Test methods for external fire exposure to roofs

This European Technical Specification specifies four methods for determining the performance of roofs to external fire exposure. The four methods assess the performance of roofs under the following conditions:
test 1 - with burning brands;
test 2 - with burning brands and wind;
test 3 - with burning brands, wind and supplementary radiant heat;
test 4 - with two stages  incorporating burning brands, wind and supplementary radiant heat.
The tests assess the fire spread across the external surface of the roof, the fire spread within the roof (tests 1, 2 and 3), the fire penetration (tests 1, 3 and 4) and the production of flaming droplets or debris falling from the underside of the roof or from the exposed surface (tests 1, 3 and 4).
Tests 2 and 3 are not applicable to geometrically irregular roofs or roof mounted appliances e.g. ventilators and roof lights.
NOTE   The four tests listed above do not imply any ranking order. Each test stands on its own without the possibility to substitute or exchange one for another.

Prüfverfahren zur Beanspruchung von Bedachungen durch Feuer von außen

Diese europäische Technische Spezifikation legt vier Prüfverfahren, um das Brandverhalten von Bedachun¬gen gegen Brandbeanspruchung von außen zu ermitteln, fest. Die vier Verfahren beurteilen das Brandverhalten von Bedachungen unter den folgenden Beanspruchungen:
-   Prüfverfahren 1: Mit Beanspruchung durch Brandsätze;
-   Prüfverfahren 2: Mit Beanspruchung durch Brandsätze und Wind;
-   Prüfverfahren 3: Mit Beanspruchung durch Brandsätze, Wind und zusätzliche Strahlungswärme;
-   Prüfverfahren 4: Mit zwei Stufen unter Benutzung von Brandsätzen, Wind und zusätzlicher Strahlungswärme.
Die Prüfverfahren beurteilen die Brandausbreitung auf der Dachoberfläche, die Brandausbreitung innerhalb des Dachaufbaus (Prüfverfahren 1, 2 und 3), die Durchdringung des Daches durch Feuer (Prüfverfahren 1, 3 und 4) und das Auftreten von brennendem Abtropfen oder brennenden Teilen entweder von der Dachunterseite fallend oder von der beanspruchten Dachoberfläche (Prüfverfahren 1, 3 und 4).
Die Prüfverfahren 2 und 3 sind nicht zur Beurteilung von geometrisch unregelmäßigen Dächern oder auf Dächern befestigten Anlagen wie Abzüge und Lichtkuppeln geeignet.
ANMERKUNG   Die vier oben angeführten Prüfverfahren geben keine Rangfolge an. Jedes Prüfverfahren ist eigenständig, ohne ein anderes zu ersetzen oder auszutauschen.

Méthodes d'essai pour l'exposition des toitures à un feu extérieur

La présente Spécification technique européenne spécifie quatre méthodes permettant de déterminer les performances des toitures exposées à un feu extérieur. Les quatre méthodes d’essai évaluent les performances des toitures dans les conditions suivantes :
a)   essai 1 - avec brandons enflammés ;
b)   essai 2 - avec brandons enflammés et vent ;
c)   essai 3 - avec brandons enflammés, vent et chaleur rayonnante supplémentaire ;
d)   essai 4 - en deux étapes avec brandons enflammés, vent et chaleur rayonnante supplémentaire.
Les essais évaluent la propagation du feu sur la surface extérieure de la toiture, la propagation du feu à l’intérieur de la toiture (essais 1, 2 et 3), la pénétration du feu (essais 1, 3 et 4) et la production de flammèches ou de débris de la face inférieure de la toiture ou de la surface exposée de la toiture (essais 1, 3 et 4).
Les essais 2 et 3 ne sont pas applicables aux toitures à géométrie irrégulière ou aux accessoires montés sur la toiture (par exemple : ouvrants de ventilation et lanterneaux d’éclairage).
NOTE   Les quatre essais énumérés ci-dessus n’impliquent aucun ordre de classement hiérarchique. Chaque essai existe à part entière, sans aucune possibilité de remplacement ou d’échange réciproque.

Preskusne metode za izpostavljenost streh požaru z zunanje strani

Ta evropska tehnična specifikacija določa štiri metode za ugotavljanje izpostavljenosti streh požaru z zunanje strani. S temi štirimi metodami se ugotavlja izpostavljenost streh v naslednjih pogojih:
preskus 1 – z letečim ognjem;
preskus 2 – z letečim ognjem in vetrom;
preskus 3 – z letečim ognjem, vetrom in dodatnim toplotnim sevanjem;
preskus 4 – dvostopenjski preskus z letečim ognjem, vetrom in dodatnim toplotnim sevanjem.
S preskusi se ugotovi širjenje ognja po zunanji površini strehe, širjenje ognja znotraj strešne konstrukcije (preskusi 1, 2 in 3), prodiranje ognja skozi streho (preskusi 1, 3 in 4) in nastajanje gorečih kapljic ali delcev, ki odpadajo s spodnje strani strehe ali z izpostavljene površine (preskusi 1, 3 in 4).
Preskusa 2 in 3 se ne uporabljata za geometrično nepravilne strehe ali naprave, nameščene na streho, npr. ventilatorje in strešne luči.
OPOMBA: Preskusi so navedeni po naključnem vrstnem redu. Vsak preskus je samostojen in ga ni mogoče nadomestiti ali zamenjati z drugim preskusom.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
19-Mar-2010
Publication Date
09-Apr-2012
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
27-Jan-2012
Due Date
02-Apr-2012
Completion Date
10-Apr-2012

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN/TS 1187:2012
01-maj-2012
1DGRPHãþD
SIST ENV 1187:2003
SIST ENV 1187:2003/A1:2006
Preskusne metode za izpostavljenost streh požaru z zunanje strani
Test methods for external fire exposure to roofs
Prüfverfahren zur Beanspruchung von Bedachungen durch Feuer von außen
Méthodes d'essai pour l'exposition des toitures à un feu extérieur
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TS 1187:2012
ICS:
13.220.50 Požarna odpornost Fire-resistance of building
gradbenih materialov in materials and elements
elementov
91.060.20 Strehe Roofs
SIST-TS CEN/TS 1187:2012 en,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 1187:2012
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 1187:2012
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
CEN/TS 1187
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
January 2012
ICS 13.220.50; 91.060.20 Supersedes ENV 1187:2002
English Version
Test methods for external fire exposure to roofs

Méthodes d'essai pour l'exposition des toitures à un feu Prüfverfahren zur Beanspruchung von Bedachungen durch

extérieur Feuer von außen

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 23 August 2011 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to submit their

comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS available

promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in parallel to the CEN/TS)

until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2012 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TS 1187:2012: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 1187:2012
CEN/TS 1187:2012 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................5

Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................6

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................7

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................7

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................7

4 Test 1: Method with burning brands ................................................................................................. 10

4.1 Test equipment ................................................................................................................................... 10

4.2 Calibration ........................................................................................................................................... 10

4.3 Test conditions (roof pitch) ............................................................................................................... 11

4.4 Test specimen ..................................................................................................................................... 11

4.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 11

4.4.2 Selection of standard supporting decks .......................................................................................... 11

4.4.3 Positioning of joints ........................................................................................................................... 12

4.4.4 Edge detailing ..................................................................................................................................... 13

4.5 Conditioning ........................................................................................................................................ 13

4.5.1 Wood wool ........................................................................................................................................... 13

4.5.2 Test specimen ..................................................................................................................................... 13

4.6 Test environment ................................................................................................................................ 13

4.7 Test procedure .................................................................................................................................... 13

4.7.1 Filling the basket................................................................................................................................. 13

4.7.2 Positioning of the brand .................................................................................................................... 14

4.7.3 Start of the test .................................................................................................................................... 14

4.7.4 End of the test ..................................................................................................................................... 14

4.8 Observations and measurements ..................................................................................................... 15

4.8.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 15

4.8.2 External fire spread ............................................................................................................................ 15

4.8.3 Fire penetration and openings .......................................................................................................... 15

4.8.4 Damage ................................................................................................................................................ 15

4.9 Test report ........................................................................................................................................... 16

4.10 Direct field of application of test results .......................................................................................... 17

4.10.1 Roof pitch ............................................................................................................................................ 17

4.10.2 Nature of the deck............................................................................................................................... 17

5 Test 2: Method with burning brands and wind ................................................................................ 18

5.1 Test equipment ................................................................................................................................... 18

5.2 Calibration ........................................................................................................................................... 19

5.2.1 Air velocity ........................................................................................................................................... 19

5.2.2 Propane supply ................................................................................................................................... 21

5.2.3 Mechanical alignment ........................................................................................................................ 21

5.3 Test conditions ................................................................................................................................... 21

5.4 Test specimen ..................................................................................................................................... 21

5.4.1 Sampling .............................................................................................................................................. 21

5.4.2 Preparation of test specimens .......................................................................................................... 22

5.5 Conditioning ........................................................................................................................................ 22

5.5.1 Crib ....................................................................................................................................................... 22

5.5.2 Test specimen ..................................................................................................................................... 22

5.6 Test environment ................................................................................................................................ 22

5.7 Test procedure .................................................................................................................................... 23

5.8 Observations and measurements ..................................................................................................... 24

5.9 Test report ........................................................................................................................................... 24

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CEN/TS 1187:2012 (E)

5.10 Direct field of application of test results ........................................................................................... 25

6 Test 3: Method with burning brands, wind and supplementary radiant heat ............................... 25

6.1 Test equipment .................................................................................................................................... 25

6.1.1 Brands .................................................................................................................................................. 25

6.1.2 Wind ...................................................................................................................................................... 25

6.1.3 Radiant panel ....................................................................................................................................... 26

6.1.4 Timing device ....................................................................................................................................... 26

6.1.5 Calibration element ............................................................................................................................. 27

6.1.6 Specimen holder .................................................................................................................................. 27

6.2 Calibration ............................................................................................................................................ 27

6.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 27

6.2.2 Specimen holder .................................................................................................................................. 27

6.2.3 Wind ...................................................................................................................................................... 27

6.2.4 Radiant level ........................................................................................................................................ 27

6.3 Test conditions .................................................................................................................................... 27

6.4 Test specimen ...................................................................................................................................... 27

6.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 27

6.4.2 Selection of standard supporting decks ........................................................................................... 28

6.4.3 Positioning of joints ............................................................................................................................ 28

6.4.4 Edge detailing ...................................................................................................................................... 29

6.4.5 Protection of the edges....................................................................................................................... 29

6.5 Conditioning ........................................................................................................................................ 29

6.6 Test environment ................................................................................................................................. 29

6.7 Test procedure ..................................................................................................................................... 29

6.7.1 Preparation of brands ......................................................................................................................... 29

6.7.2 Start of the test .................................................................................................................................... 30

6.7.3 Positioning of the brands ................................................................................................................... 30

6.7.4 End of the test ...................................................................................................................................... 30

6.7.5 Post test examination ......................................................................................................................... 30

6.8 Observations and measurements ...................................................................................................... 30

6.8.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 30

6.8.2 External fire spread ............................................................................................................................. 30

6.8.3 Fire penetration and openings ........................................................................................................... 31

6.8.4 Damage ................................................................................................................................................. 31

6.9 Test report ............................................................................................................................................ 31

6.10 Direct field of application of test results ........................................................................................... 32

6.10.1 Roof pitch ............................................................................................................................................. 32

6.10.2 Nature of the deck ............................................................................................................................... 32

7 Test 4 – Method with two stages incorporating burning brands, wind and supplementary

radiant heat .......................................................................................................................................... 33

7.1 Test equipment .................................................................................................................................... 33

7.1.1 Brands .................................................................................................................................................. 33

7.1.2 Wind ...................................................................................................................................................... 33

7.1.3 Radiant panel ....................................................................................................................................... 33

7.1.4 Calibration element ............................................................................................................................. 34

7.1.5 Timing device ....................................................................................................................................... 34

7.1.6 Specimen holder .................................................................................................................................. 34

7.2 Calibration ............................................................................................................................................ 34

7.3 Test conditions .................................................................................................................................... 34

7.4 Test specimen ...................................................................................................................................... 34

7.4.1 Number of test specimens ................................................................................................................. 34

7.4.2 Construction of specimens ................................................................................................................ 35

7.5 Conditioning ........................................................................................................................................ 36

7.6 Test environment ................................................................................................................................. 36

7.7 Test procedure ..................................................................................................................................... 36

7.7.1 Preliminary ignition test with burning brands (stage 1) .................................................................. 36

7.7.2 Penetration test with burning brands, wind and supplementary radiant heat (stage 2) .............. 37

7.7.3 End of test ............................................................................................................................................ 37

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CEN/TS 1187:2012 (E)

7.8 Observations and measurements ..................................................................................................... 37

7.8.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 37

7.8.2 Preliminary ignition test with burning brands (stage 1) ................................................................. 37

7.8.3 Penetration test with burning brands, wind and supplementary radiant heat (stage 2) ............. 37

7.9 Test report ........................................................................................................................................... 38

7.10 Direct field of application of test results – Roof pitch .................................................................... 38

8 Figures ................................................................................................................................................. 39

8.1 Test 1 .................................................................................................................................................... 39

8.2 Test 2 .................................................................................................................................................... 44

8.3 Test 3 .................................................................................................................................................... 51

8.4 Test 4 .................................................................................................................................................... 57

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 60

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 1187:2012
CEN/TS 1187:2012 (E)
Foreword

This document (CEN/TS 1187:2012) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 127 “Fire safety in

buildings”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes ENV 1187:2002.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,

Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,

Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 1187:2012
CEN/TS 1187:2012 (E)
Introduction

The first mandate given to CEN/TC 127 on fire resistance testing (Mandate No. 117) in support of the

Construction Products Directive required two test methods for external fire exposure to roofs. One test method

was to include the effect of a burning brand, the other was to include the effect of a burning brand together

with wind and supplementary radiant heat. These two draft methods were circulated for the CEN 6-month

enquiry, but many countries did not support the two and several countries requested that only one method

should be prepared by CEN.

The topic was referred to the EC Fire Regulators' Group. Discussions took place in both the Fire Regulators'

Group and the Standing Committee on Construction, and in April 1997 CEN/TC 127 was requested to

produce a standard incorporating the two existing draft methods and the Nordtest method.

The Standing Committee accepted this as a short-term solution and strongly expressed the view that a truly

harmonised test procedure should be developed in the long term, i.e. a single test procedure for this

characteristic.

Realizing that the three test method document (ENV 1187:2002 dated May 2002) and the Amendment A1

(ENV 1187:2002/A1 dated August 2005) did not have the same time scale, it was decided to consider all four

methods under the same procedure.

This Technical Specification will be followed by a single test procedure required by the European Commission.

CAUTION — The attention of all persons concerned with managing and carrying out these tests is

drawn to the fact that fire testing can be hazardous and that there is a possibility that toxic and/or

harmful smoke and gases can be evolved during the test.

An assessment of all potential hazards and risks to health should be made and safety precautions

should be identified and provided. Written safety instructions should be issued. Appropriate training

should be given to all relevant personnel. Laboratory personnel should ensure that they follow written

safety instructions at all times.
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 1187:2012
CEN/TS 1187:2012 (E)
1 Scope

This Technical Specification specifies four methods for determining the performance of roofs to external fire

exposure. The four methods assess the performance of roofs under the following conditions:

a) test 1 – with burning brands;
b) test 2 – with burning brands and wind;
c) test 3 – with burning brands, wind and supplementary radiant heat;

d) test 4 – with two stages incorporating burning brands, wind and supplementary radiant heat.

The tests assess the fire spread across the external surface of the roof, the fire spread within the roof (tests 1,

2 and 3), the fire penetration (tests 1, 3 and 4) and the production of flaming droplets or debris falling from the

underside of the roof or from the exposed surface (tests 1, 3 and 4).

Tests 2 and 3 are not applicable to geometrically irregular roofs or roof mounted appliances, e.g. ventilators

and roof lights.

NOTE The four tests listed above do not imply any ranking order. Each test stands on its own without the possibility

to substitute or exchange one for another.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 13238:2010, Reaction to fire tests for building products ― Conditioning procedures and general rules for

selection of substrates

EN 13501-1:2007+A1:2009, Fire classification of construction products and building elements ― Part 1:

Classification using data from reaction to fire tests

EN 13501-5:2005+A1:2009, Fire classification of construction products and building elements ― Part 5:

Classification using data from external fire exposure to roofs tests
EN ISO 13943:2010, Fire safety — Vocabulary (ISO 13943:2008)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 13943:2000 and the following

apply.
3.1
roof

covering and sealing system including any insulating layers or vapour barriers normally provided together with

their supporting elements including attachment (glued, mechanically fastened, etc.), and roof lights or other

closures for roof apertures that are intended to provide a weatherproof surface
3.2
material

basic single substance or uniformly dispersed mixture of substances (e.g. metal, stone, wood, bitumen,

concrete, mineral wool)
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 1187:2012
CEN/TS 1187:2012 (E)
3.3
damaged material
3.3.1
damaged material including melting

material that has been burnt, charred, melted or otherwise visually changed by heat

NOTE Discolouration and soot deposits should not be regarded as damage. Areas of the roof covering surface in

which combustion has not occurred should not be regarded as damaged (e.g. areas which have only become shiny or

only have tiny occasional holes or bubbles).
3.3.2
damaged material not including melting

material that has been burnt or otherwise visually changed by heat, excluding melting

NOTE Discolouration and soot deposits should not be regarded as damage. Areas of the roof covering which have

only become shiny or only have tiny occasional holes or bubbles should not be regarded as damaged.

3.4
burnt material
material that has been destroyed by combustion or pyrolysis
3.5
composite

combination of materials which is generally recognized in building construction as a discrete entity

EXAMPLE Coated or laminated products such as roofing felts.
3.6
assembly
fabrication of materials and/or composites
EXAMPLE Sandwich panels.
3.7
product
material, composite or assembly about which information is required
3.8
specimen

representative section of the roof/roof covering prepared for the purpose of the test

3.9
continuous deck

element with a continuous supporting function in which the gap between adjacent elements is not greater than

0,5 mm ((5,0 ± 0,5) mm in the case of wooden planks with plain edges)
3.10
exposed surface

external surface of the specimen which is subject to the heating conditions of the test

3.11
measuring zone
area of the specimen within which measurements are made
3.12
underside
bottom surface of the specimen
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 1187:2012
CEN/TS 1187:2012 (E)
3.13
sustained flaming
flames arising from an observed location, which persist for 5 s or longer
3.14
external fire spread

progression and extent of sustained flaming across the exposed surface of the specimen

3.15
fire penetration

appearance on the underside of the specimen of any sustained flaming or glowing due to combustion

including the occurrence of any flaming droplets falling from the underside

NOTE Charring and/or discolouration should not be regarded as fire penetration (for test 1 and test 3).

3.16
opening

appearance during the test of any hole greater than 25 mm in area or any crack greater than 2 mm wide,

which penetrates completely through the specimen and which would allow burning material to fall through the

roof
3.17
internal damag
...

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