.5.12)
3.5.2
énergie procédé

apport d’énergie nécessaire dans un processus élémentaire (3.6.9) pour mettre en œuvre le processus

(3.1.9) ou faire fonctionner l’équipement correspondant, à l’exclusion des intrants énergétiques de

production et de livraison de cette énergie procédé
3.5.3
flux de produits

produits (3.5.12) entrant dans un autre système de produits (3.5.1) ou sortant à destination d’un autre

système de produits (3.5.1)
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 14050
ISO/TC 207
Environmental management —
Secretariat: SCC
Vocabulary
Voting begins on:
2020­04­21
Management environnemental — Vocabulaire
Voting terminates on:
2020­06­16
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 14050:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 14050:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 14050:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 General terms relating to management systems ....................................................................................................... 1

3.2 General terms relating to environmental management ...................................................................................... 3

3.3 Terms relating to environmental management systems .................................................................................... 6

3.4 Terms relating to verification, validation and audit................................................................................................ 6

3.5 Terms relating to product systems .....................................................................................................................................10

3.6 Terms relating to life cycle assessment ..........................................................................................................................12

3.7 Terms relating to environmental labelling, declarations and communication .............................17

3.8 Terms relating to climate change and climate action .........................................................................................19

3.9 Terms relating to greenhouse gases ..................................................................................................................................21

3.10 Terms relating to water footprint ........................................................................................................................................25

3.11 Terms relating to carbon footprint .....................................................................................................................................27

3.12 Terms relating to economy and finance .........................................................................................................................27

Annex A (informative) Concept relations and concept systems ............................................................................................32

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................55

Alphabetical index .............................................................................................................................................................................................................57

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/FDIS 14050:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 207, Environmental management, in

collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/

SS S26, Environmental management, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation

between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO 14050:2009), which has been technically

revised. The fourth edition is structured differently from the third edition. It presents a more generic

vocabulary of environmental management terminology.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 14050:2020(E)
Introduction

Communication is important in the implementation and operation of environmental management

systems. This communication will be most effective if there is a common understanding of the terms used.

To simplify the harmonization of terms and definitions in the field of environmental management, each

terminological entry in this document contains a generic term and its definition. Notes to entry and

examples have been included only in a few cases to provide additional information or clarification.

The terminology is arranged in subclauses, each representing a specific sub-domain. The sequence of

the term entries corresponds to the concept diagrams in Annex A.

This document has been developed in close cooperation with the committees and working groups

involved in the development and revision of the ISO 14000 family of standards. A list of published

documents in the ISO 14000 family of standards is presented in the Bibliography.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 14050:2020(E)
Environmental management — Vocabulary
1 Scope

This document defines terms used in documents in the field of environmental management systems and

tools in support of sustainable development. These include management systems, auditing and other

types of assessment, communications, footprinting studies, greenhouse gas mitigation and adaptation

to climate change.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 General terms relating to management systems
3.1.1
organization

person or group of people that has its own functions with responsibilities, authorities and relationships

to achieve its objectives (3.1.6)
3.1.2
interested party
stakeholder

person or organization (3.1.1) that can affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a

decision or activity
3.1.3
top management

person or group of people who directs and controls an organization (3.1.1) at the highest level

3.1.4
management system

set of interrelated or interacting elements of an organization (3.1.1) to establish policies (3.1.5) and

objectives (3.1.6), as well as processes (3.1.9) to achieve those objectives
3.1.5
policy

intentions and direction of an organization (3.1.1), as formally expressed by its top management (3.1.3)

3.1.6
objective
result to be achieved
3.1.7
risk
effect of uncertainty
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ISO/FDIS 14050:2020(E)
3.1.8
hazard

potential source of injury or damage to the health of people, or damage to property or the

environment (3.2.2)
3.1.9
process

set of interrelated or interacting activities that uses or transforms inputs to deliver a result

3.1.10
competence
ability to apply knowledge and skills to achieve intended results
3.1.11
documented information

information required to be controlled and maintained by an organization (3.1.1) and the medium on

which it is contained
3.1.12
performance
measurable result
3.1.13
continual improvement
recurring activity to enhance performance (3.1.12)
3.1.14
effectiveness
extent to which planned activities are realized and planned results achieved
3.1.15
requirement
need or expectation that is stated, generally implied or obligatory
3.1.16
conformity
fulfilment of a requirement (3.1.15)
3.1.17
nonconformity
non-fulfilment of a requirement (3.1.15)
3.1.18
corrective action

action to eliminate the cause(s) of a nonconformity (3.1.17) and to prevent recurrence

3.1.19
audit

systematic and independent process (3.1.9) for obtaining evidence and evaluating it objectively to

determine the extent to which the audit criteria (3.4.44) are fulfilled
3.1.20
measurement
process (3.1.9) to determine a value
3.1.21
monitoring
determining the status of a system, a process (3.1.9) or an activity
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 14050:2020(E)
3.2 General terms relating to environmental management
3.2.1
environmental management

set of coordinated activities within an organization (3.1.1) related to its environmental aspects (3.2.20)

3.2.2
environment

surroundings in which an organization (3.1.1) operates, including air, water, land (3.8.16), natural

resources (3.2.5), flora, fauna, humans and their interrelationships
3.2.3
ecosystem

dynamic complex of communities of plants, animals and microorganisms and their non-living

environment, interacting as a functional entity
3.2.4
ecosystem service
benefit people obtain from one or several ecosystems (3.2.3)
3.2.5
natural resource
part of nature that provides benefits to humans or underpins human well-being
3.2.6
environmental baseline
state of the environment (3.2.2) without the change that is considered
3.2.7
target group

interested party (3.1.2) or interested parties selected as the focus of an organization’s (3.1.1)

environmental communication (3.7.19) activity
3.2.8
third party

person or body that is recognized as being independent of the parties involved, as concerns the issues

in question
3.2.9
sustainable development

development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations

to meet their own needs
3.2.10
prevention of pollution

use of processes (3.1.9), practices, techniques, materials, products (3.5.12), or energy to avoid, reduce

or control (separately or in combination) the creation, emission or discharge of any type of pollutant or

waste, in order to reduce adverse environmental impacts (3.2.22)
3.2.11
area of concern

aspect of the natural environment (3.2.2), human health or resources of interest to society

3.2.12
environmental topic area

area of interest or concern for environmental management (3.2.1) in an organization (3.1.1) in relation to

its surroundings
3.2.13
methodology
set of means or procedures (3.3.6) used for a specific purpose
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ISO/FDIS 14050:2020(E)
3.2.14
transparency
open, comprehensive and understandable presentation of information
3.2.15
benchmark
reference point against which comparisons can be made
3.2.16
equity share

extent of the rights an organization (3.1.1) has to the risks (3.1.7) and rewards from an operation based

on its equity interest
3.2.17
local authority

public body given the authority by legislation or directives of a higher level of government to set general

policies (3.1.5), plans or requirements (3.1.15)
3.2.18
site

location with geographical boundaries and on which activities under the control of an organization

(3.1.1) can be carried out
3.2.19
facility

single installation, set of installations or production processes (3.1.9) (stationary or mobile), which can

be defined within a single geographical boundary, organizational unit or production process

3.2.20
environmental aspect

element of an organization’s (3.1.1) activities or products (3.5.12) that interacts or can interact with the

environment (3.2.2)
3.2.21
environmental impact pathway

series of consecutive, causal relationships, ultimately starting at an environmental aspect (3.2.20) and

ending at an environmental impact (3.2.22)
3.2.22
environmental impact

change to the environment (3.2.2), whether adverse or beneficial, including possible consequences,

wholly or partially resulting from an organization’s (3.1.1) environmental aspects (3.2.20)

3.2.23
environmental impact factor

quantity of environmental impact (3.2.22) per quantity of environmental aspect (3.2.20)

3.2.24
indicator

quantitative, qualitative or binary variable that can be measured, calculated or described, representing

the status of operations, management, conditions or impacts
3.2.25
key performance indicator
KPI

indicator (3.2.24) of performance (3.1.12) deemed by an organization (3.1.1) to be significant and giving

prominence and attention to certain aspects of operations, management, conditions or impacts

4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 14050:2020(E)
3.2.26
combined indicator

indicator (3.2.24) that includes information on more than one aspect of operations, management,

conditions or impacts
3.2.27
environmental performance
performance (3.1.12) related to the management of environmental aspects (3.2.20)
3.2.28
environmental performance evaluation
EPE

process (3.1.9) to facilitate management decisions regarding an organization’s (3.1.1) environmental

performance (3.2.27) by selecting indicators (3.2.24), collecting and analysing data, assessing

information against environmental performance criteria, reporting and communicating, and

periodically reviewing and improving this process
3.2.29
environmental performance indicator
EPI

indicator (3.2.24) that provides information about an organization’s (3.1.1) environmental performance

(3.2.27)
3.2.30
management performance indicator
MPI

environmental performance indicator (3.2.29) that provides information about the management efforts

to influence an organization’s (3.1.1) environmental performance (3.2.27)
3.2.31
operational performance indicator
OPI

environmental performance indicator (3.2.29) that provides information about the environmental

performance (3.2.27) of an organization’s (3.1.1) operation
3.2.32
environmental condition indicator

indicator (3.2.24) that provides information about the local, regional, national or global environmental

condition (3.2.33)
3.2.33
environmental condition

state or characteristic of the environment (3.2.2) as determined at a certain point in time

3.2.34
sphere of influence

range or extent of political, contractual, economic or other relationships through which an organization

(3.1.1) has the ability to affect the decisions or activities of individuals or organizations

3.2.35
trade-off

decision­making actions that select from various requirements (3.1.15) and alternative solutions on the

basis of net benefit to interested parties (3.1.2)
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO/FDIS 14050:2020(E)
3.3 Terms relating to environmental management systems
3.3.1
environmental management system
EMS

part of the management system (3.1.4) used to manage environmental aspects (3.2.20), fulfil compliance

obligations (3.3.4), and address risks (3.1.7) and opportunities
3.3.2
environmental policy
policy (3.1.5) related to environmental performance (3.2.27)
3.3.3
environmental objective

objective (3.1.6) set by the organization (3.1.1) and consistent with its environmental policy (3.3.2)

3.3.4
compliance obligation

legal requirement that an organization (3.1.1) has to comply with or other requirement (3.1.15) that an

organization has to or chooses to comply with
3.3.5
maturity level

level of achievement in the implementation process measured on a scale of maturity for environmental

management system (3.3.1) elements
3.3.6
procedure
specified way to carry out an activity or a process (3.1.9)
3.4 Terms relating to verification, validation and audit
3.4.1
verification
conformity assessment

confirmation through the provision of objective evidence (3.4.32), that specified requirements (3.1.15)

have been fulfilled
3.4.2
verification statement
formal declaration of the outcome of a verification (3.4.1)
3.4.3
verification team

one or more verifiers (3.4.5) conducting a verification (3.4.1), supported if needed by technical experts

(3.4.36)
3.4.4
verification body
organization (3.1.1) that performs verifications (3.4.1)
3.4.5
verifier

competent and independent person or persons with responsibility for performing and reporting on a

verification (3.4.1) process (3.1.9)
3.4.6
verification plan
planning document detailing the implementation of verification (3.4.1)
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ISO/FDIS 14050:2020(E)
3.4.7
verification report
document detailing a verification (3.4.1) and its results
3.4.8
environmental claim verification

confirmation of the validity of an environmental claim (3.7.3) using specific predetermined criteria and

procedures (3.3.6) with an assurance of data reliability
3.4.9
technology

application of scientific knowledge, tools, techniques, crafts or systems in order to solve a problem or to

achieve an objective (3.1.6), which can result in a product (3.5.12) or process (3.1.9)

3.4.10
environmental technology

technology (3.4.9) that either results in an environmental added value (3.4.12) or measures parameters

that indicate an environmental impact (3.2.22)
3.4.11
environmental technology verification

verification (3.4.1) of the performance (3.1.12) of an environmental technology (3.4.10) by a verifier (3.4.5)

3.4.12
environmental added value

more beneficial or less adverse environmental impact (3.2.22) of a technology (3.4.9) with respect to the

relevant alternative
3.4.13
intrusive investigation
sampling and testing requiring physical interference
3.4.14
professional scepticism
attitude that includes a questioning mind and a critical assessment of evidence
3.4.15
completeness check

process (3.1.9) of verifying whether information from the phases of a life cycle assessment (3.6.2) is

sufficient for reaching conclusions in accordance with the goal and scope definition

3.4.16
consistency check

process (3.1.9) of verifying that the assumptions, methods and data are consistently applied

throughout the study and are in accordance with the goal and scope definition performed before

conclusions are reached
3.4.17
sensitivity check

process (3.1.9) to determine that the information obtained from a sensitivity analysis (3.6.25) is relevant

for reaching conclusions, changing results, have influence on results and giving recommendations

3.4.18
test body

organization (3.1.1) providing an environment for testing, test implementation and means for

performing and reporting on the testing
3.4.19
test plan

planning document detailing the principles, test methods, conditions, procedures (3.3.6) and data

quality (3.6.46) required to carry out testing and to produce test data
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ISO/FDIS 14050:2020(E)
3.4.20
test report

document describing conditions and results of testing, and usually including a description of or

reference to procedures (3.3.6)
3.4.21
validation

confirmation through the provision of objective evidence (3.4.32) that the requirements (3.1.15) for a

specific intended use or application have been fulfilled
3.4.22
validation statement
formal declaration of the outcome of a validation (3.4.21)
3.4.23
validation team

one or more validators (3.4.25) conducting a validation (3.4.21), supported if needed by technical experts

(3.4.36)
3.4.24
validation body
organization (3.1.1) that performs validations (3.4.21)
3.4.25
validator

competent and independent person or persons with responsibility for performing a validation (3.4.21)

and reporting on the results of the validation
3.4.26
complaint

expression of dissatisfaction, other than by appeal, by any person or organization (3.1.1) to another

person or organization, relating to its activities, where a response is expected
3.4.27
validation criteria

policy (3.1.5), procedure (3.3.6) or requirement (3.1.15) used as a reference against which evidence is

compared
3.4.28
level of assurance

degree of reliability the intended user requires in a validation (3.4.21) or verification (3.4.1)

3.4.29
conflict of interest

situation in which, because of other activities or relationships, impartiality in performing validation

(3.4.21) or verification (3.4.1) activities is or could be compromised
3.4.30
accreditation

third-party attestation related to a validation body (3.4.24), verification body (3.4.4) or certification body

conveying a formal demonstration of its competence (3.1.10) to carry out specific validation (3.4.21) or

verification (3.4.1) tasks
3.4.31
accreditation body
authority that performs accreditation (3.4.30)
3.4.32
objective evidence
data supporting the existence or verity of something
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ISO/FDIS 14050:2020(E)
3.4.33
audit client
organization (3.1.1) or person requesting an audit (3.1.19)
3.4.34
auditee
organization (3.1.1) being audited
3.4.35
audit team

one or more persons conducting an audit (3.1.19), supported if needed by technical experts (3.4.36)

3.4.36
technical expert
person who provides specific knowledge on a specified subject
3.4.37
auditor
person who conducts an audit (3.1.19)
3.4.38
combined audit

audit (3.1.19) carried out together at a single auditee (3.4.34) on two or more management systems (3.1.4)

3.4.39
joint audit

audit (3.1.19) carried out at a single auditee (3.4.34) by two or more auditing organizations (3.1.1)

3.4.40
internal audit
audit (3.1.19) where the audit team (3.4.35) belongs to the auditee (3.4.34)
3.4.41
audit programme

set of one or more audits (3.1.19) planned for a specific time frame and directed towards a specific purpose

3.4.42
audit scope
extent and boundaries of an audit (3.1.19)
3.4.43
audit plan
description of the activities and arrangements for an audit (3.1.19)
3.4.44
audit criteria

set of requirements (3.1.15) used as a reference against which objective evidence (3.4.32) is compared

3.4.45
audit evidence

records, statements of fact or other information, which are relevant to the audit criteria (3.4.44) and

verifiable
3.4.46
audit findings

results of the evaluation of the collected audit evidence (3.4.45) against audit criteria (3.4.44)

3.4.47
audit conclusion

outcome of an audit (3.1.19), after consideration of the audit objectives (3.1.6) and all audit findings

(3.4.46)
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ISO/FDIS 14050:2020(E)
3.4.48
certification

third-party attestation related to an object of conformity assessment, with the exception of accreditation

(3.4.30)
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 17000:—, 7.3]
3.4.49
environmental information validation

process (3.1.9) to evaluate the reasonableness of the assumptions, limitations, and methods that support

an environmental information statement (3.4.51) about the outcome of future activities

3.4.50
environmental information verification

process (3.1.9) for evaluating an environmental information statement (3.4.51) based on historical data

and information to determine whether the statement is materially correct and conforms to criteria

3.4.51
environmental information statement
environmental information claim
declaration of environmental information
3.5 Terms relating to product systems
3.5.1
product system

collection of unit processes (3.6.9) with elementary flows (3.6.12) and product flows (3.5.3), performing

one or more defined functions and which models the life cycle (3.6.1) of a product (3.5.12)

3.5.2
process energy

energy input required for operating the process (3.1.9) or equipment within a unit process (3.6.9),

excluding energy inputs for production and delivery of the process energy itself
3.5.3
product flow
products (3.5.12) entering from or leaving to another product system (3.5.1)
3.5.4
energy use
manner or kind of application of energy
3.5.5
product system value
worth or desirability ascribed to a product system (3.5.1)
3.5.6
product system value indicator
numerical quantity representing the product system value (3.5.5)
3.5.7
product standard

standard that specifies requirements (3.1.15) to be fulfilled by a product (3.5.12) or group of products to

establish its fitness for purpose (3.5.8)
3.5.8
fitness for purpose

ability of a product (3.5.12) or a process (3.1.9) to serve a defined purpose under specific conditions

1) Under preparation.
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ISO/FDIS 14050:2020(E)
3.5.9
product environmental criteria

environmental requirements (3.1.15) that the product (3.5.12) has to meet in

order to be awarded an environmental label (3.7.1)
3.5.10
product environmental aspect

element of a product (3.5.12) that, during its life cycle (3.6.1), can interact with the environment (3.2.2)

3.5.11
performance tracking of an organization

comparison of the performance (3.1.12) of the same organization’s (3.1.1) products (3.5.12) and unit

processes (3.6.9) over time, based on the same time period, system boundary (3.6.8) and reporting unit

3.5.12
product
any goods or service
3.5.13
co-product

product (3.5.12) coming from the same unit process (3.6.9) or product system (3.5.1) as one or more

other products
3.5.14
intermediate product

output from a unit process (3.6.9) within a system that is input to one or more other unit process(es)

within the same system, where it is transformed
3.5.15
final product

product (3.5.12) that requires no additional transformation (3.8.26) prior to its use

3.5.16
service life

period of time during which a product (3.5.12) in use meets or exceeds the performance (3.1.12)

requirements (3.1.15)
3.5.17
consumer

individual member of the general public purchasing or using products (3.5.12) and property for private

purposes
3.5.18
raw material
primary or secondary material that is used to produce a product (3.5.12)
3.5.19
release
emission to air or discharge to water or soil
3.5.20
design and development
process (3.1.9) that transfor
...

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