Fluids for electrotechnical applications - Unused natural esters liquids for transformers and similar electrical equipment

EN IEC 62770 describes specifications and test methods for unused natural esters in transformers and similar oil-impregnated electrical equipment in which a liquid is required as an insulating and heat transfer medium. Use of natural esters is not recommended for electrical equipment that is open to the atmosphere. In this standard the term “natural esters” applies to insulating fluids for transformers and similar electrical equipment with suitable biodegradability and environmental compatibility. Such natural esters are vegetable oils obtained from seeds and oils obtained from other suitable biological materials and delivered to an agreed point, at a set time period. These oils are comprised of triglycerides. Natural esters with additives are within the scope of this standard. Because of their different chemical composition, natural esters differ from insulating mineral oils and other insulating fluids that have high fire points, such as synthetic esters or silicone fluids. Natural, ester-derived insulating fluids with low viscosity have been introduced but are not covered by this standard. Pertinent properties of such fluids are given in Annex B. This standard is applicable only to unused natural esters. Reclaimed natural esters and natural esters blended with non-natural esters fluids are beyond the scope of this standard. The chemical nomenclature and scientific notations used in the standard are in accordance with the IUPAC handbook (Quantities, Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry).

/

Fluides pour applications électrotechniques - Esters naturels neufs pour transformateurs et matériels électriques analogues

La CEI 62770:2013 décrit les spécifications et méthodes d'essai applicables aux esters naturels neufs dans les transformateurs et matériels électriques imprégnés d'huile analogues nécessitant un liquide en tant que milieu isolant et caloporteur. Les esters naturels avec additifs entrent dans le domaine d'application de la présente norme. En raison de leur composition chimique différente, les esters naturels se distinguent des huiles minérales isolantes et d'autres fluides isolants qui possèdent des points de feu élevés, tels que les esters synthétiques ou les fluides silicones. Les fluides isolants dérivés d'esters naturels présentant une faible viscosité ont été introduits, mais ne sont pas couverts par la présente norme. Les propriétés pertinentes de ces fluides sont indiquées dans l'Annexe B. La présente norme n'est applicable qu'aux esters naturels neufs. Les esters naturels régénérés et les esters naturels mélangés à des fluides à base d'esters non naturels n'entrent pas dans le domaine d'application de cette norme.

Tekočine za elektrotehniko - Neuporabljene naravne estrske tekočine za transformatorje in podobno električno opremo (IEC 62770:2013)

EN IEC 62770 opisuje specifikacije in preskusne metode za neuporabljene naravne estrske tekočine za transformatorje in podobno oljno impregnirano električno opremo, kjer je tekočina potrebna kot sredstvo za izolacijo in prenos toplote. Uporaba naravnih estrov ni priporočena za električno opremo, ki je izpostavljena atmosferskim vplivom. V tem standardu se izraz „naravni estri“ nanaša na izolacijske tekočine za transformatorje in podobno elektronsko opremo ustrezne biorazgradljivosti in okoljske združljivosti. Takšni naravni estri so rastlinska olja, pridobljena iz semen, in olja, pridobljena iz drugih primernih bioloških materialov, ter dovedena do določene točke v določenem času. Ta olja so sestavljena iz trigliceridov. Ta standard zajema naravne estre z dodatki. Naravni estri se zaradi drugačne kemične sestave razlikujejo od izolacijskih mineralnih olj in drugih izolacijskih tekočin, ki imajo visoka gorišča, kot so sintetični estri ali silikonske tekočine. Naravne nizkoviskozne izolacijske tekočine iz estrov so predstavljene, vendar jih ta standard ne zajema. Zadevne lastnosti takšnih tekočin so podane v Dodatku B. Ta standard zajema samo neuporabljene naravne estre. Ponovno uporabljeni naravni estri in naravni estri, zmešani z nenaravnimi estrskimi tekočinami, niso vključeni v obseg tega standarda. Kemijska nomenklatura in znanstvene oznake, uporabljene v tem standardu, so skladne s priročnikom Mednarodne zveze za čisto in uporabno kemijo (IUPAC) o količinah, enotah in simbolih v fizikalni kemiji.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
29-May-2014
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
13-May-2014
Due Date
18-Jul-2014
Completion Date
30-May-2014

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Standards Content (Sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 62770:2014
01-julij-2014
7HNRþLQH]DHOHNWURWHKQLNR1HXSRUDEOMHQHQDUDYQHHVWUVNHWHNRþLQH]D
WUDQVIRUPDWRUMHLQSRGREQRHOHNWULþQRRSUHPR ,(&

Fluids for electrotechnical applications - Unused natural esters liquids for transformers

and similar electrical equipment

Fluides pour applications électrotechniques - Esters naturels neufs pour transformateurs

et matériels électriques analogues
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 62770:2014
ICS:
29.040.01 Izolacijski fluidi na splošno Insulating fluids in general
29.180 Transformatorji. Dušilke Transformers. Reactors
SIST EN 62770:2014 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 62770:2014
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 62770:2014
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 62770
NORME EUROPÉENNE
April 2014
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 29.040
English version
Fluids for electrotechnical applications -
Unused natural esters for transformers and similar electrical equipment
(IEC 62770:2013)
Fluides pour applications Flüssigkeiten für elektrotechnische
électrotechniques - Anwendungen -
Esters naturels neufs pour Neue natürliche Ester für Transformatoren
transformateurs et matériels électriques und ähnliche elektrische Betriebsmittel
analogues (IEC 62770:2013)
(CEI 62770:2013)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2013-12-24. CENELEC members are bound to comply

with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard

the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified

to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,

the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany,

Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B - 1000 Brussels

© 2014 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 62770:2014 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 62770:2014
EN 62770:2014 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 10/909/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 62770, prepared by IEC TC 10 "Fluids for

electrotechnical applications" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by

CENELEC as EN 62770:2014.
The following dates are fixed:
• latest date by which the document has (dop) 2014-10-18
to be implemented at national level by
publication of an identical national
standard or by endorsement
(dow) 2016-12-24
• latest date by which the national
standards conflicting with the
document have to be withdrawn

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 62770:2013 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 60422 NOTE Harmonised as EN 60422.
IEC 61039 NOTE Harmonised as EN 61039.
IEC 61099 NOTE Harmonised as EN 61099.
IEC 61868 NOTE Harmonised as EN 61868.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 62770:2014
- 3 - EN 62770:2014
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE When an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD

applies.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60076-14 - Power transformers - EN 60076-14 -
Part 14: Liquid-immersed power transformers
using high-temperature insulation materials
IEC 60156 - Insulating liquids - Determination of the EN 60156 -
breakdown voltage at power frequency - Test
method
IEC 60247 - Insulating liquids - Measurement of relative EN 60247 -
permittivity, dielectric dissipation factor (tan d)
and d.c. resistivity
IEC 60296 - Fluids for electrotechnical applications - EN 60296 -
Unused mineral insulating oils for
transformers and switchgear
IEC 60475 - Method of sampling insulating liquids EN 60475 -
IEC 60666 - Detection and determination of specified EN 60666 -
additives in mineral insulating oils
IEC 60814 - Insulating liquids - Oil-impregnated paper and EN 60814 -
pressboard - Determination of water by
automatic coulometric Karl Fischer titration
IEC 61100 - Classification of insulating liquids according to EN 61100 -
fire point and net calorific value
IEC 61125 1992 Unused hydrocarbon based insulating liquids - EN 61125 1993
Test methods for evaluating the oxidation
stability
IEC 61198 - Mineral insulating oils - Methods for the EN 61198 -
determination of 2-furfural and related
compounds
IEC 61619 - Insulating liquids - Contamination by EN 61619 -
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) - Method of
determination by capillary column gas
chromatography
IEC 61620 - Insulating liquids - Determination of the EN 61620 -
dielectric dissipation factor by measurement of
the conductance and capacitance - Test
method
Withdrawn in 2009 and partially replaced by IEC 61039.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 62770:2014
EN 62770:2014 - 4 -
IEC 62021-3 - Insulating liquids - Determination of acidity - EN 62021-3 -
Part 3: Test methods for non mineral
insulating oils
IEC 62535 2008 Insulating liquids - Test method for detection EN 62535 2009
of potentially corrosive sulphur in used and
unused insulating oil
IEC 62697-1 - Test method for quantitative determination of EN 62697-1 -
corrosive sulfur compounds in unused and
used insulating liquids -
Part 1: Test method for quantitative
determination of dibenzyldisulfide (DBDS)
ISO 2592 - Determination of flash and fire points - - -
Cleveland open cup method
ISO 2719 - Determination of flash point - Pensky-Martens - -
closed cup method
ISO 3016 - Petroleum products - Determination of pour - -
point
ISO 3104 - Petroleum products - Transparent and opaque - -
liquids - Determination of kinematic viscosity
and calculation of dynamic viscosity
ISO 3675 - Crude petroleum and liquid petroleum - -
products - Laboratory determination of density
- Hydrometermethod
ISO 12185 - Crude petrolelum and petroleum products - - -
Determination of density - Oscillating U-tube
method
ASTM D 1275 - Standard Test Method for Corrosive Sulfur in - -
Electrical Insulating Oils
OECD 201-203 - Test Guidelines for ecotoxicity - -
OECD 301 Guideline for testing of chemicals adopted by - -
European Council
US EPA - Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic - -
Substances (OPPTS)
835.311 - Fate, Transport and Transformation Test - -
Guidelines
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 62770:2014
IEC 62770
Edition 1.0 2013-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE

Fluids for electrotechnical applications – Unused natural esters for transformers

and similar electrical equipment
Fluides pour applications électrotechniques – Esters naturels neufs pour
transformateurs et matériels électriques analogues
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX Q
ICS 29.040 ISBN 978-2-8322-1191-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 62770:2014
– 2 – 62770  IEC:2013
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 9

4 Properties, their significance and test methods ................................................................ 9

4.1 General .............................................................................................................. 9

4.2 Physical properties ............................................................................................ 9

4.2.1 Appearance ...................................................................................... 9

4.2.2 Viscosity ......................................................................................... 10

4.2.3 Pour point ....................................................................................... 10

4.2.4 Water content ................................................................................. 10

4.2.5 Density ........................................................................................... 10

4.3 Electrical properties ......................................................................................... 10

4.3.1 Breakdown voltage ......................................................................... 10

4.3.2 Dielectric dissipation factor (DDF) .................................................. 10

4.3.3 Relative permittivity (dielectric constant) ......................................... 11

4.4 Chemical properties ......................................................................................... 11

4.4.1 Acidity ............................................................................................ 11

4.4.2 Corrosive sulfur .............................................................................. 11

4.4.3 Additive content .............................................................................. 11

4.4.4 Furfural content .............................................................................. 11

4.5 Performance .................................................................................................... 11

4.5.1 Oxidation stability ........................................................................... 11

4.5.2 Total acidity .................................................................................... 12

4.5.3 Viscosity ......................................................................................... 12

4.5.4 Dielectric dissipation factor (DDF) .................................................. 12

4.6 Health, safety and environmental (HSE) properties .......................................... 12

4.6.1 Fire point and flash point ................................................................ 12

4.6.2 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) ................................................... 12

4.6.3 Biodegradation ............................................................................... 12

4.6.4 Toxicity ........................................................................................... 12

5 Classification, identification, general delivery requirements and sampling ...................... 12

5.1 Classification ................................................................................................... 12

5.2 Identification and general delivery requirements .............................................. 13

5.3 Sampling .......................................................................................................... 13

Annex A (normative) Summary of the test method for evaluating oxidation stability of

unused natural esters .................................................................................................... 15

A.1 Introductory remark .......................................................................................... 15

A.2 Test conditions ................................................................................................ 15

A.3 Precision .......................................................................................................... 15

A.4 Relative repeatability (r) ................................................................................... 15

A.5 Relative reproducibility (R) ............................................................................... 15

Annex B (informative) Specifications of low-viscosity insulating fluids derived from

natural esters ................................................................................................................ 16

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 17

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 62770:2014
62770  IEC:2013 – 3 –

Table 1 – General specifications ........................................................................................... 14

Table A.1 – Relative repeatability and relative reproducibility obtained for different

parameters during RRT ......................................................................................................... 15

Table B.1 – Specifications for low-viscosity of monoesters derived from natural esters ......... 16

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 62770:2014
– 4 – 62770  IEC:2013
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
FLUIDS FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS –
UNUSED NATURAL ESTERS FOR TRANSFORMERS
AND SIMILAR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62770 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 10: Fluids

for electrotechnical applications.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
10/909/FDIS 10/933/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 62770:2014
62770  IEC:2013 – 5 –

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data

related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 62770:2014
– 6 – 62770  IEC:2013
INTRODUCTION

Because of their higher fire points and better environmental compatibility relative to petroleum

derived insulating mineral oil, the use of vegetable oils and other natural esters is on the rise

as insulating and heat transfer fluids in electrical devices such as transformers.

This standard sets performance criteria for unused natural esters earmarked for electrical

applications. However, the use of natural esters is recommended only for equipment that is

not open to the atmosphere, e.g. sealed transformers and reactors because these fluids are

prone to rapid oxidation.

This International Standard does not purport to address all the safety problems associated

with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of the standard to establish appropriate health

and safety practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitation prior to use.

Unused natural esters which are the subject of this standard should be handled with due

regard to personal hygiene. Direct contact with eyes should be avoided. In case of eye

contact, irrigation with copious amounts of clean running water should be carried out and

medical advice sought.

Performance of some of the tests mentioned in this standard could lead to a hazardous

situation. Attention is drawn to the relevant standard test method for guidance.

The disposal of natural esters, chemicals and sample containers mentioned in this standard

should be carried out in accordance with current national legislation with regard to the impact

on the environment. Every precaution should be taken to prevent the release of natural esters

into the environment.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 62770:2014
62770  IEC:2013 – 7 –
FLUIDS FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS –
UNUSED NATURAL ESTERS FOR TRANSFORMERS
AND SIMILAR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
1 Scope

This International Standard describes specifications and test methods for unused natural

esters in transformers and similar oil-impregnated electrical equipment in which a liquid is

required as an insulating and heat transfer medium.

Use of natural esters is not recommended for electrical equipment that is open to the

atmosphere.

In this standard the term “natural esters” applies to insulating fluids for transformers and

similar electrical equipment with suitable biodegradability and environmental compatibility.

Such natural esters are vegetable oils obtained from seeds and oils obtained from other

suitable biological materials and delivered to an agreed point, at a set time period. These oils

are comprised of triglycerides.

Natural esters with additives are within the scope of this standard. Because of their different

chemical composition, natural esters differ from insulating mineral oils and other insulating

fluids that have high fire points, such as synthetic esters or silicone fluids.

Natural, ester-derived insulating fluids with low viscosity have been introduced but are not

covered by this standard. Pertinent properties of such fluids are given in Annex B.

This standard is applicable only to unused natural esters. Reclaimed natural esters and

natural esters blended with non-natural esters fluids are beyond the scope of this standard.

The chemical nomenclature and scientific notations used in the standard are in accordance

with the IUPAC handbook (Quantities, Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry).
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and

are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.

IEC 60076-14, Power transformers - Part 14: Liquid-immersed power transformers using high-

temperature insulation materials

IEC 60156, Insulating liquids – Determination of the breakdown voltage at power frequency –

Test method

IEC 60247, Insulating liquids – Measurement of relative permittivity, dielectric dissipation

factor and DC resistivity of insulating fluids

IEC 60296, Fluids for electrotechnical applications – Unused mineral insulating oils for

transformers and switchgear
IEC 60475, Method of sampling liquid dielectrics

IEC 60666, Detection and determination of specific additives in mineral insulating oils

---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN 62770:2014
– 8 – 62770  IEC:2013

IEC 60814, Insulating liquids – Oil-impregnated paper and pressboard – Determination of

water by automatic coulometric Karl Fischer titration

IEC 61100, Classification of insulating liquids according to fire-point and net calorific value

IEC 61125:1992, Unused hydrocarbon-based insulating fluids – Test methods for evaluating

the oxidation stability

IEC 61198, Mineral insulating oils – Methods for the determination of 2-furfural and related

compounds

IEC 61619, Insulating liquids – Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) – Method

of determination by capillary column gas chromatography

IEC 61620, Insulating liquids – Determination of the dielectric dissipation factor by

measurement of the conductance and capacitance – Test method

IEC 62021-3, Insulating liquids – Determination of acidity – Part 3: Test methods for non

mineral insulating oils

IEC 62535:2008, Insulating liquids – Test method for detection of potentially corrosive sulfur

in used and unused insulating oils

IEC 62697-1, Test method for quantitative determination of corrosive sulfur compounds in

unused and used insulating liquids – Part 1: Test method for quantitative determination of

dibenzyl disulfide (DBDS)
ISO 2592, Determination of flash and fire point – Cleveland open cup method
ISO 2719, Determination of flash point – Pensky-Martens closed cup method
ISO 3016, Petroleum products – Determination of pour point

ISO 3104, Petroleum products – Transparent and opaque fluids – Determination of kinematic

viscosity and calculation of dynamic viscosity

ISO 3675, Crude petroleum and liquid petroleum products – Laboratory determination of

density – Hydrometer method

ISO 12185, Crude petroleum and petroleum products – Determination of density – Oscillating

U-tube method

ASTM D 1275, Standard Test Method for Corrosive Sulfur in Electrical Insulating Oils

OECD 201-203, Test Guidelines for ecotoxicity

OECD 301, Guideline for testing of chemicals adopted by European Council on July 17th 1992

US EPA, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS)
835.311, Fate, Transport and Transformation Test Guidelines
—————————
Withdrawn in 2009 and partially replaced by IEC 61039.
To be published.
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN 62770:2014
62770  IEC:2013 – 9 –
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following definitions apply.
3.1
additives

suitable chemical substances which are deliberately added to natural ester insulating fluids in

order to improve certain characteristics, e.g. pour point, viscosity, foaming, and oxidation

stability

Note 1 to entry: Examples include antioxidants, pour-point depressants, electrostatic charging tendency

depressant, metal passivator or deactivators, antifoam agent, refining process improver, etc.

3.2
corrosive sulfur

free sulfur and corrosive sulfur compounds detected by subjecting metals such as copper to

contact with an insulating liquid under standardized conditions

[SOURCE: IEC 60050-212:2010, definition 212-18-20, modified – inclusion of "metals such

as"]
3.3
natural esters

vegetable oils obtained from seeds and oils obtained from other suitable biological materials

and comprised of triglycerides
3.4
potentially corrosive sulfur

organo-sulfur compounds present in transformer oils that may cause copper sulfide formation

[SOURCE: IEC 62535:2008, definition 3.1 – modified, the NOTE to entry has been omitted]

3.5
unused natural esters
unused natural esters as delivered by the supplier

Note 1 to entry: Such a liquid has not been used in, nor been in contact with electrical equipment or other

equipment not required for its manufacture, storage or transport.

Note 2 to entry: The manufacturer and supplier of unused natural esters will have taken all reasonable

precautions to ensure that the natural esters are not contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated

terphenyls or polycyclic aromatics (PCB,PCT, PCAs,) or corrosive sulfur compounds; used, reclaimed, or

dechlorinated oils, or other contaminants.
4 Properties, their significance and test methods
4.1 General
Salient characteristics of unused natural esters are listed in Table 1.

NOTE Additional information on natural esters for transformers and similar electrical equipment is available in

CIGRE brochure 436 and IEEE report C57.147.
4.2 Physical properties
4.2.1 Appearance

A visual inspection of unused natural esters (with light transmitted through approximately

10 cm thickness of natural esters at ambient temperature) indicates the presence of visible

contaminants, free water and suspended matter.
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST EN 62770:2014
– 10 – 62770  IEC:2013
4.2.2 Viscosity

Viscosity influences heat transfer and therefore affects the increase of temperature in the

transformer and other equipment. The lower the viscosity, the easier the oil circulates leading

to better heat transfer. Viscosities at lower temperatures is a critical factor for cold start of

transformers with ON cooling (absence of circulation can lead to possible overheating at hot

spots). It can have negative impact on the speed of moving parts such as on-load tap changer

mechanism, pumps and regulators. Due consideration should be given to viscosity at the

lowest cold start energizing temperature (LCSET). Viscosity at 40 °C and 100 °C shall be

measured according to ISO 3104.
4.2.3 Pour point

Pour point of unused natural esters is the lowest temperature at which the natural esters will

just flow. Pour point shall be measured in accordance w
...

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